Essential Computing Concept

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Transcript

  • 1. Getting Started
    • Essential Computing
    • Concepts
  • 2.
        • Describe components of a computer system
        • Describe the contribution of IBM, Microsoft, and Intel in the evolution of the PC
        • Distinguish between system and application software
        • Define a local area network; distinguish between a server and a workstation
        • Define the Internet and the World Wide Web
        • Draw parallels between e-commerce and traditional commerce
        • Describe e-mail
    Objectives
  • 3. What Is a Computer?
    • Microprocessor
    • Internal Memory
    • Auxiliary Storage
    • Input Units
    • Output Units
  • 4. Any Computer System Memory Central processing unit (CPU) Input Disk Auxiliary Storage Disk Output
  • 5.
    • CD-ROM
    • CPU
    • Expansion slots
    • Floppy drive
    • Hard disk
    • Memory chip
    • Motherboard
    • Power supply
    Inside the Computer
  • 6. Back of the Computer
    • Cooling Fan
    • Power Supply
    • Keyboard Connector
    • Mouse Connector
    • Parallel Printer Port
    • Video Connector
  • 7. Microprocessor
    • Brain of the computer
    • Current chips for PC
      • Intel (Celeron, Pentium III, and soon-to-be announced Pentium IV)
      • AMD (K-6 and Athlon)
    • Which do I buy?
      • Pentium or Athlon for graphic-intensive programs
      • K-6 or Celeron for business and Internet browsing
  • 8. Internal Memory (RAM)
    • Temporary (erased when power turned off)
    • Measured in bytes
      • 1 Byte = 1 character (8 bits)
      • 1 Kilobyte = 2 10 (~1,000 bytes)
      • 1 Megabyte = 2 20 (~1,000,000 bytes)
      • 1 Gigabyte = 2 30 (~1,000,000,000 bytes)
    • Need 128Mb of RAM
      • Keep multiple programs & data files in memory
      • Graphic-intensive programs demand a lot of memory
  • 9. Auxiliary Storage (Permanent)
    • Floppy Disk
      • Most common is 1.44Mb
      • LS-120 disk is 120Mb
    • High Capacity Removable Storage
      • Zip disks (100 or 250Mb)
      • Jazz Disks (1 or 2Gb)
    • Hard (Fixed) Disk
      • Most common are 10 –30Gb
  • 10. Auxiliary Storage (Continued)
    • CD-ROM
      • 650Mb capacity
      • Recordable devices also available
    • DVD drives
      • 4.7Gb-17Gb capacity
      • ROM and RAM
      • Higher capacity than CD
    • Tape Units
      • Used for large, unattended back-ups
  • 11. Input and Output Units
    • Keyboard
    • Mouse
    • Trackball
    • Scanner
    • Joystick
    • Pens
    • Ink Jet Printers
      • B/W or color
      • Smears
    • Laser Printers
      • Highest quality output
    • Speakers
  • 12. Monitor Size and Resolution
    • Monitors come in different sizes: 17,” 19,” and 21”
    • Resolution is expressed in pixels (such as 800 x 600 or 1024 x 768)
    • The higher the resolution, the more you can see. Larger monitors let you run at higher resolutions: e.g., 19” to run 1024 x 768 comfortably
    • A graphics card (video display adapter) speeds processing
  • 13. Purchasing Decisions
    • Local store versus mail order
      • Magazines
      • Internet
    • Use credit card to double warranty
    • 30-day price guarantee
    • Don’t forget the software
      • Windows included (check the version)
      • Microsoft Office is optional
  • 14. The PC Today
    • Main Components
      • 1Gb microprocessor
      • 256Mb RAM
      • 30Gb hard drive
      • 1 floppy drive
      • Zip drive
      • DVD or CD-ROM drive
      • 21” monitor
      • 64Mb graphics card
    • Other Components
      • Cable modem
      • CD-RW drive
      • Camera
      • Microphone
      • TV adapter
      • Sound card/speakers
  • 15. Purchasing on the Web
    • www.dell.com
    • www.gateway.com
    • www.ibm.com
    • www.pcwarehouse.com
    • www.microwarehouse.com
  • 16. Software
    • System Software
      • Microsoft Windows - Operating System
        • Home – Windows 98, Windows Me
        • Business – Windows NT, Windows 2000
        • Windows XP will replace all previous versions
      • Antivirus and file compression is not built into Windows and requires additional software
    • Application Software
      • Microsoft Office consists of Word, Excel, Access, PowerPoint, FrontPage, and Publisher
      • Different editions contain different applications
  • 17. Antivirus Software
    • A computer virus attaches itself to various files and alters the way your computer works
    • Transmitted via an infected file or floppy disk, or more commonly through the Internet
    • Antivirus software can protect your computer, but it must be updated continually to detect new viruses
  • 18. File Compression
    • Files are made smaller (compressed) to reduce the storage requirements and/or time required to download a file
    • A file compression program (such as WinZip) is required to compress one or more files into a “zipped” file or archive.
    • The zipped file can be converted to a self-extracting file that is expanded without the file compression program
  • 19. The Internet
    • A network of networks
    • Began in 1969 as government project
    • No central authority and thus impossible to state the precise size
    • Worldwide and near- instantaneous access to virtually unlimited information
  • 20. The World Wide Web
    • A subset of the Internet consisting of all computers with hypertext or hypermedia documents
    • These documents contain references (links) to other documents which may be on a different computer anywhere in the world
    • Began in 1991 at the European Particle Physics Laboratory (CERN) in Switzerland
  • 21. A Client/Server Model
    • A server (Web server or Web site) is any computer that stores hypermedia documents and furnishes them upon request
    • A client is any computer that requests, then displays hypermedia documents
    • Every client must be able to display every document from every server and does so through a browser (e.g., Netscape or Internet Explorer)
  • 22. Acronyms Abound
    • HTTP – HyperText Transfer Protocol is used to transmit Web documents
    • HTTPS – Secure protocol for confidential transactions
    • HTML – HyperText Markup Language is the language for all Web documents
    • IS P – Internet service provider
  • 23. Connecting to the Internet
    • At Work or School
      • Via a Local Area Network
    • At Home
      • Traditional Modem (56Kbps/V90)
      • Cable Modem
        • Uses TV cable
        • Requires network card
      • DSL Modem
        • Voice and data on the same line
        • Requires network card
  • 24. Uniform Resource Locator (URL) http:// www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/cezanne/bio.html Means of access Internet Address (Web site) Document Path (Directory or Folder)
  • 25. URL Format
    • You can guess at the URL using the general form of: “ www.company.com ”
    • Other domains include “edu,” “gov,” and “org,” but “com” is most common
    • Examples:
      • www.microsoft.com
      • www.nba.com
      • www.whitehouse.gov
      • www.miami.edu
  • 26. Security and Privacy
    • Secure transactions
      • Https protocol
      • Encryption
    • Privacy
      • Cookie is a small file written to your disk each time you visit a site
      • Problem is when one site can read many cookies (e.g., DoubleClick.com)
  • 27. E-commerce
    • The exchange of goods and services
      • Buyer and seller
      • Products and suppliers
      • A place to “meet”
      • Marketing to attract the buyer
      • Accept and process the order
    • All of these elements are present in e-commerce and traditional commerce
  • 28. Advantages of E-commerce
    • For the Seller
      • Open 24/7
      • Shoppers from anywhere
      • Virtual inventory is cheaper and extensive
      • Lower transaction costs
      • Target your customers
    • For the Buyer
      • Open 24/7
      • Never leave home
      • Easy to view and explore product line
      • Comparison shop
      • Web site knows you
  • 29. E-Mail (Electronic Mail)
    • E-mail is simply a means of sending messages via computer
    • Business is using more e-mail and fax
    • To access, you must have a mail server and/or software
    • Each person has a username and pass-word
    • All mail programs allow you to Send, Compose, Reply, and Forward
  • 30. Obtaining an E-mail Account
    • You will need an e-mail server (post office) to send and receive e-mail
    • You can obtain an account at school
    • You can pay for an account through an ISP such as AOL
    • You can get free email accounts:
      • www.hotmail.com
      • www.yahoo.com
  • 31. Privacy and Terms of Agreement
    • E-mail is less private than U.S. mail
      • If you need privacy, send a letter
    • Every mail server has terms that you must agree to
      • No copyright infringements
      • No harassing or stalking
      • No junk mail or spamming
      • No intentional sending of viruses
  • 32. An E-mail Address
    • Every e-mail address is unique and consists of two parts, a user name and a host computer:
      • [email_address]
    • The@ sign is required
    • The host computer can be omitted if you are logged onto the same network or host computer
  • 33. The Mail Folders
    • Inbox – new messages as well as messages that have been read
    • Outbox – messages not yet sent
    • Sent items – messages that have been sent (moved here from outbox)
    • Deleted items – messages deleted from any folder
    • Custom folders – additional folders created by the user
  • 34. Parts of the E-mail Message
    • Header
      • To:
      • Cc:
      • Bcc:
      • Subject:
      • Message
    • Signature
    • Attachments
  • 35. Additional E-mail Capabilities
    • Address Book
      • Contains the e-mail addresses of frequent contacts
      • Enables you to enter an alias (e.g., “Bob” instead of the complete address)
    • Distribution List
      • A set of e-mail addresses stored under one name
      • Ideal for your professor to e-mail the class
  • 36. E-mail Protocols
    • POP Client – Post Office Protocol
      • Lets you work without being connected to mail server
      • Upload to send mail - Download to read mail
      • Allows almost any e-mail program to access e-mail from server
    • IMAP – Internet Message Access Protocol
      • Permits a "client" email program to access remote message stores as if they were local
      • Enables user to access messages from more than one computer