Open Source
Solutions
for Public Libraries

Randy Robertshaw
Tyngsborough Public Library
What is “Open Source”?
 “Open source is a development method
 for software that harnesses the power of
 distributed peer r...
“Open Source” Solutions Pros




–   Community of Support
–   Almost no licensing costs
–   No vendor lock-in
–   Customiz...
“Open Source” Solutions Cons
–   Project stagnates or simply folds
–   Cross-platform capability of “Open Source” solution...
The “Open Source” Design Cycle

           Idea/Need                                     Experimentation




             ...
“Crossing the Chasm”




Innovators & Early Adopters have a high tolerance for
risk and deficits in the technology.

Early...
Key Questions to Ask About
Open Source Software Solutions

1. How MATURE is the solution?

2. Does your organization have ...
Open Source Maturity Model
       How MATURE is the solution?
1. Age
Solution should be >2 years in age.

2. Multiple Supp...
Open Source Maturity Model
               Is it easy to USE?

 1. Setup Cost
 Simplified Install Process, Adequate
 Docume...
Open Source Maturity Model
         Does it INTEGRATE well?


1. Modularity
Modules/Components a plenty, well-defined API'...
Open Source Skill Set Model

 COMMON PITFALLS OF OPEN SOURCE
   ADOPTION IN ORGANIZATIONS

1. Management underestimates th...
Open Skill Set Model
MEASURING SKILL SETS
ROI (Return on Investment) Model
ROI (Return on Investment) Model
               Things to consider...

Open Source vs. Commercial solutions' differences a...
Just Beginning?
Avoid the use of Linux at the onset.

Look for mature open source applications that
are Microsoft-Friendly...
“Open Source” Solutions for
   Desktop Applications
Need Some FOSS?




      puTTy
Show Me the FOSS!
SourceForge             http://sourceforge.net/

FreshMeat               http://freshmeat.net/

OSDir.co...
Are You Getting FOSSed?
Type of Software Proprietary                                           F/OSS
Web Browser          ...
What Else Can I “Add-On”?
Add-On's (Under “Tools”)
Themes, Extensions, Plug-In's, Search Engines
Firefox Add-On's
https://...
What Am I Using?
      Mozilla Thunderbird


      Mozilla Firefox



      Mozilla Filezilla
And my staff uses...


       Mozilla Firefox
Public Computing,
Linux, and Open Source
Factors Influencing Upgrade Decisions
Public Libraries & the Internet Study (2006) – Florida State
       http://www.ii.fs...
The Status of Upgrade Schedules for PC's
Public Libraries & the Internet Study (2006) – Florida State
       http://www.ii...
Tyngsborough Public Library (MA)
               Malden Public Library (MA)
               Flathead Library System (MT)



...
Company Founded                           1999                 2004

Linux OS                      SUSE, Red Hat's Fedora,...
Public Computing Before
           Userful Arrived
6 Public Computer Terminals

3 Public Catalog Terminals

Varying Micros...
Public Computing After
          Userful Arrived
8 Public Computer Terminals (2 Pods of 4)

3 Public Catalog Terminals

Re...
The Advantages

No more stragglers at the end of a day.

Older citizens really like the Large Print profile.

Generating s...
The Disadvantages

1 computer is actually 4 computers

OpenOffice does not equal MS Office.

Where do I put my storage dev...
Open Source
Content Management
   Systems (CMS)




         phpWebSite
Pitfalls of HTML/Traditional Web Publishing


           Static/Outdated Content

              Table-based Layout

      ...
Open Source Content Management Systems (CMS)




       Joomla              Drupal                  WordPress             ...
A Simpler Comparison of CMS




            Source: IBM Internet Technology Group
Drupal vs. Joomla: The Basics
                                                     Drupal                                 ...
Content Management Systems

CMS Matrix
http://www.cmsmartix.com/

Plone          http://www.plone.org/

Joomla!
http://www...
The Advantages
The ability to publish and unpublish.

The true integration of Library 2.0
(i.e. Flickr, YouTube, Translati...
The Disadvantages
SEO (Search Engine Optimization)

The need for caching

The failures of CSS

Beware of the SPAM

Compone...
Lessons Learned
Never use the Root directory for your website; “forward”
requests to a secondary directory.

Giving credit...
e-Government Podcasting
Purpose: To create an audio archive of local government
meetings, while offering the public an alt...
e-Government Podcasting
e-Government Podcasting
Do you know him?




Casey Bisson, Plymouth State
University
  Creator of the WoPac (now, Scriblio)
Or how about him?




John Blyberg, Darien Public Library, CT
  Creator of the SOPAC (Social OPAC)
Open Source for Libraries
oss4lib.org
http://www.oss4lib.org/

OSS Watch
http://www.oss-watch.ac.uk/

Code4Lib
http://www....
Open Source Applications for Libraries
                             Greenstone
                             Digital Librar...
Open Source Solutions in Public Libraries
 Recommended Reading

 “Wikinomics”

 “Moving to Free Software”

 “Open Source f...
Open Source Open Source Solutions Solutions for Public ...
Open Source Open Source Solutions Solutions for Public ...
Open Source Open Source Solutions Solutions for Public ...
Open Source Open Source Solutions Solutions for Public ...
Open Source Open Source Solutions Solutions for Public ...
Open Source Open Source Solutions Solutions for Public ...
Open Source Open Source Solutions Solutions for Public ...
Open Source Open Source Solutions Solutions for Public ...
Open Source Open Source Solutions Solutions for Public ...
Open Source Open Source Solutions Solutions for Public ...
Open Source Open Source Solutions Solutions for Public ...
Open Source Open Source Solutions Solutions for Public ...
Open Source Open Source Solutions Solutions for Public ...
Open Source Open Source Solutions Solutions for Public ...
Open Source Open Source Solutions Solutions for Public ...
Open Source Open Source Solutions Solutions for Public ...
Open Source Open Source Solutions Solutions for Public ...
Open Source Open Source Solutions Solutions for Public ...
Open Source Open Source Solutions Solutions for Public ...
Open Source Open Source Solutions Solutions for Public ...
Open Source Open Source Solutions Solutions for Public ...
Open Source Open Source Solutions Solutions for Public ...
Open Source Open Source Solutions Solutions for Public ...
Open Source Open Source Solutions Solutions for Public ...
Open Source Open Source Solutions Solutions for Public ...
Open Source Open Source Solutions Solutions for Public ...
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Open Source Open Source Solutions Solutions for Public ...

  1. 1. Open Source Solutions for Public Libraries Randy Robertshaw Tyngsborough Public Library
  2. 2. What is “Open Source”? “Open source is a development method for software that harnesses the power of distributed peer review and transparency of process. The promise of open source is better quality, higher reliability, more flexibility, lower cost, and an end to predatory vendor lock-in.” Open Source Initiative “Open Source” Software = Reduced Cost + Higher Flexibility
  3. 3. “Open Source” Solutions Pros – Community of Support – Almost no licensing costs – No vendor lock-in – Customizable/Flexible
  4. 4. “Open Source” Solutions Cons – Project stagnates or simply folds – Cross-platform capability of “Open Source” solution – Commercial solutions are often offer more features. – Productization (Documentation, White Papers, Manuals) is not incomplete or non-existent.
  5. 5. The “Open Source” Design Cycle Idea/Need Experimentation Beta / Prototype Project Community Stagnation / Abandonment Formation Release 1.0 (for higher) Release Cycle Based on a model originally depicted in Evolution / Stability Open Source for the Enterprise by Dan Woods and Gautam Guliani.
  6. 6. “Crossing the Chasm” Innovators & Early Adopters have a high tolerance for risk and deficits in the technology. Early & Late Majority have low tolerance for risk and are not interested necessarily in new functionality.
  7. 7. Key Questions to Ask About Open Source Software Solutions 1. How MATURE is the solution? 2. Does your organization have the SKILLS? 3. Is the ROI meet your expectations?
  8. 8. Open Source Maturity Model How MATURE is the solution? 1. Age Solution should be >2 years in age. 2. Multiple Supported Platforms At least Windows & Linux operating systems. 3. Momentum Regular release schedule, no sporadic in nature. 4. Popularity A leader in open source software for its purpose. 5. Design Quality Well-defined API, compartmentalized architecture, well-written code.
  9. 9. Open Source Maturity Model Is it easy to USE? 1. Setup Cost Simplified Install Process, Adequate Documentation, Support Forums, Mailing Lists, and Possible 3rd Party Support. 2. Usage Cost Manuals, 3rd Party Support. 3. End User Support Forums, Mailing Lists, 3rd Party Support USE Criteria – How much productization is there for the solution?
  10. 10. Open Source Maturity Model Does it INTEGRATE well? 1. Modularity Modules/Components a plenty, well-defined API's 2. Collaboration with other products Integration with other products 3. Standards Compliance Current with industry standards 4. Developer Support Developer Forums, Mailing Lists, etc.
  11. 11. Open Source Skill Set Model COMMON PITFALLS OF OPEN SOURCE ADOPTION IN ORGANIZATIONS 1. Management underestimates the technology skill level of its personnel. 2. Personnel have an unrealistic view of their own technology skill level. 3. Open Source deployment is underestimated. 4. “Key-Person” Dilemma
  12. 12. Open Skill Set Model MEASURING SKILL SETS
  13. 13. ROI (Return on Investment) Model
  14. 14. ROI (Return on Investment) Model Things to consider... Open Source vs. Commercial solutions' differences are not easy to quantify. Some Open Source solutions actually have licensing fees. “Cost of Narrowness” With Open Source solutions, the burden is on the organizations to develop or learn the skills. If accepted, anything is possible. For Commercial solutions, the burdens take less time, but the range of possibilities is narrower and is restricted to the market's whim.
  15. 15. Just Beginning? Avoid the use of Linux at the onset. Look for mature open source applications that are Microsoft-Friendly. Focus on applications that have specific functions: wikis, content management systems, or desktop apps. Look for open source applications that replace existing systems or can extend existing services.
  16. 16. “Open Source” Solutions for Desktop Applications
  17. 17. Need Some FOSS? puTTy
  18. 18. Show Me the FOSS! SourceForge http://sourceforge.net/ FreshMeat http://freshmeat.net/ OSDir.com http://www.osdir.com/ O'Reilly CodeZoo http://www.codezoo.com MacForge http://www.macforge.net Open Source as http://www.osalt.com/ Alternative PortableApps.com http://www.portableapps.com/
  19. 19. Are You Getting FOSSed? Type of Software Proprietary F/OSS Web Browser Internet Explorer Mozilla Firefox; Opera Word processing Microfoft Word Open Office Writer Presentations Microsoft PowerPoint Open Office Impress Spreadsheets Microsoft Excel Open Office Calc Database Oracle; ms sql server MySQL PostgreSQL Graphics editing Adobe Photoshop GIMP Desktop Publishing Quark Xpress Scribus Instant Messaging AIM GAIM Finances Quicken GnuCash; TurboCash PDF Creation Adobe Acrobat PDF Creator; Ghostscript Audio Editing ProTools Audacity Flowcharting Visio Dia Vector Graphics Adobe Illustrator Sodipodi Email client Outlook Thunderbird; kMail Source: Overview of Free/Open Source Software for Librarians Presentation by Eric Goldhagen
  20. 20. What Else Can I “Add-On”? Add-On's (Under “Tools”) Themes, Extensions, Plug-In's, Search Engines Firefox Add-On's https://addons.mozilla.org/en-US/firefox/ Catalog Search Engine (Keyword Search) •http://www.mvlc.org/firefox.htm InfoRSS – RSS Aggregator Bookmarks LinkChecker •LibX Extension Thunderbird Add-On's https://addons.mozilla.org/en-US/thunderbird/ Open Office Add-On's Themes & Clip Art Dmaths – Mathematical Formula Editor Dxf2calc – CAD Drawings OOoLilyPond – Music Notation
  21. 21. What Am I Using? Mozilla Thunderbird Mozilla Firefox Mozilla Filezilla
  22. 22. And my staff uses... Mozilla Firefox
  23. 23. Public Computing, Linux, and Open Source
  24. 24. Factors Influencing Upgrade Decisions Public Libraries & the Internet Study (2006) – Florida State http://www.ii.fsu.edu/plinternet_findings.cfm
  25. 25. The Status of Upgrade Schedules for PC's Public Libraries & the Internet Study (2006) – Florida State http://www.ii.fsu.edu/plinternet_findings.cfm
  26. 26. Tyngsborough Public Library (MA) Malden Public Library (MA) Flathead Library System (MT) Massachusetts School of Pharmacy University of Vermont Howard County Library System (MD)
  27. 27. Company Founded 1999 2004 Linux OS SUSE, Red Hat's Fedora, Ubuntu Ubuntu 10-1 Solution Yes Yes OpenOffice Yes Yes Adobe PDF Reader Yes Yes Cross-Over Technology Not Yet Yes (Windows Programs in Linux) Remote Administration Yes Yes Privacy Protection Yes Yes Customization Yes Yes Public Storage Folder Yes No Turn-Key Solution Yes Yes
  28. 28. Public Computing Before Userful Arrived 6 Public Computer Terminals 3 Public Catalog Terminals Varying Microsoft Operating Systems (Windows 98, Windows 2000, Windows 95) Locked-down with “Deep Freeze” and Administrative Restrictions Norton Anti-Virus **Constant Staff Attention
  29. 29. Public Computing After Userful Arrived 8 Public Computer Terminals (2 Pods of 4) 3 Public Catalog Terminals Red Hat's Fedora Linux Operating System with Userful Application Userful System: Time Session Management,Privacy Protection, Usage Reports, Click-Through Acceptable Use Policy, Virus Protection, Firewall, CIPA Filter, Supports over 14 Languages, Centralized Control, Print Control
  30. 30. The Advantages No more stragglers at the end of a day. Older citizens really like the Large Print profile. Generating statistics for reports of computer use is simple. A major reduction in staff time for computer maintenance. Library's Internet Policy is front and center— and not cluttering the desk space. Time Management, System Administration
  31. 31. The Disadvantages 1 computer is actually 4 computers OpenOffice does not equal MS Office. Where do I put my storage device? (i.e. floppy disk, CD, flash drive) “I saved it on the desktop!”
  32. 32. Open Source Content Management Systems (CMS) phpWebSite
  33. 33. Pitfalls of HTML/Traditional Web Publishing Static/Outdated Content Table-based Layout Incoherent Navigation Inconsistent Style and Structure Graphically Unappealing Lack of Interactivity
  34. 34. Open Source Content Management Systems (CMS) Joomla Drupal WordPress Plone Joomla Sites: United Nations, South Carolina State Library, Atlantic City Public Library Drupal Sites: CERN, NASA, The Onion, Ann Arbor Public Library, oss4lib.org Wordpress Sites: Northern Lights Insights (MN Libraires), Cook Memorial Library (NH) Plone Sites: City of Lowell, Brazil, CIA, Rosetta Project, Keio University Library (Japan)
  35. 35. A Simpler Comparison of CMS Source: IBM Internet Technology Group
  36. 36. Drupal vs. Joomla: The Basics Drupal Joomla! Community Features Very impressive. Community Builder component required. SEO Native SEO. Very Poor. OpenSEF works, but SEO slows sites. Forums Joomlaboard VbDrupal Multimedia Features Video & Podcasting Video & Podcasting Photo Galleries Native Module & Gallery2 Integration Gallery2, Flickr Integration, Expose Flash Gallery Event Calendars Not Great. Far behind Joomla. Many options for Calendars. Template/ Themes One commercial vendor. Poor Selection. Wide Selection of Commercial & Free Templates. Blogs Decent blogging capability. Good blogging capability. Document Management Nothing worth considering. DOCMan project. User Permissions Community management. Drupal's Strength. Joomla!'s architecture limits it. 1.0 designed for admininstrators. Content Management Categories & Subcategories. Strong. No cross-categorization. Documentation OK 1.0 is poor. Beta 1.5 will have improved Productization. SSL Compatible Yes With Hacks. Commercial Community Weak. Very Strong. Commercial solutions available. General Community Decent. Non-profit driven. 100's of components. Forums are very strong. Easy-of-Use Templates or modules installation not straight forward. Administrator back-end allows for uploads of components. Learning Curve OK. Easy. 1.0.11 16.4MB 5.0 2.89MB 1.5 16.7MB Size Lightweight and well-optimized. Lots of code.
  37. 37. Content Management Systems CMS Matrix http://www.cmsmartix.com/ Plone http://www.plone.org/ Joomla! http://www.joomla.org/ Mambo http://www.mamboserver.com/ Drupal http://www.drupal.org/ phpNuke http://www.phpNuke.org/
  38. 38. The Advantages The ability to publish and unpublish. The true integration of Library 2.0 (i.e. Flickr, YouTube, Translation, Social Bookmarking) Professional Templates at minimal cost. A great support community. Multiple users with varying control.
  39. 39. The Disadvantages SEO (Search Engine Optimization) The need for caching The failures of CSS Beware of the SPAM Component/Module Removal The Peril of Backups
  40. 40. Lessons Learned Never use the Root directory for your website; “forward” requests to a secondary directory. Giving credit is nice; hackers will love you! “Everything isn't always BETA.” STABLE works. CMS do not equate to no web-editing or scripting—just less of it! Commercial Hosting Services offer the Fantastico program for installing OS Applications. Why not?
  41. 41. e-Government Podcasting Purpose: To create an audio archive of local government meetings, while offering the public an alternative to cable-broadcasts. MP3 File 64 kps Bit Rate 44.100 Sample Rate
  42. 42. e-Government Podcasting
  43. 43. e-Government Podcasting
  44. 44. Do you know him? Casey Bisson, Plymouth State University Creator of the WoPac (now, Scriblio)
  45. 45. Or how about him? John Blyberg, Darien Public Library, CT Creator of the SOPAC (Social OPAC)
  46. 46. Open Source for Libraries oss4lib.org http://www.oss4lib.org/ OSS Watch http://www.oss-watch.ac.uk/ Code4Lib http://www.code4lib.org/ Library Open Source Developer Portal http://liboss.westlib.asu.edu/ Linux Librarian http://www.linuxlibrarian.org/ Linux in Libraries http://www.linuxinlibraries.com/ Linux in Libraries Mailing List http://www.ohio.lib.in.us/staff/atate/lil/
  47. 47. Open Source Applications for Libraries Greenstone Digital Library LuMix Linux Designed for Howard County Libraries (MD) http://sourceforge.net/projects/lumix SOPAC (Social OPAC)
  48. 48. Open Source Solutions in Public Libraries Recommended Reading “Wikinomics” “Moving to Free Software” “Open Source for the Enterprise” http://www.tynglib.org/oss.pdf Randy Robertshaw Tyngsborough Public Library (978) 649-7361 rrobertshaw@tynglib.org
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