CSC 2260 Operating Systems and Networks Chapter 7 Fall 2008 Dr. Chuck Lillie
 
Managing Local Security in Windows Threats to Computers and Users Defense Against Threats Windows Local Security Accounts ...
Learning Objectives <ul><li>Recognize security threats and vulnerabilities to desktop PCs and users </li></ul><ul><li>Impl...
Threats to Computers and Users  <ul><li>Computer Hardware Theft  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secure computers physically  </li><...
Threats to Computers and Users  <ul><li>Identify Theft </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal information is stolen and used to  c...
Threats to Computers and Users  <ul><li>Accidents, Mistakes, and Natural and Unnatural Disasters  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fi...
Threats to Computers and Users  <ul><li>Accidents, Mistakes, Natural and Unnatural Disasters  (Continued) </li></ul><ul><u...
Threats to Computers and Users  <ul><li>Accidents, Mistakes, Natural and Unnatural Disasters  (continued) </li></ul><ul><u...
Defense Against Threats  <ul><li>Authentication and Authorization  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authentication </li></ul></ul><ul...
Defense Against Threats  <ul><li>Authentication and Authorization  (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authorization </li></...
Defense Against Threats  <ul><li>Authentication and Authorization  (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Password </li></ul></...
Defense Against Threats  <ul><li>Best Practices with User Names and Passwords </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don't Give Away Your U...
Defense Against Threats  <ul><li>Security Accounts  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An account that can be assigned permission  to t...
Defense Against Threats  <ul><li>Security Accounts  (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>User Accounts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
Defense Against Threats  <ul><li>Security Accounts  (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Group Accounts </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
Defense Against Threats  <ul><li>Encryption </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transformation of data into a code that can  only be dec...
Defense Against Threats  <ul><li>Encryption (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only someone with the password or key can  d...
Defense Against Threats  <ul><li>Firewalls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Firewall technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IP p...
Defense Against Threats  <ul><li>Firewalls  (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Working behind a Firewall in a Large Organiz...
Defense Against Threats  <ul><li>Step-by-Step 7.01 </li></ul><ul><li>Configure the Windows Firewall </li></ul><ul><li>Page...
Defense Against Threats  <ul><li>Anti-Spam </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spam filters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>On corporate ...
Defense Against Threats  <ul><li>Antivirus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examines contents of disk or RAM for hidden viruses </li>...
Defense Against Threats  <ul><li>Anti-Pop-Up </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Block adware, especially pop-ups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
Defense Against Threats <ul><li>More help from Windows XP Service Pack 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows Security Center mon...
Defense Against Threats <ul><li>Privacy Protection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet Options privacy settings </li></ul></ul>...
Defense Against Threats <ul><li>Protection from Inappropriate or Distasteful Content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web content fil...
Defense Against Threats <ul><li>Step-by-Step 7.02 </li></ul><ul><li>Check Out the Content Advisor  in Internet Explorer </...
Windows Local Security Accounts <ul><li>Windows Account Administration Tools  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows NT 4.0 Worksta...
Windows Local Security Accounts <ul><li>Windows Local User Accounts  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Built-in local user accounts </...
Windows Local Security Accounts <ul><li>Windows Local Group Accounts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Built-In Local Group Accounts  ...
Windows Local Security Accounts <ul><li>User Rights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The privilege to perform a systemwide function <...
Windows Local Security Accounts <ul><li>Granularity of Control with Groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased in Windows 2000...
Windows Local Security Accounts <ul><li>Planning for Users and Groups  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Create at least one user othe...
Windows Local Security Accounts <ul><li>Planning for Users and Groups  (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If computer is a ...
Windows Local Security Accounts <ul><li>Planning for Users and Groups  (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If computer is a ...
Windows Local Security Accounts <ul><li>Administering Local Windows Accounts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In a domain: </li></ul>...
Windows Local Security Accounts <ul><li>Administering Local Windows Accounts  (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating a...
Windows Local Security Accounts <ul><li>Administering Local Windows Accounts  (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>User Admin...
Windows Local Security Accounts <ul><li>Step-by-Step 7.03 </li></ul><ul><li>Creating New Users  in Windows NT 4.0 Workstat...
Windows Local Security Accounts <ul><li>Administering Local Windows Accounts  (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>User Admin...
Windows Local Security Accounts <ul><li>Step-by-Step 7.04 </li></ul><ul><li>Creating and Configuring a New User Account in...
Windows Local Security Accounts <ul><li>Administering Local Windows Accounts  (continued)   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>User Adm...
Windows Local Security Accounts <ul><li>Administering Local Windows Accounts  (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>User Admin...
Windows Local Security Accounts <ul><li>Step-by-Step 7.05 </li></ul><ul><li>Creating User Accounts and a Password Reset Di...
Windows Local Security Accounts <ul><li>Administering Local Windows Accounts  (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Account Po...
Windows Local Security Accounts <ul><li>Administering Local Windows Accounts  (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Account Po...
Windows Local Security Accounts <ul><li>Administering Local Windows Accounts  (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Configurin...
Windows Local Security Accounts <ul><li>Administering Local Windows Accounts  (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Configurin...
Applying Security to Files, Folders,  and Printers in Windows <ul><li>Securing Files and Folders on an NTFS Drive  </li></...
Applying Security to Files, Folders,  and Printers in Windows <ul><li>Step-by-Step 7.06 </li></ul><ul><li>Viewing Permissi...
Applying Security to Files, Folders,  and Printers in Windows <ul><li>Securing Files and Folders on an NTFS Drive </li></u...
Applying Security to Files, Folders,  and Printers in Windows <ul><li>Securing Files and Folders on an NTFS Drive </li></u...
Applying Security to Files, Folders,  and Printers in Windows <ul><li>Securing a Local Printer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Print...
Applying Security to Files, Folders,  and Printers in Windows <ul><li>Securing a Local Printer  (continued) </li></ul><ul>...
Troubleshooting Common Windows Security Problems <ul><li>Proactive Security Tasks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Education </li></u...
Troubleshooting Common Windows Security Problems <ul><li>Proactive Security Tasks  (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preve...
Troubleshooting Common Windows Security Problems <ul><li>Common Problems  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Troubleshooting Logon Prob...
Troubleshooting Common Windows Security Problems <ul><li>Common Problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reacting to a Suspected Vir...
Chapter Summary <ul><li>Threats to Computers and Users   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer security includes keeping the hard...
Chapter Summary <ul><li>Threats to Computers and Users   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deliberate attacks against computers, netwo...
Chapter Summary <ul><li>Defense Against Threats  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authentication and authorization are performed by a...
Chapter Summary <ul><li>Defense Against Threats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A security account is an account that exists in a se...
Chapter Summary <ul><li>Defense Against Threats  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A group account is a security account that may cont...
Chapter Summary <ul><li>Defense Against Threats  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many products for home and small business use, desc...
Chapter Summary <ul><li>Defense Against Threats  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-pop-up programs block the pop-up advertising s...
Chapter Summary <ul><li>Local Security Accounts in Windows Desktop OSs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows NT 4.0 Workstation, W...
Chapter Summary <ul><li>Local Security Accounts in Windows Desktop OSs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows 2000 Professional and...
Chapter Summary <ul><li>Local Security Accounts in Windows Desktop OSs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A standard GUI, called the Mi...
Chapter Summary <ul><li>Local Security Accounts in Windows Desktop OSs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Built-in group accounts inclu...
Chapter Summary <ul><li>Local Security Accounts in Windows Desktop OSs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Additional built-in groups ca...
Chapter Summary <ul><li>Local Security Accounts in Windows Desktop OSs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows security accounts can...
Chapter Summary <ul><li>Local Security Accounts in Windows Desktop OSs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If a computer is used by only...
Chapter Summary <ul><li>Local Security Accounts in Windows Desktop OSs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If the computer is a member o...
Chapter Summary <ul><li>Local Security Accounts in Windows Desktop OSs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If a Windows computer is a me...
Chapter Summary <ul><li>Local Security Accounts in Windows Desktop OSs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In Windows 2000, security beg...
Chapter Summary <ul><li>Local Security Accounts in Windows Desktop OSs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In Windows XP, the User Accou...
Chapter Summary <ul><li>Local Security Accounts in Windows Desktop OSs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Account policies for a local ...
Chapter Summary <ul><li>Applying Security with the NTFS File System  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows NT 4.0 supports NTFS ve...
Chapter Summary <ul><li>Applying Security with the NTFS File System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard file and folder permiss...
Chapter Summary <ul><li>Applying Security with the NTFS File System  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A set of personal folders is cr...
Chapter Summary <ul><li>Applying Security with the NTFS File System  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A user connecting over the netw...
Chapter Summary <ul><li>Applying Security with the NTFS File System  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The only person who can decrypt...
Chapter Summary <ul><li>Troubleshooting Common Windows Security Problems   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The most powerful protect...
Chapter Summary <ul><li>Troubleshooting Common Windows Security Problems  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you suspect a computer ...
Chapter Summary <ul><li>Troubleshooting Common Windows Security Problems  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If the User Accounts apple...
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CSC2260Slides/Chapter_07.ppt

  1. 1. CSC 2260 Operating Systems and Networks Chapter 7 Fall 2008 Dr. Chuck Lillie
  2. 3. Managing Local Security in Windows Threats to Computers and Users Defense Against Threats Windows Local Security Accounts Applying Security to Files, Folders, and Printers in Windows Troubleshooting Common Windows Security Problems Chapter 7
  3. 4. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Recognize security threats and vulnerabilities to desktop PCs and users </li></ul><ul><li>Implement methods and technologies that protect against threats </li></ul><ul><li>Create local user accounts in Windows </li></ul><ul><li>Assign permissions to files, folders, and printers in Windows </li></ul><ul><li>Troubleshoot common security problems in Windows </li></ul>
  4. 5. Threats to Computers and Users <ul><li>Computer Hardware Theft </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secure computers physically </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laptops more vulnerable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unsophisticated thieves steal for the value of hardware. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sophisticated thieves will search hard drive for data. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. Threats to Computers and Users <ul><li>Identify Theft </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal information is stolen and used to commit fraud </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obtaining a social security number and other key personal information may be enough to steal someone's identity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fraud </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The use of deceit and trickery to obtain money or other valuables </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Threats to Computers and Users <ul><li>Accidents, Mistakes, and Natural and Unnatural Disasters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fires; Earthquakes; Weather; Etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect against disasters with frequent, comprehensive backups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Backup critical data files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple backup sets </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Threats to Computers and Users <ul><li>Accidents, Mistakes, Natural and Unnatural Disasters (Continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deliberate Attacks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Keystroke Logger </li></ul><ul><li>Spyware </li></ul><ul><li>Adware </li></ul><ul><li>Web Browser </li></ul><ul><li>Hijacking </li></ul><ul><li>Back Door </li></ul><ul><li>Spam </li></ul><ul><li>Viruses </li></ul><ul><li>Password Crackers </li></ul><ul><li>Worms </li></ul><ul><li>Trojan Horse </li></ul><ul><li>Pop-Up Download </li></ul><ul><li>War Driving </li></ul><ul><li>Bluesnarfing </li></ul>
  8. 9. Threats to Computers and Users <ul><li>Accidents, Mistakes, Natural and Unnatural Disasters (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deliberate Attacks (continued) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spim </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phishing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exposure to Inappropriate or Distasteful Content </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Invasion of Privacy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hoaxes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In Addition … </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Defense Against Threats <ul><li>Authentication and Authorization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authentication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Verification of who you are </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Your identity (user name) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One-factor authentication </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Something you know (password) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Two-factor authentication </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Something you know plus something you have (a token, like a bankcard) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Three-factor authentication </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Above plus biometric data (retinal scan, voice print, etc.) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Defense Against Threats <ul><li>Authentication and Authorization (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authorization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Determines the level of access to a computer or a resource. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Includes both authentication, plus verification of access level </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Permission describes an action that can be performed on an object </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Defense Against Threats <ul><li>Authentication and Authorization (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Password </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A string of characters entered for authentication </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t take passwords for granted </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t use the same password everywhere </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Basic defense against invasion of privacy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use long and complex password </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do not use common words </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Defense Against Threats <ul><li>Best Practices with User Names and Passwords </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don't Give Away Your User Name and Password </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create Strong Passwords </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Never Reuse Passwords </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid Creating Unnecessary Online Accounts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t Provide More Information Than Necessary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Always Use Strong Passwords for Certain Types of Accounts </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Defense Against Threats <ul><li>Security Accounts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An account that can be assigned permission to take action on an object or the right to take action on an entire system. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Defense Against Threats <ul><li>Security Accounts (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>User Accounts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Individual account </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Includes user name and password </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Full name, description, and other information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exist in all Windows security accounts databases </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Defense Against Threats <ul><li>Security Accounts (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Group Accounts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contain one or more user and group accounts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exist in all Windows Security accounts databases </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer Accounts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Computers may have accounts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exist in Microsoft domain security accounts databases </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Defense Against Threats <ul><li>Encryption </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transformation of data into a code that can only be decrypted with a secret key or password </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secret key is a special code used to decrypt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encrypt a local or network-based file </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encrypt data before sending over a network </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Defense Against Threats <ul><li>Encryption (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only someone with the password or key can decrypt data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secret key may be held in a digital certificate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encrypt sensitive data stored on a laptop or in a setting where data theft is a concern </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NTFS5 supports file and folder encryption </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Defense Against Threats <ul><li>Firewalls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Firewall technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IP packet filter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proxy service </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Encrypted authentication </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual private network (VPN) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 20. Defense Against Threats <ul><li>Firewalls (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Working behind a Firewall in a Large Organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Firewall configured based on the computers it is protecting. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Working Behind a Firewall at Home or on a Small LAN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware for home and small business called &quot;broadband routers“ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personal software firewall utilities </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 21. Defense Against Threats <ul><li>Step-by-Step 7.01 </li></ul><ul><li>Configure the Windows Firewall </li></ul><ul><li>Page 324 </li></ul>
  21. 22. Defense Against Threats <ul><li>Anti-Spam </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spam filters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>On corporate mail servers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internet-based spam filtering service </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Installed on desktop computers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not perfect – may need configuration </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 23. Defense Against Threats <ul><li>Antivirus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examines contents of disk or RAM for hidden viruses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detects and removes virus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antivirus engine and definitions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires updating – usually a paid subscription </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free programs available for personal use </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. Defense Against Threats <ul><li>Anti-Pop-Up </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Block adware, especially pop-ups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pop-up blocker </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Configurable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>XP SP2 Pop-Up Blocker for Internet Explorer </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. Defense Against Threats <ul><li>More help from Windows XP Service Pack 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows Security Center monitors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Firewall </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Automatic Updates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Virus Protections </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A Manage Add-ons button in Internet Options </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A pop-up dialog will warn of add-on installation attempt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection from opening suspect files </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. Defense Against Threats <ul><li>Privacy Protection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet Options privacy settings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Control handling of cookies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Settings from block-all-cookies to allow-all-cookies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Balance between convenience and risk </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 27. Defense Against Threats <ul><li>Protection from Inappropriate or Distasteful Content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web content filter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Add-on or feature of a web browser </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Block or allow certain sites </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Service on Internet give ratings to web sites </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Configure filter to allow or disallow unrated sites </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Content Advisor in Internet Explorer </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 28. Defense Against Threats <ul><li>Step-by-Step 7.02 </li></ul><ul><li>Check Out the Content Advisor in Internet Explorer </li></ul><ul><li>Page 329 </li></ul>
  28. 29. Windows Local Security Accounts <ul><li>Windows Account Administration Tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows NT 4.0 Workstation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple Account Management in Windows 2000 and Windows XP Professional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advanced Account Management in Windows 2000 and Windows XP Professional </li></ul></ul>
  29. 30. Windows Local Security Accounts <ul><li>Windows Local User Accounts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Built-in local user accounts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Administrator </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Guest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User-created accounts </li></ul></ul>
  30. 31. Windows Local Security Accounts <ul><li>Windows Local Group Accounts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Built-In Local Group Accounts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Automatically-Created Groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special Groups/Built-in Security Principals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creator owner </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Everyone </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 32. Windows Local Security Accounts <ul><li>User Rights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The privilege to perform a systemwide function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows NT 4.0 Workstation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Policy menu of User Manager </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows 2000 and Windows XP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Local Security Policy console </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 33. Windows Local Security Accounts <ul><li>Granularity of Control with Groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased in Windows 2000 and XP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network Configuration Operators group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Built-in </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Has a set of rights to perform network tasks </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 34. Windows Local Security Accounts <ul><li>Planning for Users and Groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Create at least one user other than Administrator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>XP Pro requires creation of second member of Administrators group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Then create a limited user </li></ul></ul>
  34. 35. Windows Local Security Accounts <ul><li>Planning for Users and Groups (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If computer is a workgroup computer … AND if it is used by more than one local user: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Create one limited local account for each user </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If sharing files and printers in workgroup: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>create an account for each network user </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 36. Windows Local Security Accounts <ul><li>Planning for Users and Groups (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If computer is a member of a domain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Local limited accounts are not needed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Users may log on locally with domain accounts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Member of Administrators group may create users or groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a completed planning form </li></ul></ul>
  36. 37. Windows Local Security Accounts <ul><li>Administering Local Windows Accounts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In a domain: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Management of users and groups is centralized in the domain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On a standalone or workgroup computer: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Users and groups are managed on each computer </li></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 38. Windows Local Security Accounts <ul><li>Administering Local Windows Accounts (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating a New User </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Create one account that is only a member of the local Users group </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Create an additional account that is a member of the local Administrators group (mandatory in XP Pro) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  38. 39. Windows Local Security Accounts <ul><li>Administering Local Windows Accounts (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>User Administration in Windows NT 4.0 Workstation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Using User Manager requires knowledge of Windows security accounts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NT Workstation was targeted to advanced users or users who relied on support staff </li></ul></ul></ul>
  39. 40. Windows Local Security Accounts <ul><li>Step-by-Step 7.03 </li></ul><ul><li>Creating New Users in Windows NT 4.0 Workstation </li></ul><ul><li>Page 342 </li></ul>
  40. 41. Windows Local Security Accounts <ul><li>Administering Local Windows Accounts (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>User Administration in Windows 2000 Pro </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Workgroup computer can skip interactive user logon </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Authentication is still occurring </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Control Panel | Users and Passwords </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Users must enter a user name and password to use this computer </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Require users to press Ctrl-Alt-Delete before logging on </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  41. 42. Windows Local Security Accounts <ul><li>Step-by-Step 7.04 </li></ul><ul><li>Creating and Configuring a New User Account in Windows 2000 Professional </li></ul><ul><li>Page 344 </li></ul>
  42. 43. Windows Local Security Accounts <ul><li>Administering Local Windows Accounts (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>User Administration in Windows XP Pro </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Users Accounts applet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Computer Administrator = member of Admin- istrators group </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limited account = member of Users group (and NOT also a member of Administrators) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  43. 44. Windows Local Security Accounts <ul><li>Administering Local Windows Accounts (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>User Administration in Windows XP Pro (continued) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Password Reset Disk </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Created by/for currently logged on user </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use when password is forgotten </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Will not lose access to items such as encrypted files </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If Administrator resets—password access to encrypted files is lost </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gives user power to fix own passwords </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More complicated to do in a domain </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  44. 45. Windows Local Security Accounts <ul><li>Step-by-Step 7.05 </li></ul><ul><li>Creating User Accounts and a Password Reset Disk in Windows XP </li></ul><ul><li>Page 347 </li></ul>
  45. 46. Windows Local Security Accounts <ul><li>Administering Local Windows Accounts (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Account Policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Password Policy – password length, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Account lockout policy: lockout after failed attempts </li></ul></ul></ul>
  46. 47. Windows Local Security Accounts <ul><li>Administering Local Windows Accounts (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Account Policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Windows NT 4.0 Workstation Account Policies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Set from the Policies menu in User Manager </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Windows 2000 Pro and Windows XP Pro </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Set from Local Security Policy console </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  47. 48. Windows Local Security Accounts <ul><li>Administering Local Windows Accounts (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Configuring Protection from Physical Access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Log out </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lock computer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use a password-protected screen saver </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Select Standby or Hibernate options </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enable Switch User </li></ul></ul></ul>
  48. 49. Windows Local Security Accounts <ul><li>Administering Local Windows Accounts (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Configuring Protection from Physical Access (continued) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Downside of logging out & finding a better solution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lock Computer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Password-Protected Screen Saver </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Switch User </li></ul></ul></ul>
  49. 50. Applying Security to Files, Folders, and Printers in Windows <ul><li>Securing Files and Folders on an NTFS Drive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>File and Folder Permissions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Permissions Assigned to Personal Folders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NTFS Permission Inheritance </li></ul></ul>
  50. 51. Applying Security to Files, Folders, and Printers in Windows <ul><li>Step-by-Step 7.06 </li></ul><ul><li>Viewing Permissions on Personal Folders </li></ul><ul><li>Page 358 </li></ul>
  51. 52. Applying Security to Files, Folders, and Printers in Windows <ul><li>Securing Files and Folders on an NTFS Drive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Combining NTFS and Share Permissions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Permissions on the share are combined </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Permissions on the NTFS files system are combined </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most restrictive of the two sets of permissions apply </li></ul></ul></ul>
  52. 53. Applying Security to Files, Folders, and Printers in Windows <ul><li>Securing Files and Folders on an NTFS Drive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NTFS File and Folder Encryption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feature of NTFS5 and EFS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Encrypting a File or Folder </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EFS improvements in Windows XP Professional </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decrypting Files and Folders </li></ul></ul></ul>
  53. 54. Applying Security to Files, Folders, and Printers in Windows <ul><li>Securing a Local Printer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Printer Permissions consist of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Print </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Manage Printer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Manage Documents </li></ul></ul></ul>
  54. 55. Applying Security to Files, Folders, and Printers in Windows <ul><li>Securing a Local Printer (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Default Permissions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Everyone print </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Create Owner manage documents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Power Users and Administrators full control </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administrator can assign permissions </li></ul></ul>
  55. 56. Troubleshooting Common Windows Security Problems <ul><li>Proactive Security Tasks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strange screen messages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sudden computer slowdown </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Missing data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inability to access the hard drive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unknown charges on credit accounts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Calls from creditor on unknown accounts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New credit turn-down for invalid reason </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Credit bureau shows unknown accounts </li></ul></ul></ul>
  56. 57. Troubleshooting Common Windows Security Problems <ul><li>Proactive Security Tasks (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A touch of paranoia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proactive steps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Authentication, Authorization, and Passwords </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security for Mobile Computing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Be extra wary of the danger of theft </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Encrypt sensitive and confidential data </li></ul></ul></ul>
  57. 58. Troubleshooting Common Windows Security Problems <ul><li>Common Problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Troubleshooting Logon Problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Typos (watch for Caps Lock) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Account locked out </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Call an administrator or wait until threshold time has passed </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unknown Account Type in the User Accounts Applet in Windows XP Professional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>User Accounts only recognizes two account types </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Solution: Use the Local Users and Groups node in Computer Management </li></ul></ul></ul>
  58. 59. Troubleshooting Common Windows Security Problems <ul><li>Common Problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reacting to a Suspected Virus Attack </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scan all drives and memory with a locally installed anti-virus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use a free antivirus scanner, such as Housecall, at housecall.trendmicro.com </li></ul></ul></ul>
  59. 60. Chapter Summary <ul><li>Threats to Computers and Users </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer security includes keeping the hardware itself safe from theft. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify theft occurs when someone collects personal information belonging to another person and uses that information to commit fraud. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Losses due to accidents, mistakes, and natural and unnatural disasters will happen. Prepare for such losses by creating frequent backups, and, if necessary, store backups off-site </li></ul></ul>
  60. 61. Chapter Summary <ul><li>Threats to Computers and Users </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deliberate attacks against computers, networks, and data come in many forms. Just a few of these threats include spam, viruses, and spyware. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To keep up-to-date on computer security threats, contact the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) at http://www.ftc.gov/bcp/menu-internet.html . </li></ul></ul>
  61. 62. Chapter Summary <ul><li>Defense Against Threats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authentication and authorization are performed by a security system built into the operating systems on your local computer or on network servers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A password is a string of characters that you enter, along with an identifier such as a user name, in order to be authenticated. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adopt best practices with user names and passwords. </li></ul></ul>
  62. 63. Chapter Summary <ul><li>Defense Against Threats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A security account is an account that exists in a security account database on a server or desktop computer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security accounts can be assigned a level of access (permission) to an object (such as a file, folder, or printer) or system-level right. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An individual security account, called a user account, is assigned to a single person. In a network, individual security accounts may also be assigned to computers. </li></ul></ul>
  63. 64. Chapter Summary <ul><li>Defense Against Threats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A group account is a security account that may contain one or more individual accounts, and, in some cases, it may contain other groups. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encryption is the transformation of data into a code that can only be decrypted through the use of a secret key or password. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A firewall sits between a private network and the Internet (or other network) and examines all traffic in and out of the network it is protecting, blocking any traffic it recognizes as a potential threat. </li></ul></ul>
  64. 65. Chapter Summary <ul><li>Defense Against Threats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many products for home and small business use, described as “broadband routers,” are actually true multifunction network devices that serve as bridges, routers, and firewalls. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are also personal firewall utilities for use on any desktop computer that’s directly connected to the Internet. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An antivirus program can examine the contents of a disk or RAM for hidden viruses and files that may act as hosts for virus code. </li></ul></ul>
  65. 66. Chapter Summary <ul><li>Defense Against Threats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-pop-up programs block the pop-up advertising seen at many web sites. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web browsers usually have privacy settings that allow you to control how and when cookies are saved on your local computer by web sites. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A content filter is software that can be used to block inappropriate or offensive content while browsing the Web. One can be obtained separately, or you can use the content filtering capabilities of your web browser. </li></ul></ul>
  66. 67. Chapter Summary <ul><li>Local Security Accounts in Windows Desktop OSs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows NT 4.0 Workstation, Windows 2000 Professional, and Windows XP Professional all contain local security account databases for user and group accounts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each person who uses one of these versions of Windows must be logged on using a user name and password of a local or domain security account. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The one GUI administration tool for local accounts in Windows NT 4.0 Workstation is User Manager. </li></ul></ul>
  67. 68. Chapter Summary <ul><li>Local Security Accounts in Windows Desktop OSs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows 2000 Professional and Windows XP Professional each have two user management tools—a simple tool for home and small business use, and an advanced tool for professional administrators. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In Windows 2000 Professional, the Users and Passwords applet is the simple tool. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In Windows XP, the User Accounts Control Panel applet, replaces the former Users and Passwords applet and further simplifies the user management tasks. </li></ul></ul>
  68. 69. Chapter Summary <ul><li>Local Security Accounts in Windows Desktop OSs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A standard GUI, called the Microsoft Management Console (MMC), is used for many system manage-ment tasks in Windows 2000 and Windows XP. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are two built-in user accounts in Windows: Administrator and Guest. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each local user account is also a member of one or more local groups. </li></ul></ul>
  69. 70. Chapter Summary <ul><li>Local Security Accounts in Windows Desktop OSs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Built-in group accounts include Administrators, Backup Operators, Guests, Power Users, Replicator, and Users. Windows XP Professional includes the new Network Configuration Operators group created to give group members permissions to change the network configuration without having full Administrator privileges. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other groups are created automatically when certain services are installed and groups are created by an administrator. </li></ul></ul>
  70. 71. Chapter Summary <ul><li>Local Security Accounts in Windows Desktop OSs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Additional built-in groups cannot be created or modified, their membership is predefined, and some are available to you only when you assign permissions or rights. In Windows NT and Windows 2000, these groups are called special groups; in Windows XP Professional, they are called built-in security principals. </li></ul></ul>
  71. 72. Chapter Summary <ul><li>Local Security Accounts in Windows Desktop OSs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows security accounts can be assigned user rights, which are privileges to perform systemwide functions, such as access the computer from the network, log on locally, log onto a computer from the network, back up files, or change the system time. </li></ul></ul>
  72. 73. Chapter Summary <ul><li>Local Security Accounts in Windows Desktop OSs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If a computer is used by only one person, create an ordinary user account for that person. If the computer is used by more than one local user, you should create an additional local account for each person. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If the computer is a member of a Windows NT or Active Directory domain, you can give access to files, folders, and printers on that computer to the users and groups in the domain. </li></ul></ul>
  73. 74. Chapter Summary <ul><li>Local Security Accounts in Windows Desktop OSs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If the computer is a member of a workgroup, and you wish to share local files, folders, and/or printers, then it must have local accounts for granting access to network users. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You must be logged on as a member of the Administrators group to create users or groups. </li></ul></ul>
  74. 75. Chapter Summary <ul><li>Local Security Accounts in Windows Desktop OSs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If a Windows computer is a member of a Windows NT or Active Directory domain, management of users and groups is mainly done at the domain level, and each user who logs onto the local computer will use a domain user account. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If a computer is a stand-alone computer or a member of a workgroup, users and groups will have to be managed on each computer. </li></ul></ul>
  75. 76. Chapter Summary <ul><li>Local Security Accounts in Windows Desktop OSs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In Windows 2000, security begins with turning on User Must Enter A User Name And Password, because if this setting is turned off, anyone with physical access to your computer can use it without entering a user name and password. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There’s a second security setting in Users and Passwords that’s important to enable—the setting on the Advanced tab under Secure Boot Settings. If checked, it requires users to press CTRL-ALT-DELETE before logging on. </li></ul></ul>
  76. 77. Chapter Summary <ul><li>Local Security Accounts in Windows Desktop OSs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In Windows XP, the User Accounts applet hides the complete list of users, using a simplistic reference to account types that is actually a reference to its group membership. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows XP Professional allows the currently logged-on user to create a password reset disk that can be used in case of a forgotten password. </li></ul></ul>
  77. 78. Chapter Summary <ul><li>Local Security Accounts in Windows Desktop OSs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Account policies for a local computer are settings stored on the computer that control how user accounts can interact with the computer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When at work or school, you should secure your computer when you walk away from your desk. </li></ul></ul>
  78. 79. Chapter Summary <ul><li>Applying Security with the NTFS File System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows NT 4.0 supports NTFS version 4 (NTFS4), while Windows 2000 and Windows XP support NTFS version 5 (NTFS5). Both versions allow you to apply permissions to files and folders. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each file and folder on an NTFS volume has an Access Control List for storing permissions. Each record in an ACL is an Access Control Entry (ACE). </li></ul></ul>
  79. 80. Chapter Summary <ul><li>Applying Security with the NTFS File System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard file and folder permissions are each comprised of one or more special permissions, but standard permissions are often all you need to use. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard file permissions include Full Control, Modify, Read and Execute, Read, and Write. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard folder permissions include Full Control, Modify, Read and Execute, Read, Write, and List Folder Contents. </li></ul></ul>
  80. 81. Chapter Summary <ul><li>Applying Security with the NTFS File System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A set of personal folders is created for each user who logs on locally, and if the boot volume is NTFS, Windows creates permissions on the folders that only allow the Administrator, the System, and that user to access the folders. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When accessing files and folders on an NTFS volume, an interactive user (sitting at the computer) must pass through two security &quot;doors&quot;—one for authentication, and another for authorization. </li></ul></ul>
  81. 82. Chapter Summary <ul><li>Applying Security with the NTFS File System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A user connecting over the network to a shared folder pointing to a folder on an NTFS volume must come through three doors: authentication to the computer, authorization to the share, and authorization to the NTFS file or folder. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An additional security feature, file and folder encryption, is available in Windows 2000 and Windows XP Professional through combining NTFS5 and a new component of these operating systems, the Encrypting File System (EFS). </li></ul></ul>
  82. 83. Chapter Summary <ul><li>Applying Security with the NTFS File System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The only person who can decrypt a file or folder is the person who encrypted it, or a member of a special group called recovery agents. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A local printer has a simple set of permissions: Print, Manage Printer, and Manage Documents. </li></ul></ul>
  83. 84. Chapter Summary <ul><li>Troubleshooting Common Windows Security Problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The most powerful protection against computer-based security threats is a combination of education, proactive behavior, and the use of protective technologies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any unusual computer event may indicate that your computer has been infected by a virus. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unusual activity in any of your credit or savings accounts can indicate that you are a victim of identity theft. </li></ul></ul>
  84. 85. Chapter Summary <ul><li>Troubleshooting Common Windows Security Problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you suspect a computer has become infected by a virus, but do not have an up-to-date virus scanner, you may connect to one of many web sites offering free online antivirus scans. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logon failure may be the result a user name or password typo, or of exceeding the number of failed logon attempts configured in the Account Lockout Policy for a network or an individual computer. An administrator may need to modify the policy. </li></ul></ul>
  85. 86. Chapter Summary <ul><li>Troubleshooting Common Windows Security Problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If the User Accounts applet shows “Unknown account type,” for a user it simply indicates that the user account belongs to a group that User Accounts does not recognize. Use the Users and Password node in Computer Management to view the account. </li></ul></ul>

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