Computer System Evolution Central Data Processing System: - with directly attached peripherals (card reader, magnetic tapes, line printer). Local Area Networks : - connects PC’s (in “terminal emulation” mode), remote terminals (next building) and mini-computers. Premises Network : - connects LANs and LAN-attached devices to each other. Enterprise-wide Network : - leased data lines (T1, DS-3) connect various offices. Internet Connectivity : - initially for email, now for Web access, e-commerce, ... . Makes the world accessible, but now the world also has access to you.
Agency Virtual Private Network LANs at Agency Offices across Georgia State WWW Gateway State Internet • Citizens • Contractors • City & County Governments Agency Gateway & Web Server Non-Agency State Server Private Virtual Connection Agency Server • Schools • Libraries • Kiosks Connectivity Provided by the Georgia Backbone Network Other Agencies WWW
Agency Firewall - Protects Agency Subnets from Unwanted Connections Agency Firewall - Protects Agency Subnets from Unwanted Connections Subnet 1 Subnet 2 Gate- way WAN Firewalls (and many routers) can reject: • Packets with certain source and destination addresses • Packets with certain high-level protocols (UDP, Telnet) Proxy Servers - for specific applications • Email messages assembled and inspected, then passed to internal email server machine. Prevent Cyber Loafing - Exploring the Internet for fun. Gate- way
Application Layer (HTTP) Transport Layer (TCP,UDP) Network Layer (IP) E'net Data Link Layer Ethernet Phys. Layer Network Layer E'net Data Link Layer E'net Phys. Layer Network Layer Web Server Browser Router-Firewall can drop packets based on source or destination, ip address and/or port Application Layer (HTTP) Transport Layer (TCP,UDP) Network Layer (IP) Token Ring Data-Link Layer Token Ring Phys. Layer IP Address 184.108.40.206 IP Address 220.127.116.11 Port 80 Port 31337 Segment No. Segment No. Token Ring Data Link Layer Token Ring Phys. Layer
Application Layer (HTTP, FTP, TELNET, SMTP) Transport Layer (TCP, UDP) Network Layer (IP) E'net Data Link Layer E'net Phys. Layer Transport Layer (TCP, UDP) Network Layer (IP) E'net Data Link Layer E'net Phys. Layer Process Process Transport or App.-Layer Gateway, or Proxy Application Layer (HTTP(HTTP, FTP, TELNET, SMTP) Transport Layer (TCP,UDP) Network Layer (IP) TR Data Link Layer TR Phys. Layer Transport Layer (TCP, UDP) Network Layer (IP) TR Data Link Layer TR Phys. Layer
Policy No outside Web access. Outside connections to Public Web Server Only. Prevent Web-Radios from eating up the available bandwidth. Prevent your network from being used for a Smuft DoS attack. Prevent your network from being tracerouted or scanned. Firewall Setting Drop all outgoing packets to any IP, Port 80 Drop all incoming TCP SYN packets to any IP except 130:207:244.203, port 80 Drop all incoming UDP packets - except DNS and Router Broadcasts. Drop all ICMP packets going to a “broadcast” address (18.104.22.168 or 22.214.171.124). Drop all incoming ICMP, UDP, or TCP echo-request packets, drop all packets with TTL < 5.
Firewall Attacks IP Internal-Address Spoofing. Source Routing (External Spoof). Tiny Fragment Attacks. 2nd-Fragment Probes. SYN-ACK Probes. Firewall Defense Drop all incoming packets with local address. Drop all IP packets with Source-Routing Option. Drop all incoming packets with small offset. Assemble IP fragments (hard work). Be “Stateful” -keep track of TCP outgoing SYN packets (start of all TCP connections) (hard work).
A Firewall is a single point that a Network Administrator can control, even if individual computers are managed by workers or departments. ------- Over half of corporate computer misfeasance is caused by employees who are already behind the main firewall. Solution 1 - isolate subnets with firewalls (usually routers or Ethernet switches with “filter” capabilities). Protect Finance from Engineering. Solution 2 - implement “IP Chains” to limit access to individual computers at the lowest protocol level possible, to specific hosts and subnets.
IP Chains /etc/hosts.deny ALL:ALL /etc/hosts.allow in.telnetd: 199.77.146 126.96.36.199 in.ftpd: 188.8.131.52 184.108.40.206 UNIX and Linux computers allow network contact to be limited to individual hosts or subnets (199.77.146 means 199.77.146.any). Above, telnet connection is available to all on the 220.127.116.11 subnet, and a single off-subnet host, 18.104.22.168 FTP service is available to only to two local hosts, .19 and .102. The format for each line is “daemon:host-list”
Router Setup with Network Address Translation (NAT) Addresses 10.0.0.0 and 192.168.0.0 reserved for private networks.
Internet Router 22.214.171.124 with NAT that Masquerades could be a “dual-homed bastion host” Host 192.168.0.10 Host 192.168.0.20 Host 192.168.0.30 Host 192.168.0.40 Web Server port 80 FTP Server port 23 FTP Client 126.96.36.199 To 188.8.131.52:x from 192.168.0.40:23 To 184.108.40.206:x from 220.127.116.11:23 To 18.104.22.168:23 from 22.214.171.124:x To 192.168.0.40:23 from 126.96.36.199:x Note: x is a high port number, 1024-65,535
Internet Router 188.8.131.52 with NAT that Masquerades Host 192.168.0.10 Web Client 192.168.0.20 Host 192.168.0.30 Host 192.168.0.40 Web Server port 80 FTP Server port 23 Web Host 184.108.40.206 To 220.127.116.11:80 from 192.168.0.20:x To 18.104.22.168:80 from 22.214.171.124:x To 126.96.36.199:x from 188.8.131.52:80 To 192.168.0.20:x from 184.108.40.206:80