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  • Please feel free to contact me if you have questions or comments. Koralleen Stavish [email_address] 0300G Symons Hall (301) 405-2916
  • A router sits between your internet service and your PCs in a network (even if it’s just a network of one machine in your home). T hey help to secure the network using a protocol called NAT (Network Address Translation). NAT obscures the computers from the rest of the Internet and uses the router-firewall as a mediator for all communication to and from the Internet. If your network is inaccessible, no one can see the personal documents, financial records, or other vital information that resides on its machines. A nice feature is the fact that they are operating-system independent. The built-in security standard for 802.11x - WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) - has been criticized for poor effectiveness. NetStumbler, software tool for Windows that searches for open networks / War Driving Enable 128-bit WEP Change the default password that comes with wireless router-firewalls (the "Access Point"). Install software firewalls on all machines to help detect possible intrusions (more about this in the next article in this series). Audit your Access Point logs frequently to see who's using the network. Expect further safeguards to be forthcoming Pentium III chip included a unique identifier for tracking. It was supposed to control piracy but privacy-conscious consumers went nuts when they heard about it. Intel agreed to a default “off” setting, but the feature is still present on the chips. Pentium IV chips do not have this. In addition to software keyloggers, several types are devices that sit between the mouse and its PS/2 port.
  • Virus information sites: http://www.helpdesk.umd.edu/virus/news.shtml http://www.symantec.com/avcenter/ http://us.mcafee.com/virusInfo/default.asp
  • Two examples – there are many available, most with free trials Zone Alarm http://www.zonelabs.com/store/content/home.jsp Sygate http://www.sygate.com/products/sygate-personal-firewall-pro.htm Free “firewall” included with XP does not protect outgoing data.
  • Proxy software examines all the packets coming in to your web browser. As a new page is requested, the proxy examines the Web page's HTML, scripts, and graphics, checking these against your preferences so that it knows what you want to view. Lots of these are available, too: Web Washer http://www.webwasher.com/ Guidescope http://www.junkbuster.com/guidescope.html AdSubtract http://www.intermute.com/adsubtract/ Using a proxy can speed up your browsing right away.
  • Free spyware checkers: http://www.spychecker.com/software/antispy.html (Ad-Aware and SpyBotS&D are recommended) Time-limit control: http://members.aol.com/YPEmail/ (free and simple) http://www.akrontech.com/ (free trial, multiple profiles) Content control: http://www.cybersitter.com/ http://www.cyberpatrol.com/ http://www.netnanny.com/index.html Browser-enabled content control depends on Internet Content Rating Association labelling. Windows Update: http://windowsupdate.microsoft.com/ Depending on the version, MS Word retains various types of information in all documents. These can be revealed by opening the document in Word while using the “recover text from any file” file type.
  • In Outlook, go to the View menu and uncheck "Preview Pane“ In Outlook Express, choose the View menu, select "Layout ..." and uncheck the box next to "Show preview pane“ To disable JavaScript in Outlook, choose "Tools", and then "Options", and then select the "Security" tab. In the "Secure Content" area, choose the dropdown menu for "Zone" and select "Restricted Sites“. Now click the "Zone Settings ..." button. A warning box will open informing you that you are about to change settings that will affect Outlook, Outlook Express, and Internet Explorer. Click "OK". In the "Security" window that will open next, choose "Restricted Sites” and click the "Custom Level ..." button. Once the Security Settings window has opened, scroll down to "Active Scripting" and make sure that "Disable" is chosen. Click "OK" to close "Security Settings", click "OK" to close the Security window, click "OK" to close the Options window, and you're done. For Outlook Express, the process is similar, but the screens all look a little different. Start by selecting the Tools menu, then "Options" and then select the "Security" tab. In the Security Zones section, select "Restricted Sites Zone (More secure)". Open "Control Panel" and choose "Internet Options". Click on the Security tab and choose "Restricted Sites” and click the "Custom Level ..." button. Once the "Security Settings" window has opened, scroll down to "Active Scripting"and make sure that "Disable"is chosen. Click OK to close "Security Settings", click OK to close the "Internet Properties"control panel, and that’s that. In Netscape, choose the View menu, go to "Show/Hide", and then disable "Message Pane” Netscape is more flexible with regard to javascript control. In either the Web browser or the e-mail program, choose the Edit menu, then "Preferences", then "Advanced", and then "Scripts & Windows". At the top of the preferences page, you can set JavaScript as you like.
  • In Outlook or Outlook Express, to work offline just go to the "File" menu and choose "Work Offline". Unfortunately, due to the way Microsoft tied its e-mail programs and Internet Explorer together, your choice to work offline in your e-mail program also prevents your Web browser from accessing the Internet. You’ll still be able to browse using your Netscape browser if you like, but you’ll have to reconnect to use IE. In Netscape, you can choose the File menu, then select "Offline" and highlight "Work Offline“ OR click the icon at the bottom of the browser window that looks like wires connected by a plug. Click the icon again to go back online. Encryption : http://web.mit.edu/network/pgp.html Some people filter out messages that do not have their email address in the to: field as spam.
  • Filters can be set for umd.edu addresses by using the web utility - will work even if you read mail using other clients To filter for key words of your choice in Outlook 2000 and Outlook XP - do the following: in Outlook, create a new folder (ideally in your 'personal folder') called 'Spam' (or whatever you like). click on the 'Tools' menu then 'Rules Wizard' option - see 'Rules Wizard' dialog. click on the 'New' button to create a new rule. click on 'Move messages based on content' text - see options change at bottom of dialog. click on the 'Specific Words' option at bottom of dialog - see new dialog. type in your word or words then click 'Add' button, then click OK - see old dialog. click on 'Specific' folder option and navigate to your Spam folder then click OK. click on the 'Next' button, then click 'Next' again and then 'Next' yet again - see "Add any exceptions". scroll down a little then click the 'except if the body contains' option. click on the 'specific' words option - see new dialog. type in an 'exception word' so that people can send you email of this kind if necessary. click on the 'Add' button then OK. click on the 'Finish' button. In Netscape, do the following: 1. From the Edit menu, choose Message Filters to display the "Message Filters" dialog box. 2. Click the New button to display the "Filter Rules" dialog box. 3. Enter a name for the set of rules you're about to define (such as Junk Mail) in the "Filter Name:" text box. 4. The middle portion of the dialog box is where you enter the filtering criteria. 5. Choose (click)the appropriate radio button to match ANY or ALL of the criteria you specify. For example, to delete messages from a number of different sources and containing various subject lines, you'll probably want to choose "Match ANY of the following“. Choose "Match ALL of the following" when you want to refine the specifications — to include exceptions to the rule, for example 6. Make selections from the drop-down menus and enter text in the text box as appropriate. 7. To include additional criteria, click the More button. 8. When finished specifying rules, stipulate what to do if the rules are met by selecting Delete from the drop-down menu next to "then". 9. Finally, click the OK button.
  • To disable AutoComplete, you need to go to two places: First of all, open IE and select the Tools menu, then choose "Internet Options ..." and the "Advanced" tab. Scroll down and uncheck the box next to "Use inline AutoComplete for Web addresses". Next, without closing the "Internet Options ..." dialog box, select the "Content" tab and then the "AutoComplete ..." button. Here you check or uncheck the boxes next to the items you want AutoComplete to remember: "Web addresses", "Forms", and "User names and passwords on forms". If you decide to check next to "User names and passwords on forms", make sure you also check "Prompt me to save passwords" so you can tailor your choices for each Web site. Click "OK" to close the dialog box, and you're done Open Netscape and select the Edit menu, choose "Preferences ...", then "Privacy & Security", and "Passwords". Check or uncheck the box next to "Remember passwords", depending upon your certainty that your machine is secured. If you decide to enable "Remember passwords", make sure that you also check "Use encryption when storing sensitive data”. It is possible to fake many, sometimes all, of the header elements that identify the true source of an email. URL cloaking masks the true destination of a link.
  • There’s no way to recover a forgotten BIOS password—you can only reset it mechanically. Start > Programs > Accessories > System Tools > Backup Never leave your password set to the default that was assigned to you. Don't use your name - even backwards. * Don't use your dog's name. Don't use your spouse's name. * Don't use the kind of car you drive. Don’t use anything found in a dictionary. Not even joined together, like mycutedog. Don’t use anything found in a foreign dictionary. * Don’t use only numbers. A good password includes a mixture of capital letters, small letters, numbers, and symbols. It should be easy to remember, but hard to guess. CNET Security Watch http://reviews.cnet.com/4520-3513_7-5020904.html CERT Coordination Center http://www.cert.org/nav/index_red.html http://www.symantec.com/avcenter/hoax.html http://www.vmyths.com/ http://www.snopes.com/
  • 05-4i-cybersecurity.ppt

    1. 1. Cyber Security Preserving your privacy Safeguarding your data Presented 1/21/05 AGNR CIT Professional Development
    2. 2. Hardware <ul><li>Router-Firewalls </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless Networks </li></ul><ul><li>Spyware </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pentium III </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keyloggers </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Software <ul><li>Virus scanners </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Passive/Active scanning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.helpdesk.umd.edu/virus/software.shtml </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. More Software <ul><li>Personal Firewalls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitors traffic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows XP Internet Connection Firewall warning </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Still More Software <ul><li>Personal Proxy Software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controls cookies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Filters advertising </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blocks pop-ups and pop-unders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hides previous page </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Removes web bugs </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. A Little More Software <ul><li>Spyware protection </li></ul><ul><li>Limiting access </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By content </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Windows Update </li></ul><ul><li>Hidden embedded data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>msdn.microsoft.com/library/default.asp?url=/library/en-us/dnword2k2/html/odc_protectword.asp </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Email <ul><li>Outlook or Outlook Express </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Turn off the preview pane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disable javascript (affects IE as well) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Netscape Messenger </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Turn off view message </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Un-enable javascript for mail and newsgroups </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. More Email <ul><li>Read mail offline </li></ul><ul><li>Encryption </li></ul><ul><li>Consider using the bcc: field to send messages to multiple recipients </li></ul>
    9. 9. Most Despised Email <ul><li>Spam </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Never reply to spam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use filters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use alternate email addresses for shopping, newsgroups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create email addresses that are hard to guess </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.cauce.org/news/ </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Internet <ul><li>Browser Settings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IE 5 or higher, AutoComplete feature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Netscape, store passwords </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Web Site privacy policies </li></ul><ul><li>Spoof email/telephone requests </li></ul>
    11. 11. Other Best Practices <ul><li>Use a BIOS password </li></ul><ul><li>Back up your data </li></ul><ul><li>Be suspicious of email attachments </li></ul><ul><li>Use secure passwords </li></ul><ul><li>Be aware of new threats </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t promulgate hoaxes </li></ul>
    12. 12. 12 Safety Tips - #1 <ul><li>General </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Turn off (or disconnect) the computer when you're not using it, especially if you have an &quot;always on&quot; Internet connection. </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. 12 Safety Tips - #2 <ul><li>Laptop security </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep your laptop with you at all times when not at home. Regularly purge unneeded data files from your laptop. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PDAs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People tend to store more personal data (including passwords and PINs) on PDAs than they do on laptops. Be smart! </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. 12 Safety Tips - #3 <ul><li>Backups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Back up regularly. Back up to disk, tape or CD-ROM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Store at least one set of backups off-site (a safe-deposit box is a good place) and at least one set on-site. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember to destroy old backups. One way to destroy CDs is to microwave them on high for five seconds. You can also break them in half or run them through better shredders. </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. 12 Safety Tips - #4 <ul><li>Operating systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider Macintosh or Linux. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In Windows, set up Automatic Update so that you automatically receive security patches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Delete, rename, or move the files &quot;command.com&quot; and &quot;cmd.exe.&quot; </li></ul></ul></ul>
    16. 16. 12 Safety Tips - #5 <ul><li>Applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limit the number of applications on your machine. If you don't need it, don't install it. If you no longer need it, uninstall it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regularly check for updates to the applications you use and install them. </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. 12 Safety Tips - #6 <ul><li>Browsing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limit your use of MS Internet Explorer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limit use of cookies and applets to those few sites that provide services you need. Set your browser to regularly delete cookies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don't assume a Web site is what it claims to be, unless you've typed in the URL yourself. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure the address bar shows the exact address, not a near-miss. </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. 12 Safety Tips - #7 <ul><li>Web sites </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) encryption does not provide any assurance that the vendor is trustworthy or that its database of customer information is secure. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limit the financial and personal data you send to Web sites. If you don't want to give out personal information, lie. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opt out of marketing notices. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If the Web site gives you the option of not storing your information for later use, take it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a credit card for online purchases, not a debit card. </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. 12 Safety Tips - #8 <ul><li>Passwords </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For high-security Web sites such as banks, create long random passwords and write them down. Guard them as you would your cash. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Never reuse a password for something you care about. (It's fine to have a single password for low-security sites, such as for newspaper archive access.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Never type a password you care about, such as for a bank account, into a non-SSL encrypted page. </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. 12 Safety Tips - #9 <ul><li>E-mail </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Turn off HTML e-mail. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don't automatically assume that any e-mail is from the &quot;From&quot; address. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delete spam without reading it. Don't open messages with file attachments, unless you know what they contain; immediately delete them. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Never click links in e-mail unless you're sure about the e-mail; copy and paste the link into your browser instead. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you use Microsoft Office, enable macro virus protection; in Office 2000, turn the security level to &quot;high&quot; and don't trust any received files unless you have to. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you're using Windows, turn off the &quot;hide file extensions for known file types&quot; option; it lets Trojan horses masquerade as other types of files. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uninstall the Windows Scripting Host, or, if you can get along without it, change your file associations so that script files aren't automatically sent to the Scripting Host if you double-click them. </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. 12 Safety Tips - #10 <ul><li>Antivirus and anti-spyware software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use it--either a combined program or two separate programs. Download and install the updates, at least weekly and whenever you read about a new virus in the news. Some antivirus products automatically check for updates. Enable that feature and set it to &quot;daily.&quot; </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. 12 Safety Tips - #11 <ul><li>Firewall </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spend $50 for a Network Address Translator firewall device; it's likely to be good enough in default mode. On your laptop, use personal firewall software. If you can, hide your IP address. </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. 12 Safety Tips - #12 <ul><li>Encryption </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Install an e-mail and file encryptor (like PGP). Encrypting all your e-mail or your entire hard drive is unrealistic, but some mail is too sensitive to send in the clear. Similarly, some files on your hard drive are too sensitive to leave unencrypted. </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Finally…