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Chapter 10 - Power Point
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Chapter 10 - Power Point


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  • 1. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Chapter 10 Securing Your PC and LAN
  • 2. Securing Your Desktop or Notebook Computer
    • Reasons for providing additional security
      • Protection from attacks within the network
      • Attacks through security loopholes
      • Exposure during travel
    • A few methods for securing a computer
      • Limit use of the administrator accounts
      • Keep Windows updates current
      • Physically protect your equipment
      • Keep good backups of user data
      • Destroy trash that might contain sensitive data
    A+ Guide to Software, 4e /32
  • 3. Access Control
    • Authentication: identifies an individual
    • Authorization: assigns privileges/rights to individuals
    • Types of passwords
      • Power-on passwords (configured in CMOS setup)
      • Windows passwords
      • Online account passwords
      • Application passwords
    • Some rules for creating strong passwords
      • Combine upper/lower case letters, numbers, symbols
      • Do not use words in any language
    A+ Guide to Software, 4e /32
  • 4. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Figure 10-3 Set supervisor and user passwords in CMOS setup to lock down a computer /32
  • 5. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Figure 10-9 Control who can access a folder and the rights given that user or user group /32
  • 6. Limit Use of the Administrator Account
    • Three common types of accounts in Windows
      • Administrator
      • Guest
      • Limited User
    • Advice for protecting the Administrator Account
      • Create a Limited User account for ordinary activities
      • Use Administrator account for reserved activities
      • Change appearance of desktop to flag the account
      • Change strong password on a regular basis
    A+ Guide to Software, 4e /32
  • 7. Use a Personal Firewall
    • Firewalls are implemented in software or hardware
    • Purpose of a firewall
      • Prevent worms or hackers from invading your system
    • Turn on Windows Firewall to protect your system
      • It may be configured to allow for exceptions
    • Windows Firewall is included with Service Pack 2
    A+ Guide to Software, 4e /32
  • 8. Use AV Software
    • Antivirus (AV) software protects system from viruses
    • Using AV software to greatest effect
      • Configure software to automatically download updates
      • Run AV software as a background process
      • Set software to automatically scan e-mail attachments
    • Virus signature: distinguishing characteristics of virus
    • AV software does not always stop adware or spyware
    • Use removal program for adware or spyware
      • Example: Ad-Aware by Lavasoft ( )
    A+ Guide to Software, 4e /32
  • 9. Keep Windows Updates Current
    • Causes for Windows susceptibility to attacks
      • Popularity of system makes it an attractive target
      • Highly integrated components give many entry points
    • Update Web site:
    • Two ways to keep updates current
      • Access Web site from Windows Update
      • Run automatic update utility as background process
    A+ Guide to Software, 4e /32
  • 10. Set Internet Explorer for Optimum Security
    • Some security features in Internet Explorer
      • Pop-up blocker
      • The ability to manage add-ons
      • The ability to block scripts
      • The ability to disable scripts embedded in Web pages
      • The ability to set the general security level
        • Medium is recommended
    A+ Guide to Software, 4e /32
  • 11. Use Alternate Client Software
    • Microsoft products targeted by authors of malware
      • Microsoft Internet Explorer
      • Microsoft Outlook Express and Microsoft Outlook
    • Some reasons for susceptibility
      • Popularity
      • Close integration with other Windows components
      • Use of ActiveX controls
    • Alternate browser: Firefox by Mozilla
    • Alternate e-mail client: Eudora by Qualcomm
    A+ Guide to Software, 4e /32
  • 12. Consider Using Microsoft Shared Computer Toolkit for Windows XP
    • Microsoft Shared Computer Toolkit for Windows XP
      • Locks down the drive on which Windows is installed
    • Features of Windows XP that can be locked down
      • Windows configuration
      • Installed software or hardware
      • User settings or user data
    • Some temporary changes are allowed
      • When system reboots, it returns to prior state
    • Toolkit can be downloaded for free
    A+ Guide to Software, 4e /32
  • 13. Hide and Encrypt Files and Folders
    • Windows 2000/XP Encrypted File System (EFS)
      • Works on with Windows 2000/XP NTFS EFS
      • Is not supported in Windows XP Home Edition
    • Encryption: technology for encrypting folders/files
    • Best practice: encrypt at the folder level
    • How to encrypt a file or folder
      • Open Properties window of file or folder
      • Click Advanced and select appropriate options
    • Encrypted folders and files in are displayed in green
    A+ Guide to Software, 4e /32
  • 14. Hide and Encrypt Files and Folders (continued)
    • Overview for sharing an encrypted file
      • First export your certificate
      • The other user imports certificate for access to file
    • Sharing tool: Certificate Export Wizard
    • Data recovery agent (DRA): can decrypt file/folder
    • Three ways decrypt a file or folder
      • Change encryption attribute from Properties window
      • Move file or folder to a FAT logical drive
      • Use the Cipher command
    A+ Guide to Software, 4e /32
  • 15. Physically Protect Your Equipment
    • Don’t move or jar your computer when it’s turned on
    • Don’t smoke around your computer
    • If your data is private, keep it under lock and key
    • Keep magnets away from your computer
    • Lock down the computer case
    A+ Guide to Software, 4e /32
  • 16. Beware of Social Engineering
    • Social engineering
      • Tricking people into giving out private information
      • Passing unsafe programs into the network or PC
    • Some techniques of social engineers
      • Phishing: extracting personal data via e-mail
      • Scam e-mail: offers to join phony ventures
      • Virus (e-mail) hoax: clogs up e-mail systems
    • A few rules for using the Internet
      • Do not click links inside e-mail messages
      • Investigate a Web site before downloading software
    A+ Guide to Software, 4e /32
  • 17. Beware of Social Engineering (continued)
    • Two ways to debunk a hoax e-mail
      • Note phrases/subjects that request mass forwarding
      • Use services of security site; e.g.,
    • Scripts: code segments automating set of tasks
      • Example: files with extensions .wsf and .vbs
    • Malicious scripts are often hidden in e-mails
      • Example: the link
    • Protecting against malicious scripts
      • Set Windows to display file extensions
      • Set Windows to first load script to Notepad
    A+ Guide to Software, 4e /32
  • 18. Backup System Files
    • Use Ntbackup to back up System State and registry
      • Refer to Chapter 3 for procedures
    • When to back up the System State
      • After you have made major changes to the system
      • Example: after installing a new hard drive
    • Make backups a routine part of monthly maintenance
    A+ Guide to Software, 4e /32
  • 19. Make Use of Event Logging and Incident Reporting
    • Some incidents you might be expected to report
      • An attempt at breaking in to a secured PC or network
      • The security has been broken
      • An alarm has been activated
    • Some reasons for incident reporting
      • The need for others to respond to an incident
      • The need to know about a weak security loophole
      • Legal concerns
    • Monitoring Windows 2000/XP logon events
      • Configure Event Viewer to track failed logon attempts
    A+ Guide to Software, 4e /32
  • 20. Make Use of Event Logging and Incident Reporting (continued)
    • Monitor changes to files and folders
      • Set the Group Policy to audit an object
      • Add the users that you want to monitor
      • Decide which activity to monitor
      • View logged activity in the Event Viewer
    • Some third-party monitoring tools
      • Autoruns by Sysinternals
      • WinPatrol by BillP Studios
    • Monitoring network activity with Windows Firewall
      • Configure Log Settings accessed from Advanced tab
    A+ Guide to Software, 4e /32
  • 21. Destroy the Trash
    • Trash is a source of sensitive information
    • How to prevent the exposure of data
      • Destroy all storage media before you throw it out.
      • Destroy hard copies that contain sensitive data
      • Steps to take when migrating from older medium
        • Encrypt data being migrated between systems
        • Control user access to migrated data
        • Destroy old data storage medium no longer being used
      • Erase hard-drive of old PC with a zero-fill utility
    A+ Guide to Software, 4e /32
  • 22. Perform a Monthly Security Maintenance Routine
    • Change the administrator password
    • Make sure system is being automatically updated
    • Check that AV software is installed and current
    • Visually check the equipment for tampering
    • Check the Event Viewer
    A+ Guide to Software, 4e /32
  • 23. Securing Your Wired or Wireless Network
    • Topics to cover
      • How to use a router to secure a small network
      • How to secure a wireless network
      • Authentication techniques used for larger networks
    A+ Guide to Software, 4e /32
  • 24. Use a Router to Secure a SOHO Network
    • SOHO: a small office or home office
    • Use a router to secure a SOHO network
    • Tasks that routers perform:
      • Limit communication from outside the network
      • Limit communication from within the network
      • Secure a wireless access point
      • Implement a virtual private network (VPN )
    • Keep router firmware current
    A+ Guide to Software, 4e /32
  • 25. Authentication Technologies
    • Controlling network access
      • Encrypt user accounts/passwords at point of entry
      • Decrypt user accounts/passwords before validation
    • Popular authentication protocols: CHAP, Kerberos
    • Two-factor authentication: present two types of id
    • Smart cards
      • Device with id information keyed or read into system
      • Variations: key fob, magnetic strip, and USB smart cards
    • Biometric data: id based on physical characteristics
      • Some biometric devices: iris scanner, fingerprint reader
    A+ Guide to Software, 4e /32
  • 26. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Figure 10-42 A smart card such as this SecurID key fob is used to authenticate a user gaining access to a secured network /32
  • 27. Dealing with Malicious Software
    • Malicious software (malware or computer infestation)
      • Any unwanted program intending harm to system
      • Transmitted to your computer without your knowledge
    • Examples of malware: viruses and worms
    • Topics to cover
      • How to recognize that a system is infected
      • How to understand how malicious software works
      • How to clean up the mess
    A+ Guide to Software, 4e /32
  • 28. You’ve Got Malware
    • Some signs of malicious messages
      • Pop-up ads plague you when surfing the Web
      • Strange or bizarre error messages appear
      • Less memory than usual is available
      • Strange graphics appear on your computer monitor
      • The system cannot recognize the CD-ROM drive
      • Files constantly become corrupted
      • The OS boots, but cannot launch the Windows desktop
      • Your antivirus software displays one or more messages
    A+ Guide to Software, 4e /32
  • 29. Here's the Nasty List
    • Virus
      • Program that replicates by attaching to other programs
      • Infected program must execute for virus to run
      • Example: boot sector program
      • Protection: run AV software in the background
    • Adware: produces all those unwanted pop-up ads
    • Spam is junk e-mail that you do not want
    • Spyware: program installing itself to spy on you
    • Worm: self-replicating program that overloads network
    A+ Guide to Software, 4e /32
  • 30. Here's the Nasty List (continued)
    • Browser hijacker: alters home page/browser settings
    • Dialer: dials phone number without your knowledge
    • Keylogger: tracks all your keystrokes
    • Logic bomb: dormant code triggered by an event
    • Trojan horse: disguises itself as a legitimate program
    A+ Guide to Software, 4e /32
  • 31. Here's the Nasty List (continued)
    • Types of viruses
      • Boot sector: virus hides in the boot sector program
      • File virus: hides in executable (.exe, .com, or .sys)
      • Multipartite virus: combined boot sector and file virus
      • Macro virus: hides in documents of macro files
      • Script virus: a virus that hides in a script
    • How malware replicates and hides
      • Uses various techniques to load itself into memory
      • Attempts to hide from AV software
      • Example: stealth virus manipulates its storage file
    A+ Guide to Software, 4e /32
  • 32. Step-by-Step Attack Plan
    • Run reputable AV software
      • Examples: Norton Anti-Virus and McAfee VirusScan
    • Run adware or spyware removal software
      • Example: Windows Defender by Microsoft
    • Search out and destroy what’s left
      • Respond to any startup errors
      • Delete malicious files
      • Purge restore points
      • Clean the registry
      • Root out rootkits
    A+ Guide to Software, 4e /32