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Chapter 10


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  • 1.  
  • 2. Chapter Objectives
    • In this chapter, you will learn:
      • About networks, network protocols, and network architectures
      • How networking works with Windows
      • How to install a network card, connect to a network, and share network resources
      • About Internet technologies and how to access the Internet
  • 3. Network Types and Architectures
    • A network is a collection of computers and devices connected together to share resources, such as hardware, software, data, and information
    • Bandwidth refers to the amount of data that can travel over a given communication system in a given amount of time
    • A PC makes a direct connection to a network by way of a network adapter
      • Network interface card (NIC)
  • 4. LANs, MANs, and WANs
    • A local area network (LAN) connects computers and devices in a relatively small area
    • A metropolitan area network (MAN) is a high-speed network that connects LANs in a metropolitan area such as a city or town
    • A wide area network (WAN) covers a large geographic area
  • 5. Physical Network Topologies
  • 6. Logical Network Architecture
    • The network architecture is a logical model that defines the design and interaction of the computers, devices, and media on a network
      • Client/Server
        • One or more computers acts as a server and the other computers on the network request services from the server
      • Peer-to-Peer
        • Each computer on the network has equal responsibilities and capabilities on the network
  • 7. Logical Network Architecture
  • 8. Network Hardware Protocols
    • Network protocols are rules that define how the hardware devices and software operate and work together
      • Ethernet
        • Hardware protocol that allows nodes to contend for access to the network
      • Token Ring and FDDI
        • Token ring is an older LAN technology that controls access to the network by requiring devices on the network to pass a special signal called a token
        • FDDI is similar to token ring, but uses a dial-ring approach
  • 9. Types of Ethernet
  • 10. Types of Network Cables
  • 11. Configuring Ethernet Networks
    • Ethernet networks can be configured using either a bus or star topology
    • A bridge typically connects one LAN to another LAN that uses the same hardware protocol
    • A switch works much like a bridge, but does not broadcast messages
  • 12. Configuring Ethernet Networks
  • 13. Wireless LANs
    • Wireless LAN (WLAN) technology uses radio waves or infrared light instead of cables or wires to connect computers or other devices
    • A computer connects to a wireless LAN using a wireless NIC
    • A device can communicate directly with another device, or it can connect to a LAN by way of a wireless access point (AP)
  • 14. Wireless LANs: 802.11 Standards
  • 15. How NICs Work
    • A NIC is designed to support one of the network hardware protocols
    • A NIC can be internal or external
    • Before sending data from a computer, a NIC must convert the data into a signal that is appropriate for network cabling
      • The component on the card responsible for this signal conversion is called the transceiver
      • Ethernet cards that accommodate different cabling media are called combo cards
  • 16. How NICs Work
  • 17. Network Protocols
    • Windows supports three suites of network protocols:
      • TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol)
      • IPX/SPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange / Sequenced Packet Exchange)
      • NetBEUI (NetBIOS Extended User Interface)
    • Binding occurs when an operating system-level protocol such as TCP/IP associates itself with a lower-level hardware protocol such as Ethernet
  • 18. Addressing on a Network
    • A MAC (Media Access Control) address is a 6-byte address, often expressed as six pairs of hexadecimal numbers and letters, often separated by hyphens
    • An IP address is a 32-bit address consisting of a series of four 8-bit numbers separated by periods
    • A port number identifies a program or service running on a computer to communicate over the network
    • Character-based names are used to identify a PC on a network with easy-to-remember letters rather than numbers
  • 19. MAC Addresses
  • 20. IP Addresses
  • 21. Port Numbers
  • 22. How Computers Find Each Other on a LAN
    • DNS (Domain Name System) is a system that determines the IP address associated with host names and domain names
      • DNS Server
    • WINS (Windows Internet Naming Service) is a system that determines the IP address associated with a client or server computer running on a Windows network using the NetBEUI protocol
  • 23. Connecting to a Network
    • Install the Network Interface Card
    • Name the computer on the network
    • Connect to the network
  • 24. Installing a Wireless NIC and Connecting to a Wireless LAN
    • Install any software that came with the NIC
    • Install the wireless NIC
    • Start the PC and install the drivers
      • The NIC will attempt to connect to access points already set up
    • Consult the documentation if the wireless connection is not working
  • 25. Installing a Wireless NIC and Connecting to a Wireless LAN
  • 26. Sharing Files, Folders, and Applications
    • If users on a LAN need to share applications, files, or printers, then all these users must be assigned to the same domain or workgroup on the LAN
    • To share resources, you first must install Client for Microsoft Networks and File and Printer Sharing
      • These two components are installed by default when you install Windows XP using the Typical setting
  • 27. Mapping a Network Drive
    • Mapping a network drive is one of the most powerful and versatile methods of communicating over a network
    • The mapped drive appears as if it is a drive directly on the PC
  • 28. Troubleshooting a Network Connection
    • Some methods and steps to resolve networking issues:
      • Determine whether other computers on the network are having trouble with their connections
      • Make sure the NIC and its drivers are installed
      • Check the network cable
      • Connect the network cable to a different port on the hub
      • Ping and Ipconfig
  • 29. Routers
    • A router is a communications device that manages the delivery of data traveling over interconnected networks
  • 30. TCP/IP Suite of Protocols
  • 31. Connecting to the Internet: Dial-up Modems
  • 32. Connecting to the Internet: DSL Modems
  • 33. Connecting to the Internet: Cable Modems
  • 34. Connecting to the Internet Using Dial-up Networking
    • To connect to the Internet over a telephone line using a dial-up connection, you need to have a modem installed on your PC
    • When a Windows PC connects to a network using a modem and regular telephone line, the process is called dial-up networking
      • The modem on your PC acts like a network card
  • 35. How Dial-up Networking Works
  • 36. Using a Dial-up Connection in Windows XP
    • In order for your PC to connect to your ISP and use the Internet, you must know:
      • The dial-up access telephone number of the ISP
      • Your user ID and password for the ISP
      • If DNS servers will be assigned at connection
      • How your IP address will be assigned
  • 37. Installing and Configuring a Cable Modem
    • Install the network card and drivers to control the card
    • Use a network cable to connect the PC to a cable modem or DSL box
    • Install TCP/IP to bind TCP/IP to the card
    • Configure TCP/IP using the settings provided by the cable service provider
    • Test the connection using application software
  • 38. Installing and Configuring a DSL Modem
  • 39. Implementing a Firewall
    • A firewall can function in several ways:
      • Firewalls can filter data packets, examining the destination IP address or source IP address or the type of protocol used (for example, TCP or UDP)
      • Firewalls can filter ports so outside clients cannot communicate with inside services listening at these ports
      • Firewalls can filter applications such as FTP so users inside the firewall cannot use this service over the Internet
      • Some firewalls can filter information such as inappropriate Web content for children or employees
  • 40. Hardware Firewall
  • 41. Software Firewall
  • 42. Accessing Internet Resources Using a Web Browser
    • A Web browser is a software application on a user’s PC that is used to request Web pages from a Web server on the Internet or an intranet
    • A Web page is a document on the Web identified by a unique URL (Uniform Resource Locator)
    • HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) can be interpreted by a Web browser to display formatted text, graphics, images, forms, and so on
  • 43. How a URL is Structured
  • 44. Chapter Summary
    • In this chapter, you learned:
      • About networks, network protocols, and network architectures
      • How networking works with Windows
      • How to install a network card, connect to a network, and share network resources
      • About Internet technologies and how to access the Internet
  • 45. Chapter 10 Complete