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A  Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
A  Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
A  Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
A  Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
A  Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
A  Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
A  Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
A  Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
A  Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
A  Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
A  Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
A  Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
A  Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
A  Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
A  Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
A  Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
A  Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
A  Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
A  Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
A  Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
A  Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
A  Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
A  Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
A  Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
A  Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
A  Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
A  Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
A  Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
A  Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
A  Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
A  Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
A  Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
A  Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
A  Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
A  Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
A  Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
A  Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
A  Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
A  Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
A  Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
A  Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
A  Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
A  Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
A  Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
A  Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
A  Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
A  Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
A  Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
A  Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
A  Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
A  Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
A  Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
A  Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
A  Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
A  Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
A  Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
A  Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
A  Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e
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A Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e

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  • 1. A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e Chapter 2 Introducing Operating Systems
  • 2. Objectives
    • Learn about the various operating systems and the differences between them
    • Learn how an OS interfaces with users, files and folders, applications, and hardware
    • Learn about a few OS tools you can use to examine and maintain a system
  • 3. Introduction
    • A computer comprises hardware and software
      • Physical devices are the visible component
      • The controlling software component is not visible
    • Computer technicians need to master both parts
    • Chapter 1 provided an overview of hardware devices
    • Chapter 2 introduces critical system software
  • 4. Operating Systems Past and Present
    • What an operating system (OS) does:
      • Manages hardware
      • Runs applications
      • Provides an interface for users
      • Retrieves and manipulates files
    • The OS can be analogized to a “middleman”
    • A computer needs only one operating system
    • Operating systems have evolved to a complex form
  • 5. Figure 2-1 Users and applications depend on the OS to relate to all applications and hardware components
  • 6. DOS (Disk Operating System)
    • The first OS used by IBM computers/compatibles
    • Where DOS can still be found:
      • Specialized systems using older applications
      • On troubleshooting disks or CDs
    • Windows 3.x and DOS
      • Windows 3.x provided a graphical interface
      • Underlying OS functions were performed by DOS
    • Windows 9x/Me uses DOS in the underlying OS
    • Windows XP/2000 run DOS emulation programs
  • 7. Figure 2-3 Windows 3.x was layered between DOS and the user and applications to provide a graphics interface for the user and a multitasking environment for applications
  • 8. Windows 9x/Me
    • Refers to Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows Me
    • Combine a DOS core with graphical user interface
    • Designed to bridge legacy and newer technologies
      • Backward-compatible with older systems
      • Able to accommodate new technologies
    • Cautionary note on minimum requirements
      • May differ for upgrades and new installations
      • May differ for installation and run-time operation
  • 9. Figure 2-5 Windows 9x/Me is the bridge from DOS to Windows NT
  • 10. Windows NT
    • Two versions of Windows NT (New Technology):
      • Windows NT Workstation for desktops
      • Windows NT Server to control a network
    • Best known feature: new OS core replacing DOS
    • Avoid installing Windows NT
      • Windows NT introduced many new problems
      • Problems only solved in later versions of Windows
  • 11. Windows 2000
    • Upgrades Windows NT (both desktop and server)
    • Improvements over Windows NT:
      • A more stable environment
      • Support for Plug and Play
      • Device Manager, Recovery Console, Active Directory
      • Better network support
      • Features specifically targeting notebook computers
    • OS includes only qualified hardware and software
    • Windows 2000 is being phased out
  • 12. Windows XP
    • Integrates Windows 9x/Me and Windows 2000
    • Two main versions: Home Edition and Professional
    • Noteworthy new features:
      • Allows two users to logon and open applications
      • Incorporates Windows Messenger and Media Player
      • Adds advanced security, such as Windows Firewall
    • Hardware requirements
      • 64 MB RAM (128 MB recommended)
      • 1.5 GB free hard drive space (2 GB recommended)
      • 233-MHz CPU speed (300-MHz recommended)
  • 13. Figure 2-8 The Windows XP desktop and Start menu
  • 14. Windows Vista
    • Next generation of Windows operating systems
    • Code-named Longhorn
    • Noteworthy new features:
      • New graphical interface
      • Revamped engine
      • A new interface between it and applications
    • Scheduled release dates:
      • November 2006 for business editions
      • January 2007 for consumer editions
  • 15. Windows Server 2003
    • Refers to a suite of Microsoft operating systems:
      • Windows Small Business Server 2003
      • Storage Server 2003
      • Server 2003 Web Edition
      • Server 2003 Standard Edition
      • Server 2003 Enterprise Edition
      • Server 2003 Datacenter Edition
    • Not designed for use in a PC
    • Not covered in this text
  • 16. UNIX
    • Comprises a class of operating systems
    • UNIX versions referred to as flavors or distributions
    • Chief uses:
      • Controlling networks
      • Supporting Internet-based applications
  • 17. Linux
    • Variation on UNIX created by Linus Torvalds
    • OS kernel and source code are freely distributed
    • Popular distributions:
      • SuSE ( www.novell.com/linux/suse )
      • RedHat ( www.redhat.com )
      • TurboLinux ( www.turbolinux.com )
    • Used as both a server and a desktop
    • X Windows: GUI shells for UNIX and Linux
  • 18. OS/2
    • Jointly developed by IBM and Microsoft
    • Chiefly used in certain types of networks
    • Part of OS/2 was incorporated into Windows NT
    • OS/2 is not covered in this book
  • 19. Mac OS
    • First introduced in 1984 with Macintosh computers
    • Current version: Mac OS X (ten)
    • Mac OS X can work on some Intel-based computers
    • Markets: education, desktop publishing, graphics
    • Noteworthy features:
      • Support for graphics and multimedia capabilities
      • Use of the Finder program to provide the desktop
      • Superior Plug and Play capabilities
      • Excellent support for multitasking
  • 20. Figure 2-10 The Mac OS X desktop is intuitive and easy to use
  • 21. What an Operating System Does
    • Four functions common to all operating systems:
      • Providing a user interface
      • Managing files
      • Managing applications
      • Managing hardware
    • All OSs also have similar core components
  • 22. Operating System Components
    • Components common to all OSs: shell and kernel
    • The shell exposes functions to users and applications
      • Example 1: enables user to select a CD
      • Example 2: enables application to print a document
    • The kernel (core) interacts with hardware devices
      • Example: passes a print request to a printer device
    • Registry database and initialization files
      • Used to store configuration information in Windows
  • 23. Figure 2-11 Inside an operating system, different components perform various functions
  • 24. An OS Provides a User Interface
    • Sequence of events occurring after PC is turned on
      • The operating system is loaded
      • Running OS provides an interface (desktop)
      • OS awaits an event, such as a double-click
    • A user can initiate an event in several ways:
      • Click a menu item
      • Enter a command in Run dialog or command console
      • Double-click an icon
  • 25. Figure 2-12 Enter command lines in a Command Prompt window
  • 26. Figure 2-13 A menu-driven interface: Windows Explorer in Windows XP
  • 27. An OS Manages Files and Folders
    • File system: organizes files and folders
    • File systems used by Windows for hard drives:
      • File Allocation Table (FAT): tracks disk space usage
      • New Technology File System (NTFS): replacing FAT
    • Organization of a hard drive or floppy disk
      • Platter contains concentric tracks
      • Track contains 512 byte sectors
      • Cluster contains one or more sectors
      • Cluster is the smallest unit on disk for storing a file
  • 28. Figure 2-14 A hard drive or floppy disk is divided into tracks and sectors; several sectors make one cluster
  • 29. Files and Directories
    • File system hierarchy:
      • Directories (called folders in Windows)
      • Subdirectories (child directories)
      • Files
    • Directories can contain subdirectories and files
    • Directory table: lists subdirectories and files
    • Root directory: directory for a logical drive; e.g., C:
    • Path: drive, directories, filename, and file extension
      • Example: C:wpdatamyfile.txt points to “myfile”
  • 30. Figure 2-15 A hard drive is organized into directories and subdirectories that contain files
  • 31. Partitions and Logical Drives on a Hard Drive
    • Hard drives are organized into partitions
    • Two types of partitions
      • Primary: can only have one logical drive; e.g., C:
      • Extended: can have one or more logical drives
    • Logical drive (sometimes called a volume)
      • Formatted using a file system
      • Has a root directory and subdirectories
    • Disk Management tool
      • Used to create/view partitions, format logical drives
  • 32. Figure 2-18 Use the Windows 2000/XP Disk Management utility to see how a hard drive is partitioned
  • 33. An OS Manages Applications
    • The OS installs and runs all other PC software
    • Application: software providing services for users
    • Applications rely on the OS for support operations
      • Example: MS word relies on OS to manage memory
    • Applications are typically tailored to a single OS
      • Ensure that OS is suitable for a given application
  • 34. Installing Application Software
    • Sources of application software:
      • Internet, CDs, DVDs, or floppy disks
    • Installation program is provided by application
    • Tasks performed by installation program:
      • Folders are created on the hard drive
      • Files are copied to the folders
      • For Windows, entries are made in Windows registry
      • Icons are usually placed on desktop
      • For Windows, entries are added to the Start menu
  • 35. Launching Application Software Using the Windows Desktop
    • An application has to be started before use
      • You run, load, launch, or execute the application
    • Four ways to run software:
      • Use a shortcut icon
      • Use the Start menu
      • Use the Run command
      • Use Windows Explorer or My Computer
  • 36. Real (16-bit), Protected (32-bit), and Long (64-bit) Operating Modes
    • Bit type: number of bits simultaneously processed
    • Real (16-bit) mode
      • Exposes hardware to application (no longer used)
      • Example: DOS
    • Protected (32-bit) and Long (64-bit) modes
      • OS controls how an application accesses hardware
      • Preemptive multitasking is supported
      • Example: Windows XP Professional x64 Edition
    • Multiprocessing involves multiple CPUs
  • 37. 16-bit, 32-bit, and 64-bit Software
    • 16-bit software
      • Written for Windows 3.x
      • Data access is 16 bits at a time
    • 32-bit programs
      • Written for Windows NT/2000/XP and Windows 9x/Me
    • 64-bit programs
      • Written for Windows XP Professional x64 Edition
    • Most software today is 32-bit or 64-bit
  • 38. An OS Manages Hardware
    • OS interacts with hardware using drivers or BIOS
    • Software falls into three categories:
      • Device drivers or the BIOS
      • Operating system
      • Application software
  • 39. Figure 2-23 An OS relates to hardware by way of BIOS and device drivers
  • 40. How an OS Uses Device Drivers to Manage Devices
    • Device drivers: specify how to interact with a device
      • Example: a driver links a computer to a digital camera
    • Drivers are provided by OS and device manufacturer
    • Three kinds of drivers (corresponds to a mode)
      • 16-bit real, 32-bit protected, and 64-bit long
    • Device drivers in Windows
      • Before installation, verify Microsoft has tested device
      • Registry stores information about 32-bit device drivers
      • Updated drivers are available at manufacturer’s site
  • 41. How an OS Uses System BIOS to Manage Devices
    • System BIOS contains device information
      • Instructions enable CPU to communicate with device
      • Example: keyboard activated at startup using BIOS
    • Configure BIOS device interaction in CMOS setup
    • The OS may use system BIOS to access devices
    • Disadvantage of using BIOS device management
      • BIOS does not operate as fast as device drivers
  • 42. How an OS Manages Memory
    • Memory functions performed by OS at startup
      • Launches utilities to manage memory
      • Assigns addresses to each location of memory
    • Drivers, OS, and application use memory addresses
      • Enables three software layers to refer to shared data
    • 16-bit program in real mode has direct access to RAM
    • The OS controls memory access in protected mode
      • The address spaces of a program is protected
      • Virtual memory expands number of running programs
  • 43. Figure 2-27 Protected mode allows more than one program to run, each protected from the other by the operating system
  • 44. OS Tools to Examine a System
    • A variety of tools are available:
      • The Windows Desktop
      • My Computer and Windows Explorer
      • System Properties
      • Control Panel
      • Device Manager
      • System Information
      • Windows Help and the Microsoft Web Site
  • 45. The Windows Desktop
    • Primary tool provided by the Windows shell
    • Terms associated with the desktop
      • Taskbar: displays information, offers program access
      • Service: support program running in the background
      • System tray: displays icons for running services
      • Shortcut: desktop icon pointing to a program
    • Tools used to configure the desktop
      • Display Properties Window
      • The Taskbar and System Tray
      • Shortcuts
  • 46. Figure 2-28 The Windows XP desktop and Start menu
  • 47. My Computer and Windows Explorer
    • Used to manage files, folders, and other resources
    • Tools share similar functionality
    • Perform a wide range of tasks using shortcut menus
      • Example: create a new file
    • File and folder operations performed with Explorer
      • Creating a folder
      • Deleting a folder
      • Changing file attributes
      • Changing folder options
  • 48. Figure 2-41 Create a new file using Windows Explorer
  • 49. System Properties
    • Two ways to open utility:
      • Right-click My Computer and select Properties
      • Click the System applet in the Control Panel
    • Some tasks that can be performed
      • View processor and memory information
      • Change the name of the computer on the network
      • Access Device Manager on the Hardware tab
      • Control performance on the Advanced tab
      • Switch System Restore on or off
      • Use the Automatic Update tab to control updating
  • 50. Control Panel
    • Contains applets used to manage the system
    • Accessing Control Panel in Windows XP
      • Click Start and the click Control Panel
    • Two views: Category View and Classic View
    • Applets can be launched via the Run dialog box
      • Example: enter Main.cpl to open Mouse Properties
  • 51. Device Manager
    • Primary graphical tool for solving hardware problems
    • Primary screen displays a list of devices
      • Right click Properties to view device details
    • Some tasks that can be performed
      • Enable, disable, uninstall a device
      • Update device drivers
      • Uninstall device drivers
    • Symbols are used to indicate a device status
      • Example: red X over device indicates it is disabled
  • 52. Figure 2-47 Windows XP Device Manager gives information about devices and allows you to uninstall a device
  • 53. System Information
    • Used to view detailed information about the system
    • Important features
      • BIOS version you are using
      • The directory where the OS is installed
      • How system resources are used
      • Information about drivers and their status
    • To open utility, enter Msinfo32.exe in Run dialog box
  • 54. Windows Help and the Microsoft Web Site
    • Key guide to system
    • Excellent troubleshooting resource
      • Example: analyze problem with Internet connection
    • Microsoft Web site: http://support.microsoft.com
    • Use search engine to locate alternative resources
      • Ensure that the alternative site is reputable
  • 55. Figure 2-51 Troubleshooter making a suggestion to resolve a problem with using the modem to connect to the Internet
  • 56. Keystroke Shortcuts in the OS
    • Simplify interaction with the operating system
    • Examples
      • Function keys: F4, F5, F8
      • Text editing operations: Ctrl+C, Ctrl+V, Ctrl+x
    • Shortcut keys are critical when mouse is not working
  • 57. Summary
    • The OS manages system resources for users and applications
    • DOS (disk operating system): early command- driven OS
    • Modern OSs: Windows 2000/XP, Linux, Mac OS X
    • Operating systems are divided into a kernel and user shell
    • Two OS running modes: real and protected
  • 58. Summary (continued)
    • OS functions: providing a user interface, managing files, managing applications, and managing hardware
    • Windows desktop: primary graphical interface to OS
    • Windows Explorer: used to navigate directory and manipulate files and folders
    • Other tools: System Properties, Control Panel, Device Manager, System Information, and Windows Help
    • Keystroke shortcuts provide a way to perform tasks without a mouse

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