BSD Firewalling,
pfSense and m0n0wall
    Scott Ullrich (sullrich@gmail.com)
  Chris Buechler (cbuechler@gmail.com)

     ...
Agenda
  BSD Firewalling
    Overview of packet filters on the BSD’s

  m0n0wall

  pfSense
BSD Firewalling Options
   Which to use when

     After looking at the comparison table, select the
     best filter for t...
Firewalling
Options on FreeBSD
      IPFW

      PF

      IPFilter
Firewalling
Options on OpenBSD
     PF

     IPFilter
Firewalling
Options on NetBSD
     PF

     IPFilter
Firewalling
Options on DragonFlyBSD
     PF

     IPFW

     IPFilter
BSD Firewalling Options
           FEATURE      IPFW   IPFILTER   PF
QUEUE DUMMYNET

QUEUE ALTQ

SKIPTO

RULESETS

CONNECT...
BSD Firewalling Options
        FEATURE       IPFW   IPFILTER   PF
TEE

“ME” SUPPORT

IPV6

JAIL

IPSEC

IPTOS - LOW DELAY...
BSD Firewalling Options
        FEATURE         IPFW   IPFILTER   PF
KEEP STATE

MODULATE STATE

SYNPROXY STATE

OVERLOAD ...
m0n0wall
Mission Statement
      m0n0wall is a project aimed at creating a complete, embedded
      firewall software pack...
m0n0wall
 overview
    First public release February 2003

    Engineered for low footprint embedded devices

    Based on...
m0n0wall
 community
    Six committers

    Public mailing lists

    IRC channel hovers around 45 (#m0n0wall on
    FreeN...
m0n0wall
 hardware
    Minimum 64 MB RAM

    Soekris

    PC Engines WRAP

    Uses physdiskwrite.exe or DD to install to...
m0n0wall
versions available
       PC-Engines WRAP

       Soekris

         NET_45XX

         NET_48XX

       Generic PC
m0n0wall
   Why FreeBSD?

       Manuel Kasper’s personal preference



    OS of choice for version 1.3 is yet to be
    ...
pfSense
Mission Statement
   pfSense is a open source firewall derived from
   the m0n0wall firewall platform with radical...
pfSense
community

   About 800 registered forum users

   Over 400 support mailing list members

   IRC channel hovers ar...
pfSense
community

    16 committers

    CVS Server

    CVSWEB Support

    CVSTrac Support for timeline and ticket
    ...
pfSense
community

   Web Forum Stats
   •   750,000+ page hits
   •   6614 posts in 1102 topics
   •   4+ new users per d...
m0n0wall              &

 pfSense
shared features
     Captive Portal
                              SNMP
     DHCP Server ...
pfSense
 features                              Incoming and outgoing load balancing
CARP / PFSync
                        ...
pfSense
packages
                                        ASSP

   Doorman                              ARPWatch

   NTOP  ...
pfSense
   Engineered for faster hardware

   Includes an installer (BSD Installer) assisting in full
   installations

  ...
pfSense
hardware requirements

     Minimum 128 MB RAM

     PC-Engines WRAP 266 MHz 128 MB

     Soekris 4801

     LinIT...
Versions available
       Developers edition

          Most likely meant for some of you geeks(TM)
          attending to...
Versions available
       Embedded

         Meant for devices with only a serial console.

         Minimum 128 MB RAM

 ...
Versions available
       CD-ROM

          Runs from a CD-ROM device

          Stores configuration on removable media (c...
pfSense
single point of administration

  Uses XML-RPC to automatically push configuration
  changes to a chain of backup h...
pfSense
wireless mojo
      Supports Atheros line of products incredibly
      well

      HostAP (access point) support

...
pfSense
  Why FreeBSD?

      Experience and familiarity

      Availability of PF, ALTQ, CARP, pfsync,
      etc.

      ...
pfSense
traffic shaping
      Uses ALTQ HFSC
       * Hierarchical Fair Service Curve
       * Supports CBQ in -HEAD (devel...
Any questions?

  Presentation available at:

  http://pfsense.org/bsdcan/
   http://doc.m0n0.ch/bsdcan/
Thanks!

Presentation available at:

http://pfsense.org/bsdcan/
 http://doc.m0n0.ch/bsdcan/
Notes - FreeBSD
 PF

      http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/firewalls-pf.html

 IPFilter

      ht...
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BSD Firewalling, pfSense and m0n0wall

  1. 1. BSD Firewalling, pfSense and m0n0wall Scott Ullrich (sullrich@gmail.com) Chris Buechler (cbuechler@gmail.com) BSDCan 2006 May 10th - May 12th
  2. 2. Agenda BSD Firewalling Overview of packet filters on the BSD’s m0n0wall pfSense
  3. 3. BSD Firewalling Options Which to use when After looking at the comparison table, select the best filter for the task. If you have a personal preference or comfortability level, go with it. Userland vs kerneland NAT daemon? Better handling of NAT broken protocols such as FTP, SIP depending on Firewalling stack.
  4. 4. Firewalling Options on FreeBSD IPFW PF IPFilter
  5. 5. Firewalling Options on OpenBSD PF IPFilter
  6. 6. Firewalling Options on NetBSD PF IPFilter
  7. 7. Firewalling Options on DragonFlyBSD PF IPFW IPFilter
  8. 8. BSD Firewalling Options FEATURE IPFW IPFILTER PF QUEUE DUMMYNET QUEUE ALTQ SKIPTO RULESETS CONNECTION FORWARDING IPTOS IPTTL IPPOS IPVERSION LAYER2 MATCHING MAC ADDRESS FILTERING TABLES PROBABILITY (PROB) COUNT
  9. 9. BSD Firewalling Options FEATURE IPFW IPFILTER PF TEE “ME” SUPPORT IPV6 JAIL IPSEC IPTOS - LOW DELAY IPTOS - THROUGHPUT IPTOS - RELIABILITY IPTOS - MINCOST IPTOS - CONGESTION UID VERREVPATH QUICK
  10. 10. BSD Firewalling Options FEATURE IPFW IPFILTER PF KEEP STATE MODULATE STATE SYNPROXY STATE OVERLOAD SUPPORT FINGERPRINT SCANNING LIMIT STATES PER RULE
  11. 11. m0n0wall Mission Statement m0n0wall is a project aimed at creating a complete, embedded firewall software package that, when used together with an embedded PC, provides all the important features of commercial firewall boxes (including ease of use) at a fraction of the price (free software). m0n0wall is based on a bare-bones version of FreeBSD, along with a web server, PHP and a few other utilities. The entire system configuration is stored in one single XML text file to keep things transparent. m0n0wall is probably the first UNIX system that has its boot-time configuration done with PHP, rather than the usual shell scripts, and that has the entire system configuration stored in XML format. This is really cool and powerful!
  12. 12. m0n0wall overview First public release February 2003 Engineered for low footprint embedded devices Based on FreeBSD 4.11 Very fast and stable Outdated hardware support Limited Gigabit Ethernet Very Limited Wireless NO SATA
  13. 13. m0n0wall community Six committers Public mailing lists IRC channel hovers around 45 (#m0n0wall on FreeNode) Public SVN server 1530 mailing list members ~65000 unique web visitors a month / ~5500 per day
  14. 14. m0n0wall hardware Minimum 64 MB RAM Soekris PC Engines WRAP Uses physdiskwrite.exe or DD to install to hard drive, Compact Flash, USB key, Zip drive, or other storage medium. CD version available that saves configuration to floppy disk.
  15. 15. m0n0wall versions available PC-Engines WRAP Soekris NET_45XX NET_48XX Generic PC
  16. 16. m0n0wall Why FreeBSD? Manuel Kasper’s personal preference OS of choice for version 1.3 is yet to be determined. Discussions mostly around FreeBSD 6.x and OpenBSD.
  17. 17. pfSense Mission Statement pfSense is a open source firewall derived from the m0n0wall firewall platform with radically different goals such as using OpenBSD's ported Packet Filter, FreeBSD 6.1 ALTQ (HFSC) for excellent packet queueing and finally an integrated package management system for extending the environment with new features. Same init system being used via php as m0n0wall making us the second known unix to use PHP completely for their init sequence. Maintains same 1 file XML configuration system
  18. 18. pfSense community About 800 registered forum users Over 400 support mailing list members IRC channel hovers around 80 people (##pfSense on FreeNode)
  19. 19. pfSense community 16 committers CVS Server CVSWEB Support CVSTrac Support for timeline and ticket based services (similar to submit-pr)
  20. 20. pfSense community Web Forum Stats • 750,000+ page hits • 6614 posts in 1102 topics • 4+ new users per day average • Male to female ratio: 65:1
  21. 21. m0n0wall & pfSense shared features Captive Portal SNMP DHCP Server and client Host/network aliases PPTP, IPSEC support Configuration backup/ 802.1Q VLAN support restore DynDNS client & webGUI RFC2126 DNS updater Upgradable via webGUI Caching DNS Forwarder
  22. 22. pfSense features Incoming and outgoing load balancing CARP / PFSync Package support Expanded alias usage PPPoE Server XML configuration sync between Themes master and backup hosts. Allowing for a single point of administration Setup wizard for a firewall cluster. Multiple WAN support Load balancing SSH Incoming Reduced reboots after changes Outgoing CPU / Memory / Disk usage meters Traffic shaping queue status graphs Many, many more tweaks
  23. 23. pfSense packages ASSP Doorman ARPWatch NTOP Freeradius Squid ifdepd OpenBSD’s SpamD SipProxD Excellent spam prevention service. STunnel PFFlowd Used for converting PF status WIdentD messages to Cisco Netflow Datagrams IPerf NMap
  24. 24. pfSense Engineered for faster hardware Includes an installer (BSD Installer) assisting in full installations based on FreeBSD 6.1 release Excellent hardware support Excellent wireless support 25-35% lower network throughput than FreeBSD 4.x (non-SMP) noticeable on slower hardware such as 266 megahertz embedded gear. Has package support for certain platforms
  25. 25. pfSense hardware requirements Minimum 128 MB RAM PC-Engines WRAP 266 MHz 128 MB Soekris 4801 LinITX VIA
  26. 26. Versions available Developers edition Most likely meant for some of you geeks(TM) attending today that tinker/write code. Automatically bootstraps the developer environment after installation and builds an ISO to test this fact. Can build all versions of pfSense with one command. Allows power users, system administrators and OEM’s to customize and roll out custom pfSense installations.
  27. 27. Versions available Embedded Meant for devices with only a serial console. Minimum 128 MB RAM Designed for 64 MB compact flash Read only environment, only mounts the flash device r/w when required. Currently no package support. It’s possible, but not officially supported.
  28. 28. Versions available CD-ROM Runs from a CD-ROM device Stores configuration on removable media (compact flash, floppies, etc) No package support (RO media) Full Installation Minimum 128 megabytes of RAM 500 megabytes of hard drive space or above Package support
  29. 29. pfSense single point of administration Uses XML-RPC to automatically push configuration changes to a chain of backup hosts. Uses CARP to provide the underlying failover services and ease of administration via virtual IP’s Converts cheap/decent hardware into cluster nodes Requires a static IP per individual carp cluster member (this will change in the future with carpdev)
  30. 30. pfSense wireless mojo Supports Atheros line of products incredibly well HostAP (access point) support WPA Supplicant (client) support Turbo modes OLSR Wireless meshing support
  31. 31. pfSense Why FreeBSD? Experience and familiarity Availability of PF, ALTQ, CARP, pfsync, etc. Wireless support Performance SMP support
  32. 32. pfSense traffic shaping Uses ALTQ HFSC * Hierarchical Fair Service Curve * Supports CBQ in -HEAD (development tree) Can curb all unknown traffic to the abyss (inserts unknown traffic into slowest queue (p2pQueue) Can guarantee an amount of bandwidth for items such as: VOIP Gaming Terminal Services Interactive applications (SSH)
  33. 33. Any questions? Presentation available at: http://pfsense.org/bsdcan/ http://doc.m0n0.ch/bsdcan/
  34. 34. Thanks! Presentation available at: http://pfsense.org/bsdcan/ http://doc.m0n0.ch/bsdcan/
  35. 35. Notes - FreeBSD PF http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/firewalls-pf.html IPFilter http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/firewalls-ipf.html IPFW http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/firewalls-ipfw.html
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