Advances in Electrical and Electronic Engineering 200 WCDMA MOBILE RADIO NETWORK SIMULATOR WITH HYBRID LINK ADAPTATION Vladimír Wieser Katedra telekomunikácií, Elektrotechnická fakulta ŽU v Žiline Ve ký diel, 010 26 Žilina, tel.: +421 41 513 2260, mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Vladimír Pšenák Siemens Program and System Engineering s.r.o, Byt ická 2, 010 01 Žilina,, tel.: +421 907 898 215, mail: email@example.comSummary The main aim of this article is the description of the mobile radio network model, which is used for simulation ofauthentic conditions in mobile radio network and supports several link adaptation algorithms. Algorithms were designed toincrease efficiency of data transmission between user equipment and base station (uplink). The most important property ofthe model is its ability to simulate several radio cells (base stations) and their mutual interactions. The model is created on thebasic principles of UMTS network and takes into account parameters of real mobile radio networks.1. INTRODUCTION We are looking for better performance of 3G mobile radio networks in our project. The goal of The evolution of mobile radio networks is this paper is the description of the tool, which wasaffected by tendency to achieve as the highest data developed during the project VEGA - 1/0140/03rates as it is possible. The customer wants to own (Effective radio resources management methods inthe latest technology, what can be translated to next generations of mobile communicationcommon used expression “high data rate”. The networks). The whole project is based on 3Gcondition to reach the highest data rate supports Partnership Project (3GPP) specifications.development of the new technology, which will byused in next generation of mobile networks (e.g. 2. MODEL STRUCTUREOFDM) [1, 9]. The most common method for delivering The model was created in Matlab environmentmaximum data rate to user is the link adaptation. with block structure. This design allows the simpleWe are dealing only with system parameters addition of new blocks or algorithms. Alsoadaptation (power and modulation). Other description of functionality is very simple. As it isadaptation methods suited for CDMA systems can shown on figure 1, the model contains five mainbe found in . blocks (steps): 1st step 2nd step 3rd step 4th step 5th step Simulation Network Radio Simulation Results parameters model channels and open loop calculating number of BS type of cells environment closed loop graphs MS in cells BS positions Doppler effect outer loop average data radio channel MS positions coherent link adaptation speed environment etc. channel time process outage etc. initial seed for etc. probability Clark’s model etc. etc. Fig. 1. Model structure.
201 WCDMA mobile radio network simulator with hybrid link adaptation Input parameters processing (1st step). type of cells is the same as microcells, but the Creating model (2nd step). highest output power is lower (the main difference Test environment parameters and radio is in the used test environment) . channels processing (3rd step). The next important parameter of mobile radio Simulation of uplink connections between network simulation is the test environment. base station (BS) and mobile station (MS), According to European Telecommunications intracell and intercell interference (4th step). Standards Institute (ETSI) specification, simulator Results calculating (5th step). supports three types of them . The main difference lies in supported MS velocity and also in The 1st step. Simulation model supports two a different path loss model, which is used.main types of radio cells - microcells and Types of supported test environments:macrocells . In macrocells there are used three Low Range Outdoor (Non-line of sight).sectored antennas with 120° coverage. Microcells Suburban Outdoor (Non-line of sight and lineare created by one antenna in the middle of the cell of sight).with full space coverage (360°). User can set up Rural Outdoor (Indoor office) (Line of sight).almost all of the base stations important parameters The most important parameters of test(e.g. the highest and the lowest output power, environments are in table 1.receiver sensitivity, cable, connector and combinerlosses, transmitter antenna gain, receiver antenna Radio channel model is represented by maingain, cell radius, etc.) The example of graphical blocks (the 3 rd step):user interface (GUI) is on figure 2. The maximum Long-term fading (Path loss and Shadowallowed number of cell is 81 for microcells and 57 fading)for macrocells. Short-term fading In 3GPP specification it is also described thethird type of cells: picocells . Structure of these Maximum data Maximum MS Environment Model of test channel Coverage rate (QPSK) velocity Rural Outdoor 144 kbit/s 500 km/h Vehicular (A & B) Macrocells Outdoor to Indoor and Microcells Pedestrian (A & B) Suburban Outdoor 384 kbit/s 120 km/h Vehicular (A) Macrocells Outdoor to Indoor and Low Range Outdoor 2048 kbit/s 10 km/h Microcells Pedestrian (A) Indoor Office 2048 kbit/s 10 km/h Indoor (A & B) Picocells Tab. 1. Parameters of test environments The path loss LPATH-LOSS for Low range outdoor λenvironment is defined : LPATH − LOSS = −20 . log 10 [dB], (3) 4.π .rLPATH−LOSS = 40.log10(r ) + 30. log10( f ) + 49 [dB], (1) where λ [m] is the wavelength. Shadow fading is similar for all environments:where r [km] is the distance between transmitter Log-normal shadow fading with a standardand receiver and f [MHz] is frequency. deviation of 10 dB is appropriate for outdoor LPATH-L OSS for Suburban outdoor environments (urban and suburban areas) and 12environment is defined : dB for indoor one. The building penetration loss with mean value of 12 dB with a standard deviationL PATH − LOSS = 128 ,1 + 37 , 6 . log 10 (r ) [dB]. (2) of 8 dB was chosen . Short-term fading is represented by Clark’s This formula is valid for a carrier frequency model for Rayleigh fading . Rayleigh fadingof 2000 MHz and a base station antenna height of rates are generally set in the simulator by means of15 meters. walk or vehicle speed (depending on used LPATH-L OSS for Rural outdoor environment is environment).defined :
Advances in Electrical and Electronic Engineering 202 The detailed description of radio channel model Open and Closed loops are termed together asis possible to find in another article in this issue. Inner loop. In our simulation program each of these power control loops can be modified in various ways. The main purpose of the open loop power control is to set up the initial output power for the MS transmitter to a specific value. This loop is used when MS is accessing the network . There is a Dedicated Physical Control Channel DPCCH , which serves for this purpose. The MS measures the received power of DPCCH. The output power of transmitter has to be sufficient to overcome the various signal loss in uplink. We suppose that path- loss and shadow fading in downlink is the same as in uplink. The initial transmitter output power PMS_out is given: PMS_out ≥ PMS_in (4) Fig. 2. The first page of GUI where PMS_in is measured received power of nd DCCH, and is given: The 2 step. The position of base stations iscalculated by appropriate algorithm (one is for PMS_in = PBS_out – Lsun (5)microcell model and the other for macrocell one).Positions of the traced mobile stations (MST) are where Lsum is the sum of all losses in the radiorandom, but required distance from BS is kept. channel (downlink). The MS and the BS antennaTraced MST are highlighted on the figure 3. All gains, other losses and power reserve have to betraced MST use OVSF codes (Orthogonal Variable also respected.Spreading Factor) from the same code tree branch Closed loop power control adjusts actual. Other MSs use different OVFS codes (they are transmit power of MS (PMS_out) according to thegrey on the figure 3) and represent the intracell selected applicable mathematic formulas. Basicinterference . algorithm of closed loop power control compares In the 2nd step there are calculated all distances actual signal to interference ratio SIR (SIRA ) andamong active network elements. These values are required SIR (SIRR):important later for the simulation, wheninterference level is calculated . if SIRA > SIR R PMS_out - ∆P (6) if SIRA < SIR R PMS_out + ∆P (7) where ∆P is the power control step. The power control step size can take several predefined values (e.g.: 0.5, 1, 1.5 or 2 dB) . The value of SIR R varies according to type of modulation (Table 2). Modulation SIR R (BER = 10-3) BPSK 9 dB QPSK 11 dB 16QAM 21dB 64QAM 24dB Tab. 2. Required SIRR of modulations  Fig. 3. Model of mobile radio network The outer loop power control adjusts value of SIR R for used modulation. It is used to maintain the3. SIMULATIONS quality of communication at the level of bearerThe 4th step. The process of simulation is based on service quality requirement, while using as lowalgorithm used in UMTS system. This algorithm power as possible . At the start of the simulationincludes three power adaptation loops : the SIRR is equal to the appropriate value from table Open loop power control. 2, but the algorithm of outer power adaptation loop Closed loop power control. compares BERA and BER R and sets the value Outer loop power control. respectively:
203 WCDMA mobile radio network simulator with hybrid link adaptation if BERA > BERR SIR R + ∆SIR (8) On the figure 4 there are shown two basic if BERA < BERR SIR R - ∆SIR (9) adaptation algorithms, where hybrid adaptation of modulation and power is used:where ∆SIR is SIR control step of predefined size(e.g. 1dB). The BERR is set to 10 -3 for speech • Modulation is assigned in Outer loopservices and 10-6 for data based services in our power control (figure 4a).model. • Modulation is assigned in Closed loop The primary advantage of our model is its power control (figure 4b).possibility to change modulation together withpower adaptation. The UMTS system uses QPSK We defined radio frame duration according tomodulation, which has very good performance in 3GPP specifications (3G UMTS). One radio frameall environments specified by 3GPP. We expected is 10 ms long and contains of 15 time slots . Thethat also other higher-order modulations might be MS output power is adjusted every slot (0.667 ms)used successfully in WCDMA mobile radio and modulation scheme can be changed every 10msnetworks, but with several limitations (for example in the first algorithm:the most important is SIRA ). The benefit of high- set appropriateorder modulation using is the higher data rate and if SIRA > SIR R (10) modulation schemebetter OVSF code utilization (Table 3) . The second algorithm offers changes of modulation scheme and the MS output power Theoretical maximum data rate [kbit/s] adjustment in each slot (in 0.667 ms steps). The SF assignment of modulation in the Inner loop power 4 8 16 32 64 128 256Mod. control can cause an oscillation of switching BPSK 1024 512 256 128 64 32 16 between modulations, when boundary conditions QPSK 2048 1024 512 256 128 64 32 are reached. For restriction of this behavior, the16QAM 4096 2048 1024 512 256 128 64 second algorithm has to include particular64QAM 6144 4096 2048 1024 512 256 128 mechanism. Tab. 3. Maximum data rate Fig. 4. Two basic types of used algorithm: a) modulation is assigned in outer loop power control b) modulation is assigned in closed loop power control The block “Uplink data transmission” (Fig. 4) channel) were created in Simulink environment.covers simplified radio transmission chain (inspired Simulink environment makes possible to observeby 3GPP UMTS specifications). All elements of dynamic changes of transmitted signal. List oftransmission chain (also the model of radio block elements:
Advances in Electrical and Electronic Engineering 204 • Data source (Bernoulli Random Binary 4. RESULTS PROCESSING Generator). The 5th step. Graphs of several important variables • PN code and OVFS code generator . can be shown during and at the end of the • Convolutional encoder and decoder. simulation: SIR R, SIRA , PBS_rec, BER, type of • Spreading, scrambling and modulation modulation and data rate. The bounds of channel blocks . coherence time Tcoh and the end of transmission of • Rake receiver (four fingers) . UMTS frames are highlighted (Fig. 5). Graphs are • Error rate calculation and measurement generated for each traced mobile station block. independently or the time dependency of the same • Model of radio channel (6 signal paths). variables can be shown in one graph. Fig. 5. Example of an output graph for one traced mobile station At the end of the simulation (tsim elapsed) BER, Time interval t0,042_i is set by satisfied userFER, average data rate Rt , average data rate with requirement , by which the user is satisfied if heregard to satisfied user Rmod , probability of outage is not interrupted. The session is interrupted if BERPout and probability of outage with regard to > BER req during time longer than tdroppsatisfied user Pout_su is calculated for each traced 10mobile station (Fig. 4). t dropp = max 5, [sec] (14) Average data rate Rt : Rt ⋅ BER req Nb We supposed (for real time services) mean Rt = , (11) session duration 120 sec , so tdropp is 5/120 = t sim 0.042 %.where Nb is the number of correct transferred bits Probability of outage Pout :and tsim is duration of simulation. Average data rate t BER > BERreqwith regard to satisfied user (modified data rate) Pout = , (14)Rmod : t sim N b _ mod where tBER>BERr is time interval where BER is higher Rmod = , (12) than required BERreq. t sim Finally, probability of outage with regard towhere Nb_mod is the number of correct transferred satisfied user Pout_su:bits except time interval terr: t M Pout _ su = err . (15) t err = t0, 042 _ i , (13) tsim i =1where M is number of the time intervals t0,042_i .Duration of the time interval t0,042_i is 0,042tsim andBER in it is higher than required BERreq.
205 WCDMA mobile radio network simulator with hybrid link adaptation Fig. 6. Example of table with simulation results5. CONCLUSION  3GPP TS 25.213 V6.2.0 (2005-03): Simulation model of the mobile radio network is "Spreading and modulation (FDD)".used for proposal of better algorithms for link  Cátedra, F.M.- Pérez-Arriaga, J.: Celladaptation process than is available in WCDMA Planning for Wireless Communications.networks now. Fast power adaptation process is Artech House Publishers, Boston, USA, 1999.essential for correct functionality of this kind of  Hrdina, Z. – Vejražka, F.: Digitální rádiovámobile networks. Optimization of the link komunikace, Vydavatelství VUT, 1995.adaptation algorithms together with possibility to  3GPP TS 25.212 V6.4.0 (2005-03):change modulation (BPSK, QPSK, 16QAM and "Multiplexing and channel coding (FDD)".64QAM) brings more efficient data transmissionand saves system resources . Algorithms can be  Doboš, .- ižmár, A.-Palitefka, R.: Nextdesigned to reach as high data rate as possible in Generation Mobile Communication system.simulated conditions or data rate is input parameter Proceedings Renewable Sources andfor each user and algorithm is designed to reach Environmental Electro-technologies,maximum users in each cell (combination OVSF RSEE´98, Oradea, May 27-29, 1998, pp.78-code and modulation). 83. ISSN-1223-2106. Making changes in algorithms is easy and  Doboš, .-Gori , J.: Call Admission Control ingraphs of various variables make possible to Mobile Wireless. Radioengineering. Decembersimulate and compare behaviors of each traced 2002 Volume 11, No.4, pp. 17-23. ISSN 1210-element of simulated mobile networks in different 2512.conditions (state of radio channel, speed of mobile  Marchevský, S.- Ben o, S.: Adaptive detectorsuser etc.). for CDMA Signals. Zborník prednášok zo 6.medzinárodnej vedeckej konferencieAcknowledgement TELEKOMUNIKÁCIE 2000, 2.-3.mája 2000, Bratislava, pp.281-283. This paper was supported by the grantVEGA - 1/0140/03 and state program No. 2003 SP51/028 09 00/028 09 10.REFERENCES Castro, P. J.: The UMTS Network and Radio Access Technology - Air interface Techniques for Mobile Systems. Willey, USA, 2001. Laiho J., Wacker, A., Novosad, T.: Radio Network Planning and Optimization for UMTS. Wiley, USA, 2002. ETSI TR 101 112 V3.2.0. (1998-04): "Selection procedures for the choice of radio transmission technologies of the UTMS". Rappaport, T.S.: Wireless Communications. Principles and Practice. Prentice Hall, New Jersey, USA, 1996.