Chapter 11 Lecture


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Chapter 11 Lecture

  1. 1. Chapter 11 Computer Security, Ethics and Privacy
  2. 2. Computer Security Risks <ul><li>What is a computer security risk ? </li></ul>p. 556 Fig. 11-1 <ul><ul><li>Any event or action that causes loss of or damage to a computer system (hardware, software, data, information, or processing capability). </li></ul></ul>Next
  3. 3. Computer Viruses, Worms, and Trojan Horses <ul><li>What are viruses , worms , and Trojan horses ? </li></ul>p. 558 Virus is a potentially damaging computer program <ul><li>Worm copies itself repeatedly, using up resources and possibly shutting down computer or network </li></ul>Trojan horse hides within or looks like legitimate program until triggered Payload (destructive event) that is delivered when you open file, run infected program, or boot computer with infected disk in disk drive Can spread and damage files Does not replicate itself on other computers Next
  4. 4. Famous Viruses and Hoaxes <ul><li>Famous viruses: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>,103992-page,1/article.html </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virus Hoax: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phishing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phishing is a term used to describe the action of assuming the identity of a legitimate organization, or web site, using forged email and/or web pages and with a view to convince consumers to share their user names, passwords and personal financial information for the purpose of using it to commit fraud. This is also and often referred to as Identity Theft. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Computer Viruses, Worms, and Trojan Horses <ul><li>How can a virus spread through an e-mail message? </li></ul>p. 559 Fig. 11-2 Step 1. Unscrupulous programmers create a virus program. They hide the virus in a Word document and attach the Word document to an e-mail message. Step 2. They use the Internet to send the e-mail message to thousands of users around the world. Step 3b. Other users do not recognize the name of the sender of the e-mail message. These users do not open the e-mail message. Instead they delete the e-mail message. These users’ computers are not infected with the virus. Step 3a. Some users open the attachment and their computers become infected with the virus. Next
  6. 6. Is my system infected? <ul><li>•Runs consistently slower than normal </li></ul><ul><li>•Stops responding or locks up often </li></ul><ul><li>•Crashes and restarts every few minutes </li></ul><ul><li>•Restarts on its own and then fails to run normally </li></ul><ul><li>•Applications don't work properly </li></ul><ul><li>•Disks or disk drives are inaccessible </li></ul><ul><li>•Printing doesn't work correctly </li></ul><ul><li>•You see unusual error messages </li></ul><ul><li>•You see distorted menus and dialog boxes </li></ul>
  7. 7. Computer Viruses, Worms, and Trojan Horses <ul><li>What is an antivirus program ? </li></ul>p. 560 - 561 Fig. 11-4 <ul><ul><li>Identifies and removes computer viruses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most also protect against worms and Trojan horses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free antivirus program? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>avast ! </li></ul></ul></ul>Learn more… Next
  8. 8. Computer Viruses, Worms, and Trojan Horses <ul><li>What is a virus signature ? </li></ul>p. 561 Fig. 11-5 <ul><ul><li>Specific pattern of virus code </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Also called virus definition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antivirus programs look for virus signatures </li></ul></ul>Next
  9. 9. Computer Viruses, Worms, and Trojan Horses <ul><li>How does an antivirus program inoculate a program file? </li></ul>p. 561 Keeps file in separate area of hard disk Next Records information about program such as file size and creation date Attempts to remove any detected virus Uses information to detect if virus tampers with file Quarantines infected files that it cannot remove
  10. 10. Computer Viruses, Worms, and Trojan Horses <ul><li>What are some tips for preventing virus, worm, and Trojan horse infections? </li></ul>p. 562 Install a personal firewall program If the antivirus program flags an e-mail attachment as infected, delete the attachment immediately Set the macro security in programs so you can enable or disable macros Never open an e-mail attachment unless you are expecting it and it is from a trusted source Install an antivirus program on all of your computers Check all downloaded programs for viruses, worms, or Trojan horses Next
  11. 11. Computer Viruses, Worms, and Trojan Horses <ul><li>What is spoofing ? </li></ul>p. 563 Makes a network or Internet Transmission appear legitimate IP spoofing occurs when an intruder computer fools a network into believing its IP address is from a trusted source Perpetrators of IP spoofing trick their victims into interacting with a phony Web site Next
  12. 12. Computer Viruses, Worms, and Trojan Horses <ul><li>What is a firewall ? </li></ul>p. 563 Fig. 11-7 <ul><ul><li>Security system consisting of hardware and/or software that prevents unauthorized network access </li></ul></ul>Next
  13. 13. Computer Viruses, Worms, and Trojan Horses <ul><li>What is a personal firewall utility ? </li></ul>p. 564 Fig. 11-8 <ul><ul><li>Program that protects personal computer and its data from unauthorized intrusions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitors transmissions to and from computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Informs you of attempted intrusion </li></ul></ul>Are you vulnerable? Next
  14. 14. Unauthorized Access and Use <ul><li>How can companies protect against hackers? </li></ul>p. 564 Next Intrusion detection software analyzes network traffic, assesses system vulnerabilities, and identifies intrusions and suspicious behavior Access control defines who can access computer and what actions they can take Audit trail records access attempts
  15. 15. Unauthorized Access and Use <ul><li>What are other ways to protect your personal computer? </li></ul>p. 565 Fig. 11-9 <ul><ul><li>Disable file and printer sharing on Internet connection </li></ul></ul>File and printer sharing turned off Next
  16. 16. Unauthorized Access and Use <ul><li>What is a user name ? </li></ul>p. 566 Fig. 11-10 <ul><ul><li>Unique combination of characters that identifies user </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Password is private combination of characters associated with the user name that allows access to computer resources </li></ul></ul>Next
  17. 17. Unauthorized Access and Use <ul><li>How can you make your password more secure? </li></ul>p. 567 Fig. 11-11 <ul><ul><li>Longer passwords provide greater security </li></ul></ul>Next
  18. 18. Unauthorized Access and Use <ul><li>What is a possessed object? </li></ul>p. 567 Fig. 11-12 <ul><ul><li>Item that you must carry to gain access to computer or facility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often used with numeric password called personal identification number (PIN) </li></ul></ul>Next
  19. 19. Unauthorized Access and Use <ul><li>What is a biometric device ? </li></ul>p. 567 - 568 Fig. 11-13 <ul><ul><li>Authenticates person’s identity using personal characteristic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fingerprint, hand geometry, voice, signature, and iris </li></ul></ul></ul>Next
  20. 20. Hardware Theft and Vandalism <ul><li>What are hardware theft and hardware vandalism ? </li></ul>p. 569 Fig. 11-14 <ul><ul><li>Hardware theft is act of stealing computer equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cables sometimes used to lock equipment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some notebook computers use passwords, possessed objects, and biometrics as security methods </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For PDAs, you can password-protect the device </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware vandalism is act of defacing or destroying computer equipment </li></ul></ul>Next
  21. 21. Software Theft <ul><li>What is software theft ? </li></ul>p. 570 Next Act of stealing or illegally copying software or intentionally erasing programs Software piracy is illegal duplication of copyrighted software
  22. 22. Software Theft <ul><li>What is a license agreement ? </li></ul>p. 570 Fig. 11-15 <ul><ul><li>Right to use software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Single-user license agreement allows user to install software on one computer, make backup copy, and sell software after removing from computer </li></ul></ul>Next
  23. 23. Information Theft <ul><li>What is encryption ? </li></ul>p. 571 - 572 Fig. 11-16 <ul><ul><li>Safeguards against information theft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process of converting plaintext (readable data) into ciphertext (unreadable characters) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encryption key (formula) often uses more than one method </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To read the data, the recipient must decrypt , or decipher, the data </li></ul></ul>Next
  24. 24. Information Theft <ul><li>What does an encrypted file look like? </li></ul>p. 573 Fig. 11-17 Next
  25. 25. Internet Security Risks <ul><li>How do Web browsers provide secure data transmission? </li></ul>Secure site is Web site that uses encryption to secure data p. 573 Digital certificate is notice that guarantees Web site is legitimate Many Web browsers use encryption Next
  26. 26. Internet Security Risks <ul><li>What is Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)? </li></ul>p. 574 Fig. 11-19 <ul><ul><li>Provides encryption of all data that passes between client and Internet server </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Web addresses beginning with “https” indicate secure connections </li></ul></ul></ul>Next
  27. 27. Wireless Security <ul><li>How can I ensure my wireless communication is secure? </li></ul>p. 577 Fig. 11-22 <ul><ul><li>Secure your wireless access point (WAP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WAP should not broadcast your network name </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enable Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) </li></ul></ul></ul>Next
  28. 28. Information Privacy <ul><li>What are spyware, adware, and spam ? </li></ul>p. 583 - 584 Fig. 11-29 <ul><ul><li>Spyware is program placed on computer without user’s knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adware is a program that displays online advertisements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spam is unsolicited e-mail message sent to many recipients </li></ul></ul>Next
  29. 29. Information Privacy <ul><li>How can you control spam? </li></ul>p. 584 E-mail filtering Anti-spam program Next Collects spam in central location that you can view any time Service that blocks e-mail messages from designated sources Sometimes removes valid e-mail messages Attempts to remove spam
  30. 30. Information Privacy <ul><li>What is phishing ? </li></ul>p. 584 Scam in which a perpetrator sends an official looking e-mail that attempts to obtain your personal information Next
  31. 31. Backing Up — The Ultimate Safeguard <ul><li>What is a backup ? </li></ul>p. 576 Duplicate of file, program, or disk Full backup all files in computer Selective backup select which files to back up Three-generation backup preserves three copies of important files In case of system failure or corrupted files, restore files by copying to original location Next