IT Security at the University of Wisconsin - Green Bay

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  • 1. IT Security at the University of Wisconsin - Green Bay David Kieper Manager, Networks and Infrastructure Services IT Security Officer [email_address]
  • 2. University of Wisconsin – Green Bay
      • Students: 4500 FTE, 5400 head count
      • Faculty/Staff: 700
      • Campus is 35 years old
      • 750 acre campus on Bay of Green Bay
      • On campus housing for 2100 students
  • 3. Background on Campus Infrastructure
    • Campus Network
      • 2300 Wired 10/100 mbit ports
      • Minimal wireless (support both encrypted and open, Lucent/HP access points)
      • Extreme Blackdiamond Core Switch
      • Extreme Summit 5i and 3Com 4900sx gigabit aggregation switches
      • 3Com 3300 and HP 2524 Edge switches
      • Checkpoint SVN-1 for firewall, network authentication, VPN, and bandwidth control
  • 4. Background on Campus Infrastructure
    • Student Housing Network (“ResNet”)
      • 2100 students (one port per pillow)
      • 10/100 megabit service
      • 3Com 3300fx 100FX aggregators
      • 3Com 3300 edge switches
      • No client install (TCP/IP “dial tone” service)
      • DHCP
      • NAT to Internet
  • 5. Question:
    • Where does everyone in Chicago go when there is a tornado warning???
    • Soldier Field—There has not been a touchdown there in 30 years…
  • 6.  
  • 7. Overall Defenses (Desktop)
    • Computing controls all campus workstations and does software refreshes and updates
    • Ghost cloning for all core OS/software install
    • Windows XP mandatory policies to lockdown desktops and block certain executables
    • Windows Software Update Service (Win XP)
    • Anti-virus software (NAI Viruscan/Virex)
    • Workstation replacement plan ensures no workstation more than fours old
    • Accurate inventory
    • Training for desktop environment developers
  • 8. Overall Defenses (Network)
    • Firewall (Checkpoint SVN-1) between campus/residence life/open networks and the Internet
    • VLANS to separate/segregate traffic
    • Access lists at core switch to separate housing network from campus network
    • Access lists are core switch to stop known attack vectors
    • Accurate network records
    • Open access network use is authenticated via the firewall (LDAP)
    • Training for network administrators
  • 9. Overall Defenses (Server)
    • Predominately Windows 2003 (some 2000, one Linux)
    • Security policies to lockdown servers
    • Kept up to date on patches
    • Anti-virus software on all systems
    • Firewall only allows specific protocols to/from the Internet
    • Training for Windows server administrators
    • Eeye Retina for Intrusion Testing
  • 10. Overall Defenses (Housing Network)
    • Residence Life broke up into 38 VLANS
    • Quarantine Network for Infected Computers (new for 2004)
    • NAT for Residence Life Network
    • Distribution lists for each of the 25 housing buildings
    • Use Residence Assistants (RA’s) for distribution
  • 11. Overall Defenses (Other)
    • Mcafee Anti-virus software subscription for faculty/staff/student personal computers
    • Warning flyer and email to students/staff
    • Keeping campus informed when outbreaks are occurring in the wild
    • Policies
      • Acceptable Use
      • No Servers (games or otherwise)
    • Network General Distributed Sniffer
  • 12. Detection Methods
    • Firewall logs
      • Log all sessions to/from campus to Internet
      • Look for large numbers of similar sessions (i.e., SMTP or RPC) from an address to many different Internet addresses
      • Attempts by residence life network users to address into reserved areas of campus class B space
    • Sniffer (high bandwidth users, ARP’s to illegal addresses)
    • Scan software (Eeye, Microsoft)
    • Server event logs for specific attack information
    • McAfee E-Policy Orchestrator provides central virus reporting database
    • Network Monitoring (Openview, Servers Alive)
  • 13. Firewall Features
    • No outside initiated access to desktops for campus or housing networks
    • Stateful packet inspection to track negotiated sessions (i.e., RPC)
    • Only specific protocols to AND FROM each server
    • Bandwidth limit unknown sessions (100 kbits/second)
    • Log all sessions (15 – 20 million/day)
  • 14. Campus Network – The Damage (Aug, 2003)
    • 100 out of 1500 workstations hit by Nachi
      • Viruscan not up to date
      • Not all recloned to Win 2K, SP3
      • Network performance impaired (ARP traffic)
    • Two Sources
      • Laptops at home for the summer came back infected
      • Imbedded PC system (solar monitoring kiosk with an opening through firewall to vendor who’s own network became infected)
  • 15. Campus Network - Enhancements
    • Weekly wakeup
      • Wake on LAN on Sunday, 1 am
      • Apply Windows updates (SUS)
      • Shutdown at 6 am
    • Periodic scanning for unpatched/infected
    • More diligent on software updates, patching clone images, verifying patch status
    • Review firewall to reduce holes to external providers
  • 16. Campus Network - Enhancements
    • Anti-virus DAT updates checked for hourly by E-Policy Orchestrator server
    • Workstations/servers check for DAT updates every four hours from E-Policy server
    • Servers demand scan when new DAT is received (email or file servers)
    • DAT updates can be pushed immediately by support staff
  • 17. Campus Network – Future
    • Investigate desktop firewall/intrusion prevention software for all clients (Mcafee Enterprise 8.0i, 8/11/2004)
    • More extensive use of VLAN’s to separate servers, faculty/staff, and lab computer networks
  • 18. Housing Network – The Damage (Fall, 2004)
    • 300 – 400 out of 1400 computers infected
    • Mostly nachi and lovesan worms
    • Many other trojan horse/backdoors also
    • Network performance impaired
    • Student workstation stability compromised
  • 19. Housing Network – Ongoing Damage
    • Reality:
      • New/rebuilt unprotected systems
      • New viruses/worms/trojans all the time
      • DAT updates are generally updated only daily or weekly
      • Many don’t do Windows update
      • Many don’t have firewall software
    • Result:
      • Some attacks get through and computers become infected
  • 20. Housing Network – Efforts
    • Block ping traffic at core switch
    • Block port 135 traffic at firewall
    • Block smtp traffic at firewall
    • Housing help desk for first two weeks after move in
    • Housing office has CD’s with patches, anti-virus software, and scanning tools
    • Residence Assistants have these CD’s also (later addition)
    • Residence Assistants went door to door
    • Lots of emails to students
  • 21. Housing Network– Efforts
    • Ongoing monitoring
    • Following up with emails to persons with infected computers, one week to clean up or get network service cut off. Give them links to Windows update, anti-virus scanner, and anti-virus software
    • Very little direct intervention
    • About 75% are cleaned up after first email, 95% by third email. Three disconnects had to be done.
  • 22. Housing Network – Fall, 2004
    • More information before students move in
    • Move infected computers to Quarantine VLAN and notify them
    • More monitoring of logs/traffic during move in period
    • Allow access to fixes/patches electronically via the network
    • Do not want to distribute fix/patch CD’s to all students (patches are a moving target and CD’s become obsolete quickly)
    • Do not want to pre-scan computers
      • Parents/students want everything working within hours of move in
      • Too many computers, too few staff and locations to do scanning
      • No way to guarantee all patches and anti-virus software stay up to date after initial scan
    • Lots of communication (email, flyers)
  • 23. Housing Network – Fall, 2004
    • Quarantine Network
      • Only allow access to campus web server and web based email servers
      • Only allow internet access to selected vendor sites
        • PC suppliers (Gateway, HP, IBM, Apple, etc.)
        • OS suppliers (Microsoft, Apple, etc.)
        • Anti-virus vendors (Mcafee, Symantec, etc.)
        • Firewall vendors (Black Ice, Zone Labs, etc.)
    • Make/force student to want to get their computer cleaned up!!
  • 24. Housing Network - Future
    • Considering over-the-network scans to identify vulnerable systems with email follow up
    • Commercial/shareware products to automate scanning and movement between housing and Quarantine VLANS.
    • Will wait to see how 2004/2005 year goes before decision is made
  • 25. Campus IT Security – The Near Future
    • Formal procedures for investigating potential violations of acceptable use policy have been developed
      • Academic freedom issues
      • Privacy issues
      • Legal issues
      • Human Resources/Union issues
    • Warnings going out now
    • Investigations will begin October 1, 2004
    • Password security review
  • 26.  
  • 27. Thank you!!