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  1. 1. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTYA BULLETIN RIGHTS (IPR) FROM TIFAC VOL 10, NO. 4, April 2004 Some operational aspects in the UK markets as “Spanish Champagne”. The UK court ordered the Spanish company to drop the word of managing Geographical Champagne from the product. The judgment was Indications given on December 16, 1960. The Spanish company coined other GI called CAVA which has its own story The General Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of success. Interestingly, Champagne did not get anof Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) brought the automatic protection in other countries includingprotection of geographical indications (GI) to the those in Europe. France had to sign bilateral treatiesforefront of IPR. Developing countries have seen a and private agreements with many countries andlarge potential in this form of IPR due to their being industries to avoid unfair use of the appellation.cradle of many old civilizations which have survived These countries are UK, Spain, New Zealand, Japanfor centuries. New opportunities exist in India as we and Australia. Champagne has also been treated asnow have a legislation in place for protecting GIs. The trademark by some courts. There was a decision inIndian system has been explained in the IPR Bulletin a German court which did not allow the use of namefrom time to time. We still do not have operational Champagne even for non alcoholic drinks like mineralexperience of implementing the Act as the first water.application seeking GI in respect of Darjeeling tea What has been done to define Champagne? Justis pending with the Registrar of GI. There is a lot to saying that a product has been known for a long time,be understood from the experience of other countries one cannot expect to obtain a GI. A great deal ofby the regulators, scientists, farmers, artisans, home work needs to be done for convincing thegovernment officials and departments. authority awarding GI. In case of Champagne followingFrench Practice steps were taken to mark the geographical location:- France is the leader in providing GI protection to 1. A region clearly defined is in the north eastwines produced in France especially Champagne. of FranceOne of the most important features of the French 2. The wine growing area occupies aboutsystem is that the champagne production is regulated 31,000ha.through a government decree that lays down the winegrowing and wine making criteria which are necessarily 3. Only three varieties are produced namely, pinotto be met to benefit from the Champagne appellation. noir, pinot meunier and charonnay.What it really means is that certain quality standards 4. It represents about 15000 growers and 200and uniqueness basis have to be maintained to get houses. ( The roles of growers and houses arethe benefits. clearly marked). As is commonly understood that a GI prohibits 5. An annual sale of about 280 bottles in moreothers from copying and falsifying your GI. Champagne than 150 countries; the estimated sale is aboutfaced many cases where other wines started using 1.5 billion euro.the name Champagne in spite of the fact that suchwines were not produced in the Champagne Region Swiss Systemof France. France won a case in the United Kingdom Protection of GI and appellation of origin arein 1950s when a wine made in Spain started appearing covered under the Swiss law on Improvement of Contd on...2 Visit us at www.indianpatents.org.in 1
  2. 2. Contd from...1 This aspect was introduced as an bearing such an appellation had toSome operational ............. amendment to the Australian Wine be derived from grapes grown in & Brandy Corporation Act. The the named state or country. PlacesAgriculture and Preservation of Farming which were not defined earlier, TTB Act established the GI CommitteePopulations. The objective is to create has established a new type of as the authority responsible fora register for geographical names appellation known as American registering GIs and created thedesignating agricultural products – Viticultural Area (AVA) which is a Register of Protected Names fornatural or processed (including spirits). delimited grape growing area recording the names of protectedProducts included are milk products, distinguished by geographical GIs. The regulations spell out ameat including preserved meat, features. An AVA can be used as number of factors that must besmoked products, fruits, vegetables a label if at least 85% of the wine taken into account in dealing withand bakery products. Switzerland is made from grapes grown inside a GI application. These factorsdid not have an effective system to that AVA. As AVA did not exist are history of the product, processprotect geographic names until the before 1978, TTB has laid down etc, geology, climate, harvest dates,above law was put in place. Emmental criteria for establishing an AVA:- drainage, water availability, elevationcheese, a product from Switzerland and traditional use of the area andhas been imitated widely and this 1. Evidence that the name of the name. The Australian approach iscould not be stopped in the absence viticultural area is locally and/ different from others in the senseof a domestic law for protection of or nationally known as referring that it does not insist on quality orGI. to the proposed area; characteristics of the product after The Swiss law requires a clear a geographical area has been 2. Historical or current evidencedefinition of the product and that identified in respect of the product. in support of the boundaries ofthe method of obtaining the product It is assumed that the concerned the AVA;should be described and the limit product will have the desired quality 3. Evidence to the geographicalof the geographical area should be if it comes from the specified features, such as climate, soilstated in a specification. All fabrication geographical location. Take for and topography, whichsteps namely, production, processing example the concept of region distinguish the AVA from theand preparation, must occur in the associated with a wine. A region surrounding areas; anddesignated area. The task of is defined as a single tract of landcontrolling the quality and uniqueness that is discrete and homogenous 4. The specific boundaries of theis entrusted to a certification body in its grape growing attributes to a area.which exercises control during degree that is measurable and usually US wine appellation systemproduction, processing and produces at least 500 wine grape only calls for indication of the originpreparation of the product. This vineyards of at least 5 hectares of grapes used for making the winebody in Switzerland is Accreditation each that do not have any common and do not imply any quality controls.and Designation of Test Laboratories ownership. It can be observed that none of theand Body for Conformity Assessment. criteria for establishing an AVAIt has also been recognized that US Practice refers to taste, character or qualitytraditional methods for production A formal wine appellation system of wine and there is no organolepticof such products may be more was adopted in the USA in 1978 aspect of the US appellation system.costly. In order to compete effectively and the agency implementing the Further there is no attempt to controlagainst cheaper products – often act is Alcohol and Tobacco Tax grape varieties or viticultural practicestheir own imitations, the market and Trade Bureau (TTB). The multi- through appellation system.should be made aware of their tiered frame work consists of variousorigin, uniqueness and specificity. types of appellations. Each India as compared to most ofThe regulations also impose certain appellation can be used as a label the countries mentioned above hastransparent and fairer competition if the prescribed percentage of grapes a large number of items, whichrules. from that area is used to make a may qualify for GIs. India is not particular wine. (The concept of limited by any one product likeAustralian System wine. It is observed that each country labeling has been continuing from The Australian system has been 1938. American wine producers has evolved its own way to grantdeveloped around wines. Prior to had the right to mention on their GI or geographical appellation. Most1993 Australia did not have any labels geographic origin of the grapes importantly, some countries don’tlaw which recognized geographical used for making the wine.) TTB insist on defining the quality ofindications as a protectable property. stipulates that 75% of the wine these products. The fact that the Contd on...3 Visit us at www.indianpatents.org.in2
  3. 3. Contd from...2 studies on the inheritance of traits, matrices, or gels, yielding typicalSome operational ............. or in the identification of individuals. banding patterns, which constitutes a DNA fingerprint of the organism’sproduct has been grown in that The case study relates to method genetic makeup.area is a good enough reason for for DNA fingerprinting and forgrant of a GI. The reason for this detecting specific DNA markers in Restriction Fragments: Thewould be that a GI helps the producers genomes ranging from DNA molecules produced bycommercially in gaining a good microorganisms to higher plants, digestion with a restrictionbrand value and therefore it would animals and humans. The invention endonuclease are referred to asbe in their interest to ensure that also relates to synthetic DNA restriction fragments. Any giventhe quality of the product is maintained molecules and products based genome will be digested by a particularor else the market preference will thereon which are used in the restriction endonuclease into achange. In other words the methods of the invention in the discrete set of restriction fragments.responsibility of maintaining the different fields of application. The The DNA fragments that result fromquality is being left on the producers. invention was patented in USPTO restriction endonuclease cleavageWe have just started implementing by Zabeau et al on April 4, 2000 are separated and detected by gelthe GI Act and ways will have to (US Pat No. 6,045,994). electrophoresis.be found out to implement the Act DNA fingerprinting is carried Restriction Fragment Lengthfor the benefit of those who have out using different techniques of Polymorphism (RFLP): Thecontinued to preserve and produce which RFLP is most common. This genomic DNA of two closely relatedtraditional products. It can also be technique is time consuming and organisms, for example, will exhibitseen that the French model has requires probe DNA sequence. The differences in their nucleotidenot been followed by other countries. use of PCR technique for fingerprinting sequence composition at manyTherefore, while implementing the is limited due to the requirement sites. When these differences occurGI Act, there is a need to be practical of prior sequence information for in the target site for a restrictionand reasonable otherwise the Act designing of primers. The use of endonuclease, the modified-targetwill have very little meaning for the random primers as in RAPD site will not be cleaved at thatbeneficiaries. Extreme caution is technique does not yield reproducible point. Likewise, a nucleotideto be exercised while laying down fingerprint patterns. The present sequence variation may introducerequirements to be satisfied before invention overcomes all the above a novel target site where none existsa GI is granted. mentioned problems and describes in the other organism, causing the a much advanced DNA fingerprinting DNA to be cut by the restriction method. enzyme at that point. Alternatively, insertions or deletions of nucleotides Case Study Definitions occurring in one organism between In the description, a number of two target sites for a restriction An Advanced DNA scientific terms are used and in endonuclease will modify the Fingerprinting Technology order to provide a clear and consistent distance between those target sites. understanding of the specification Because of this, digestion of the DNA fingerprinting refers to the and claims, the following terms two organism’s DNA will producecharacterization of either similarities are defined: restriction fragments having differentof one or more distinctive features RestrictionEndonuclease:These lengths. A polymorphism in thein the genetic make up or genome are enzymes which recognize short length of restriction fragmentsof an individual, a variety or race, nucleotide sequences, usually 4 produced by digestion of the DNAor a species. The differences in to 8 bases in length and cleave the of the two organisms will result.DNA fingerprints are referred to as two DNA strands, thereby producing The southern hybridization techniqueDNA polymorphisms and the distinct fragments of DNA of discrete length. is used for detecting polymorphismsDNA fragments can be used as Because of their high degree of in these restriction fragments usingDNA markers. DNA polymorphisms sequence specificity, restriction specific probes.can be used asgenetic markers in much the same endonucleases will cleave DNA Gel Electrophoresis: To detectway as other genetic markers: in molecules in a very specific fashion. restriction fragments, analyticalparentage analysis, in genetic The result is that a reproducible method for fractioning double- set of DNA fragments will be produced. stranded DNA molecules on the DNA fragments can be fractionated basis of size is required. The most according to their length on porous Contd on...4 Visit us at www.indianpatents.org.in 3
  4. 4. Contd from...3 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) Description of InventionCase Study ............. be applicable to the detection This invention comprises of restriction fragment polym - methods for detecting RFPs,commonly used technique for orphisms (RFPs) including length synthetic oligonucleotides for useachieving such fractionation is gel polymorphisms.electrophoresis. in the methods of the invention, 2. PCR amplification of restriction kits comprising means for detecting Synthetic oligonucleotides: fragments no matter whether RFPs, and applications of theThese are single-stranded DNA one knows the nucleotide methods and procedures of themolecules having preferably from invention for plant and animal sequence of the ends of thealmost 10 to almost 50 bases, breeding, diagnostics of genetically restriction fragments or not, canwhich can be synthesized inherited diseases, identification be achieved according to thechemically. or organisms, and forensic typing, invention. Ligation: The enzymatic etc.The general method forreaction catalyzed by the enzyme 3. The present invention defines production and for identification of specifically designed primers restriction fragments involves theligase in which two double-stranded and specific methods to direct use of restriction endonucleases,DNA molecules are covalently joinedtogether is referred to as ligation. the PCR amplification reaction in such a way that a controlled Adaptors: These are short amplification is possible and indouble-stranded DNA molecules, a particular embodiment of thewith a limited number of base pairs, invention, in such a way thate.g. 10 to 30 base pairs long, only a small subset of taggedwhich are designed in such a way restriction fragments is amplified.that they can be ligated to theends of restriction fragments. 4. The present invention also provides specific PCR primers which Polymerase Chain Reaction comprise a constant nucleotide(PCR): The enzymatic reaction in sequence part and a variablewhich DNA fragments aresynthesized from a substrate DNA sequence part. The selectionin vitro is referred to as PCR. The of the tagged restriction fragmentsreaction involves the use of two is determined by the number ofsynthetic oligonucleotides called nucleotides residing in the variableprimers, which are complementary sequence part of the primer:to nucleotide sequences in DNA the selectivity of the primersmolecules which are separated by increases with the number ofa short distance of a few hundred nucleotides in the variableto a few thousand base pairs, and (selected) sequence part.the use of a thermostable DNA ligation of synthetic oligonucleotides 5. The underlying principle of the to the restriction fragments, andpolymerase. The simultaneous invention is that in each Amplified PCR amplification of restrictionamplification of several different Restriction Fragment two fragments.fragments is referred to as multiplex nucleotide sequences arePCR. The Figure 1 depicts the steps detected which are separated of the method of the invention which DNA Amplification: The term from each other by a given is described herein. The restrictionDNA amplification is used to denote distance. Each of the two endonucleases cleave genomic DNAthe synthesis of double-stranded nucleotide sequences is molecules at specific sites, targetDNA molecules in vitro using composed of two parts: (a) the sites, thereby generating restrictionPolymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). target site for the restriction fragments. PCR amplification ofThe products of the PCR reaction endonuclease and (b) the r e s t r i c t i o nare referred to as amplified DNA nucleotide sequence adjacent fragments is carried out by firstfragments. to the target site which is included ligating synthetic oligonucl-Present Invention in the selective primer. eotides (adaptors) to the ends of 6. The method of the invention restriction fragments, thus providing1. The invention relates more each restriction fragment with two particularly to a process and provides a far superior method common tags which will serve as means which enable the for multiplex PCR. Contd on...5 Visit us at www.indianpatents.org.in4
  5. 5. Contd from...4 synchronously in the PCR reaction. The PCR products obtained inCase Study ............. In a preferred embodiment of the accordance with the invention cana anchor base for the primers used invention applicable to genomic be identified using standardin PCR amplification. For each DNAs of large sizes, a general fractionation methods for separatingtype of restriction fragment, specific principle is used to limit the number DNA molecules according to sizeadaptors are used, which differ in of restriction fragments which are followed by staining of the DNAone of the ends so as to allow the to be amplified. This is done by molecules with appropriate agents.adaptor to be ligated to the restriction preselecting a subset of tagged Alternatively, the primers used forfragment. Using the enzyme ligase restriction fragments so that only the PCR amplification can be taggedthe adaptors are ligated to the a relatively small number of tagged with a suitable radio-active labelledmixture of restriction fragments. restriction fragments will be amplified or fluorescent chromophore thusThe adaptors can now serve as during the PCR amplification reaction. allowing the identification of thetemplates for the primers used in The present invention also reaction products after sizethe subsequent PCR amplification provides specific PCR primers which fractionation.The PCR products arereaction. In one of the embodiments comprise a constant nucleotide denoted by the term Amplifiedof the invention, the restriction sequence part and a variable Restriction Fragments (ARF).fragment carries the same adaptor sequence part. In the constant Different sets of ARFs are obtainedat both of its ends and a single sequence part the nucleotide with each different selective primerPCR primer can be used to amplify sequence is designed so that the in the PCR amplification reaction.the restriction fragment. In another primer will perfectly base pair with The patterns of ARFs identifiedembodiment using two different the constant DNA sequence of after separation constitute uniquerestriction enzymes to cleave the one of the DNA strands at the end and perfectly reproducible fingerprintsDNA, two different adaptors are of the restriction fragment. The of the genomic DNA.ligated to the ends of the restriction variable sequence part comprises Examplefragments. In this case two different a randomly chosen nucleotidePCR primers can be used to amplify The patent application explains sequence ranging from 1 to 10such restriction fragments. This the working of the invention using bases chosen. It is the addition ofstep reduces the complexity of six examples which were described these variable (selected) sequencesthe starting mixture of restriction to the ‘3 end of the primers whichfragments and constitutes an will direct the preselection of taggedenrichment step prior to the PCR restriction fragments which will beamplification, thereby reducing in amplified in the PCR step. Thecertain instances the background. term selective bases is used to The genome sizes of organisms denote the nucleotides in the variablevary widely from a few million base sequence part thus showing thatpairs in the case of microorganisms the selection of these bases rendersto several billion base pairs for the primer selective. It must beanimals and plants. Hence, the realized that a tagged restrictionnumber of restriction fragments fragment will only be amplifiedobtained after cleaving genomic when the selective bases of theDNA molecules with a restriction primers used recognize bothenzyme can vary from a few hundred complementary sequences at theto several million. Generally, the ends of the fragment. When thenumber of restriction fragments is primer matches with only oneso large that it is not possible to end, the amplification will be linearidentify individual restriction rather than exponential, and thefragments in genomic DNA digests product will remain undetected.fractionated by gel electrophoresis. In a preferred embodiment, theSuch digests usually produce a number of selective nucleotidessmear of bands. PCR amplification is chosen so that the number ofof tagged restriction fragments thus restriction fragments which willalso produce a smear of bands be amplified is limited to 5 tosince all fragments co-amplify 200. Fig. (2) Contd on...6 Visit us at www.indianpatents.org.in 5
  6. 6. Contd from...5 more AFLPs and the phenotype human, an animal, a plant andCase Study ............. exhibited by the specific genetic a microorganism.amplification of DNA of various traits. The methods of the present 3. A method for detectingLactuca species with two restriction invention in essence overcomes similarities between plant orenzymes. In brief, the genomic the limitations of multiplex PCR, animal varieties, species,DNA of various Lactuca species because all the primers used in cultivars, microorganisms, orwas isolated, digested with PstI the present invention have a for evaluating genetic diversityand MseI restriction enzymes and substantial part of their nucleotide and characterizing such plantcompatible adaptors were ligated. sequence in common. or animal varieties, species,The DNAs prepared were used as Claims cultivars, microorganismstemplates for AFLP reactions. Twoprimer combinations were used 4. A process for amplification of The patent document containsemploying a single MseI-primer and at least one restriction fragment 30 claims and several subclaims, from a target DNA regardlesstwo different PstI-primers. The the main ones being:generated fragments were visualized of whether its nucleotide 1. Process for amplification of at sequence is unknown isolatingon denaturing polyacrylamide gels. least one restriction fragment at least one amplified orThe band patterns obtained are from a target DNA regardless elongated DNA fragment;shown in Figure 2. of whether its nucleotide (h) designing oligonucleotideApplications sequence is unknown, which primers having a nucleotide process comprises: sequence according to the at The present invention provides (a) digesting said target DNA with least one oligonucleotide primera general method for isolating DNA at least one specific restriction of step (d) wherein the selectedmarkers from any genome and for endonuclease to fragment it nucleotide sequence comprisesusing such DNA markers in all into restriction fragments; nucleotide residues whichpossible applications of DNA correspond to the first 8-10fingerprinting. (b) ligating to the restriction nucleotide residues internally A particular application of the fragments obtained from the adjacent to the restriction sitespresent invention involves the target DNA at least one double- at both ends of said DNAscreening and identification of stranded synthetic oligonucl- fragment.Restriction Fragment Polymorphisms eotide adaptor having one end which is compatible to be ligated 5. Process for the amplification(RFP). the method of the present of at least one DNA fragmentinvention constitutes a far superior to one or both of the ends of the restriction fragments to according to claim 11, whichmethod for detecting RFPs than process comprises anthe RFLP technique. According to thereby produce tagged restriction fragments of the target additional amplification stepthe method of the present invention, of said DNA fragment in thethe analysis of ARF patterns can DNA; presence of oligonucleotidebe used to define the genetic linkage (c) contacting said tagged primers designed accordingof polymorphic ARFs with specific restriction fragments under to step (h) of claim 11.genetic traits. Such polymorphic hybridizing conditions with atARFs are also referred as Amplified least one oligonucleotide primer; The thirty claims were draftedFragment Length Polymorphisms to protect every possible feature(AFLPs) and this term has become (e) amplifying or elongating said of the DNA fingerprintingwidely accepted. tagged restriction fragments technique which included using said at least one besides those mentioned above Another application of the oligonucleotide primer in the the length of the adaptor, thepresent invention involves the presence of the required number of selective bases ofdetection of AFLPs linked to specific nucleotides and DNA the primers, the use of genomicgenetic traits. The application involves polymerase. DNA or complete organismthe analysis of ARF patterns of 2. A process as claimed in claim as starting DNA and all possibleclosely related individuals exhibiting 1 wherein said target DNA is utilities of the technique.differences in the specific genetictrait and the use of analysis genomic DNA from a biologicaltechniques that can find correlations sample of an organism selectedbetween the inheritance of one or from a group consisting of a Visit us at www.indianpatents.org.in6
  7. 7. Case Law (1) no alterations or omissions shall Section 52(1)(j). Is the defendant be made without the consent of guilty of violating copyright of theCopyright of re-recorded copy? the owner other than those which plaintiff in the “version recording” are reasonably necessary for of “chalo dildar chalo” ? An interesting case between adaptation of the work.Super Cassette Industries (plaintiff) The defendant argued that theand Bathla Cassette Industries Pvt. (2) “version recording” shall not be plaintiff having admitted that itsLtd (defendant) was decided sold in the packaging or with any sound recording was covered underin the Delhi High Court on label which is likely to mislead or Section 52(1)(j) of the CopyrightSeptember 9, 2003 wherein the confuse the public as to its identity. Act, the same is not an originalcourt had to decide on the rights copyright work but a derivative andof a party to make “version (3) notice has been given to the therefore cannot be subject matterrecordings”. owner of original work in the of copyright. In other words, the prescribed manner along with copies defendant’s case is that no licence In the present case law, the of covers or labels with which the has been granted by the originalplaintiff, Super Cassettes Industries, sound recording are to be sold. copyright owner and it is only ais a producer and marketer of work produced by virtue of Sectionpre-recorded audio cassettes and (4) royalties in respect of sound recording has been paid to the 52(1)(j), which is not entitled toother records which it sells under independent protection. original owner at the rate fixed bythe mark/logo T-series. The plaintiff the Copyright Board.produced a compilation of old well The plaintiff on the other handknown Hindi songs under the title The above mentioned conditions argued that it has, by its own“Yadein” Vol I and Vol II. The were introduced in 1995. labour, invested large amounts ofcompilation was a “version recording” money to encourage young singers.i.e. re-recording of the original work. The plaintiff had produced the Thus, has used sufficientThe specific dispute in this case song under the provisions of Section independent skill and labour tois over a song “chalo dildar chalo” 52 (1) (j) of the Copyright Act, produce the musical work. Thefrom the Hindi film ‘Pakeezah’. In 1958 and had paid a sum of record thus produced was athis case the plaintiff has created Rs 400/- to Mahal Pictures, the substantially new arrangement and/a “version recording” of this song original owner of the musical work or necessary adaptation of theby engaging music conductors, “chalo dildar chalo” for producing existing work. Thus, the plaintiff ismusicians, singers to create original 10,000 records. The defendants the owner of copyright in versionmusical track of the existing musical had offered to purchase similar sound recording. Therefore, a specificwork. This act of sound recording rights under Section 52 (1) (j) in consent or licence should havewas carried out legally under the respect of the tapes, Yadein Vol I been sought by the defendant toSection 52 (1) (j) of the Indian & II produced by the plaintiff which include the “version recording” ofCopyright Act. included the song “chalo dildar “chalo dildar chalo” in the compilation. chalo” from the plaintiff and had Section 52 of the Indian Copyright accordingly issued a cheque for The court, after hearingAct contains ‘fair use’ provisions Rs. 1,000/- as 5% royalty prescribed arguments of the parties, heldand the subsection 1, clause j, by the Copyright Board for that, as per Section 52(1)(j),provides for a statutory license to manufacturing 400 audio cassettes the statutory licence to producea person desirous of making a to be sold at Rs. 25/- per cassette. “version recording” was available,sound recording of an existing musical The plaintiff has objected to the provided the person producingwork by engaging independent artist defendant’s use of its “version such recording undertakes notto create the same music and use recording” of “chalo dildar chalo”. to make any alterations to the It has therefore brought this case work without the consent of theidentical lyrics provided the “version seeking an injunction restraining owner other than those whichrecording” is made after two years the defendant from copying its “version are reasonably necessary forof the original sound recording. recording” or re-recording of “chalo adaptation of the work for the In addition, following conditions dildar chalo”. The dispute centered purpose of making the soundlaid down by Section 52(1)(j) of the around the issue of whether there recording. This is an essentialCopyright Act have to be satisfied. can be an independent right in a condition as laid down in Section “version recording” created under 52(1)(j), read with Rule 21 of Contd on...8 Visit us at www.indianpatents.org.in 7
  8. 8. the Copyright Rules 1959. The infringement relating to their claimcourt opined that Rule 21(2)(b) is Litigation Watch on personalized email links sentrelevant and indeed significant • Indian generic drugmaker Dr to users of online payment on 5provision. It requires any person Reddy’s Laboratories Ltd has September 2002. The lawsuit haswho wishes to act under Section been dismissed after eBay withdrawn its challenge to the mainUS52(1) to indicate clearly the alteration completed its acquisition of PayPal patent on GlaxoSmithKline Plc’sand omissions, if any, which are and agreed with Tumbleweed on a anti-nausea drug Zofran. The moveproposed to be made for the means that Dr Reddy’s will not cross-licensing deal.adaptation. Thus, the plaintiffs casewas contrary to its own pleadings. attempt to launch a cheap generic (Patent World, February 2004)On the one hand it has sought to version of the product in the United States until after the compound • Taiwan Semiconductortake shelter under “version recording” patent expires in July 2005. Zofran, Manufacturing Co (TSMC) of Taiwan,provisions laid down under Section which is widely used to treat cancer its North American subsidiary and52(1)(j) to avoid a claim ofinfringement. On the other hand, it patients undergoing chemotherapy, WaterTech have filed a suit claiminghas argued that its “version recording” had first-quarter sales of 180 million that Semiconductor Manufacturingwas a substantially new arrangement. pounds ($317 million), of which International Corporation (SMIC)The court was of the view that a 132 million was sold in the United of China and SMIC Americas infringedsubstantial new arrangement cannot States. a number of patents andfall within such alterations/omissions misappropriated trade secrets fromwhich are necessary for adaptation. (Reuters, 29 April, 04) the companies. The complaint asksIn other words a substantial new • Bayer has sued Indian generic for injunctive relief and monetaryarrangement cannot be created drugmaker to protect its patent on damages.without the original owner’s consent. a key antibiotic expected to generate (Patent World, February 2004) one billion euros ($1.2 billion) in The court went on to hold that • The Nizza group filed annual sales. Bayer’s legal movethe plaintiff’s product is a colourable infringement lawsuits against two came after India’s Dr Reddy’simitation of the original musical domain name companies, Network Laboratories filed an applicationsoundtrack with some minor and Solutions and Register.Com, forinsignificant variations. This cannot with US regulators for permission to sell a generic copy of antibiotic infringing their patent entitled “abe termed as a substantial new Avelox. Bayer said it had sued Dr method and system of assigningarrangement. The court dismissed Reddy’s for infringing its patents identical URL and email addressesthe plaintiff’s application seeking on Avelox and would defend its to members of a group”. Nizzaan interim injunction holding thatprima facie there is no merit in the franchise strongly. Reddy’s was granted the US patent only aapplication. The court was of the application was a “paragraph IV” week before it filed the lawsuitview that since the plaintiff himself filing, which is used when a generic seeking damages and an injunctiondid not have any rights in the law, manufacturer claims it is not against the two companies.in what is averred to be his infringing a drug patent or that the (Patent World, February 2004)substantially new product, he cannot patent is invalid. This would allowbe heard to protest when such a the generic drugmaker to start • Japan’s Sony Corp filedmodus operandi is sought to be infringement suit against Eastman producing its own generic versionapplied to him by the defendant. Kodak Co in the US for digital of the drug within the patent period. camera related ten patents. The The first generic company to file The above decision had a mixed move follows a suit filed by Eastman for marketing approval underreaction from right holders and IP Kodak a month ago against Sonypractitioners regarding the paragraph IV could win a 180-day for infringing its ten patents relatedinterpretation of Section 52(1)(j) period of marketing exclusivity for to digital photography. Sony saidby the court. An appeal has been its version. its action was not a counter-suitfiled by the plaintiff and is waiting (Gulf News, 30 March,04) and involved different patents thanfor hearing in the court. • The software company the suit filed by Kodak. Tumbleweed had filed a lawsuit (The Economic Times, 2 April, 04) against PayPal and eBay for Contd on...9 Visit us at www.indianpatents.org.in8
  9. 9. Contd from...8 • Frank Zappa’s family has settled Domestic NewsLitigation Watch ............. its copyright dispute with Quebec• Ranbaxy Pharmaceuticals Inc, furniture and appliance retailer, n Hordes of Indian pharmaceuticalFlorida, a wholly owned subsidiary ‘Ameublements Tanguay’ after the companies are either leaping intoof Ranbaxy Laboratories has won Federal court of Canada announced herbal drugs or planning to do so.a patent infringement suit brought the judgment that the Quebec retailer With product patent recognitionagainst it by GlaxoSmithKline relating had infringed Mr. Zappa’s copyrights and moral rights. The dispute has coming into force from 2005 into Ranbaxy’s Cefuroxime Axetil been going on for nine years, and India, Indian companies are focusingproduct, a generic version of relates to Ameublements usage on herbal drugs. Nicholas Piramal,GlaxoSmithKline’s antibiotic ceftin.GlaxoSmithKline filed the suit in of Mr. Zappa’s song “Watermelon Cipla, Elder Pharma, RPG Lifethe US district court of New Jersey in Easter Hay” as background music Sciences, Ranbaxy Laboratories,in October 2000, and the court in two television commercials aired Lupin Labs and Alkem Labs aregranted a preliminary injunction to in 1995. entering this segment. The herbalRanbaxy from marketing its generic (Copyright World, March 2004) medicine market is primarilyversion. In 2001, however, Ranbaxy dominated by Himalaya, Dabur,commercially launched its product • The British Phonographic Industry (BPI) has agreed an out Charak Pharmaceuticals and a largeafter the United States Court of of court settlement with another number of smaller regionalAppeals vacated the preliminaryinjunction. After a full trial, the internet retailer Play.com. BPI companies. launched legal proceedings latedistrict court determined that (Business Standard, 29 March, 04) last year after it discovered thatRanbaxy’s product does not infringeGlazoSmithKlines’ patents and the online retailer was sourcing n The controversy over the song products from outside Europe to Noor-ala-noor of M.F. Hussain’sRanbaxy is not required to pay any sell in the UK. The products haddamages. latest film Meenaxi-a Tale of Three been cleared for sale outside Europe, (The Telegraph, 9 April,2004) but by selling them in the UK, the Cities has boosted the pirated CD BPI argued that Play.com. was market with the demand going beyond• Japanese technology giantFijitsu Ltd has filed a lawsuit against guilty of parallel importing. Play.com the expectations of pirated CDSouth Korea’s Samsung SPI Co, has agreed that in future it will only producers. Pirated versions ofalleging patent infringement on basic sell CDs purchased in Europe. Meenaxi are supposed to be doingtechnologies for plasma display (Copyright World, March 2004) great business in Chandni Chowkpanels. In a lawsuit filed in Tokyo of Kolkata.against Samsung’s Japanese unit • The SCO group has filed a suit against AutoZone for alleged (The Statesman, 23 April, 04)marketing panels manufactured bySamsung SDI, Fijitsu was seeking violation of copyright infringement, in the US district court in Nevada. n The Indian Institute of Chemicala provisional injunction against the SCO alleged that AutoZone violated Technology (IICT) has filed 62 patentsimport and sale of these products SCO’s UNIX copyrights by running during the financial year 2003-04in Japan. In a lawsuit filed in Californiaagainst Samsung SDI, and US import versions of the Linux operating system of which 44 are overseas patents. that contain code, structure,and sales unit Samsung Electronics (Business line, 5 April, 04)America Inc, Fijitsu was seeking an sequence and/or organization frominjunction against import and sale of SCO’s proprietary UNIX System V n The Enforcement Branch (EB) code. It is seeking injunctive relief of Kolkata police seized more thanthose products as well as damagesfor patent infringement. In the suit to stop further use of copying of one lakh fake school textbooks offiled in the United States, Fijitsu the software and damages. the West Bengal Board of Secondaryclaims Samsung SDI infringed 10 (Copyright World, March 2004) Education, worth over Rs.30 lakh.patents including technology relating • Fabian Toader claims to have The forged textbooks differed fromto the displays’ colours and the written the computer code in 2000 the originals in paper quality, coverJapanese suit is related to technology while working as a free lancer for page color and lack of corrigenda.to make panels brighter. Kazaa and is seeking $25 million(The Economic Times, 8 April, 04) in compensation from Sherman (The Telegraph, 30 March, 04) Contd on...16 Contd on...10 Visit us at www.indianpatents.org.in 9
  10. 10. Patents for Opposition Contd from...9The following patent applications have been accepted by the Patent Domestic News .............Office and published in the Gazette of India. These can now be opposed n National Council of Educationalby filing opposition applications within a period of four months from the Research and Training (NCERT)dates given. Six digit numbers allotted after acceptance by the Patent has taken action to tackle itsOffice are given before the applicant names and patent application textbook piracy. The books willnumbers given in brackets. Names of the branches of the Patent office now find an inclusion of a specialare denoted in the application number, e.g. ‘Bom’ for Bombay branch. water mark of the NCERT logo onAn opposition application should be submitted at the appropriate office each page. NCERT sells close towhere the concerned application was originally filed. six crore books each year. (The Tribune, 21 April, 04)PATENT APPLICANTS INVENTIONA. March 6, 2004 n A study by the US based National A process for preparation of a Bureau of Economic Research192177. Defence Research AndDevelopment Organisation Ministry Of radioprotective herbal formulation from (NBER), a private non-profit researchDefence Government Of India New Delhi podophyllum hexandrum organization, suggests a significant(253/Del/01) price rise of patented drugs post-192178. Ranbaxy Laboratories Ltd, New Process for the preparation of amorphous 2005. The prices of cheaper off-Delhi (830/Del/01) form of torasemide patent drugs in the same class192179. Ranbaxy Laboratories Ltd, New Process for the purification of cilastatin are also suspected to increase.Delhi (879/Del/01) The study cites the example of192180. Ranbaxy Laboratories Ltd, New An improved process for preparation ofDelhi (1002/Del/01) metformin extended release tablets ciprofloxacin where 200-750% price inflation is predicted.B. March 13, 2004192181. Medtronic Inc, USA A packaging apparatus (The Economic Times, 20 April, 04)(1116/Del/95) Switch having a bride member n Pirated VCDs have been seized192182. TRW Automotive ElectronicsComponents Gmbh Co Kg, Germany for recently released Hindi block(1653/Del/95) busters, porn movies and Tamil192183. Sulzer Chemtech Ag, Switzerland Liquid distributor for columns films by Mumbai, Delhi and Chennai(1656/Del/95) police.192184. Shell Internationale Research A process for preparing 1 3 alkanediolsMaatschappij B V, The Netherlands (New Indian Express, 9 April, 04)(1730/Del/95) n Nicholas Piramal India’s request192185. Becton Dickinson And Company Device for adjusting the length of a1 Becton Drive Frnklin Lakes New Jersey combined spinal epidural needle and method for grant of exclusive marketing07417 1880 USA (1759/Del/95) thereof rights (EMR) to Aablaquin has been192186. The Gillette Company, USA Razor handle questioned as it has not received(1842/Del/95) the approval of Drug Controller192187. Usinor, Germany (1890/Del/95) A device for shaping thin metal products General of India. Aablaquin, an and a method for continuously determining anti-malaria drug, is a major R&D the gap between two rolls product of CSIR which has an192188. Ranbaxy Laboratories Ltd, New Process for the preparation of a exclusive agreement with NicholasDelhi (596/Del/2000) bioavailable dosage form of isotretinoin Piramal for marketing the drug192189. Showa Denko K K, Japan A process for fluorinating a halogenated(208/Del/02) hydrocarbon Nicholas Piramal is still to answer the Controller’s directive pertaining192190. CSIR, Delhi (233/Del/02) A process for the preparation of clarified papaya juice concentrate to the novelty aspect of Aablaquin. (The Economic Times, 17 April, 04)192191. Autonomous Technologies A laser beam delivery and trackingCorporation, USA (625/Del/95) apparatus Contd on...11 Visit us at www.indianpatents.org.in10
  11. 11. 192192. Subroto Ghosh, New Delhi An abrasive wheel Contd from...10(1085/Del/95) Domestic News .............192193. Standipack Private Limited, New A pouch for packaging of mineral oilsDelhi (1086/Del/95) such as kerosene oil n The Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and192194. The Chief Controller Research A process for the preparation of readyDevelopment Ministry Of Defence to use engine coolants Industry’s (FICCI) body to fightGovernment Of India New Delhi piracy and counterfeiting, NIPAC(1296/Del/95) (National Initiative Against Piracy192195. Sbl Limited, India Leak proof insert and Counterfeiting) has joined hands(1558/Del/95) with the US Chamber of Commerce.192196. Filter Werk Mann Hummel Gmbh, A fluid filter cartridge FICCI and the US Chamber ofGermany (1705/Del/95) Commerce will share analyses of192197. EVC Technology Ag, Switzerland A method of producing 1 2 dichloroethane(1819/Del/95) edc by oxychlorination of ethylene legislation, regulations and other192198. E Khashoggi Industries Llc, USA A method for manufacturing an article measures taken or proposed to(1823/Del/95) having a fibre reinforced starch bound combat piracy and counterfeiting cellular matrix in each country. They have also192199. Totem Co Ltd, Russia Apparatus for charging shaft furnaces agreed to share critical and relevant(1862/Del/95) information, and organize joint public192200. The Gillette Company, USA A skin engaging device for use in a wet education programmes. It has also(1986/Del/95) shaving system been proposed that a joint conference192201. Ausimont S P A, Italy A process for obtaining fluoroelastomers(1825/Cal/96) having improved thermal resistance at with representatives of industry, high temperature law enforcement, the courts and192202. Showa Denko K K, Japan Process for producing flat heat exchange national and state legislatures be(2248/Cal/96) tubes organized.192203. Siemens Aktiengesellschaft, Protection assembly for distribution frameGermany (541/Cal/97) in a telecommunication system (Financial Express, 26 April, 04)192204. Navin Prakash Malhotra, W est Razor blade assemblyBengal (651/Cal/97) International News192205. Aluminium Pechiney, France A process for the production of alumina(1096/Cal/97) by electrolysis n There is a proposal in US for all copyrighted material to carry a192206. Engelhard Corporation, USA An improved process for preparing an(1286/Cal/97) azo pigment Federal Bureau of Investigation “Anti-192207. Siemens Aktiengesellschaft, Portable data transmission device for Piracy” seal and a warning textGermany (1297/Cal/97) contact fre transmission of electrical signal informing that copyright infringement or data to a read write station is “a serious crime with serious192208. York International Corporation, A refrigerant recovery system and a consequences”. The FBI warningUSA (585/Cal/98) method for recovering refrigerant in a refrigeration system on music [films, softwares etc] is intended to make the consumers192209. Matsushita Electric Industrial Co An image predictive decoding methodLtd, Japan (596/Cal/98) learn the do’s and donts of copying192210. Ethicon Inc, USA (1030/Cal/98) A method for producing a sterilized article and uploading to the internet.C. March 20, 2004 (Copyright World, March 2004)192211. LG Electronics Inc, Republic Of Packaging holder device for positioning n Radio broadcaster GWR in UKKorea (2020/Cal/96) and protecting a glass tray and rotating ring within a cavity of a microwave oven is launching a service called “Hear192212. Seb S A, France (2196/Cal/96) A lid with knob it, Buy it, Burn it” wherein the listeners can purchase the tracks192213. Siemens Aktiengesellschaft, Bobbin store for textile fibre productionGermany (629/Cal/97) plants played in the radio. Users will need192214. Fujitsu General Ltd, Japan An air conditioner and control method to tune in to their local GWR station(779/Cal/97) for the same Contd on...12 Visit us at www.indianpatents.org.in 11
  12. 12. 192215. Eaton Corp, USA (905/Cal/97) A shifting system for a transmission Contd from...11192216. Cytec Technology Corp, USA A collector composition for flotation of International News ......(1049/Cal/97) active sphalerite via a digital set or the internet and192217. Commscope Inc, USA Coaxial cable and method of making same register for the service. They will(1755/Cal/97) A process for producing baintic rail steel then be able to download a CD192218. Steel Authority Of India Ltd, New of improved quality quality copy of the track by clickingDelhi (2337/Cal/97) a buy button. The music can be Antitheft apparatus for motorcycle192219. Yamaha Hatsudoki Kabushiki saved to a computer hard drive,Kaisha, Shingai (1846/Cal/98) Process for preparing a pharmaceutical burned onto a CD or transferred to192220. American Home Products Corp, composition a MP3 player.USA (419/Cal/01) Digital transmission system having a transmitter and a receiver for transmitting (Copyright World, March 2004)192221. Philips Electronics Nv, TheNetherlands (217/Cal/95) a wide band digital auto signal n The Japanese Patent Office Digital transmission system having a has made changes in its fee192222. Philips Electronics Nv, The transmitter and a receiver for transmittingNetherlands (218/Cal/95) a wide band digital audio signal structure resulting in an overall reduction of 20%. Though the An apparatus and a process for producing192223. E I Du Pont De Nemours & Co, ethylene dichloride cost for requesting anUSA (2172/Cal/96) Process for smelting reduction of examination is doubled, the cost192224. Kawasaki Steel Corp, Japan chromium ore of maintaining the application(291/Cal/97) for the first few years has been An evaporator of a refrigerator192225. Daewoo Electronics Corp, Korea dropped upto 80%. The changes(615/Cal/97) Battery separator will apply to any patent filed192226. Amtek Research In International after 1 April 2004.Llc, USA (770/Cal/97) Toothbrush with a replaceable brush (Patent World, February 2004)192227. Coronet Werke Gmbh, Germany section(1179/Cal/97) n The WIPO-PCT reforms have192228. Vacuumschmelze Gmbh, Germany Method and apparatus for the production come into effect from 1 January(1500/Cal/97) of an inductive component 2004. The international filing fee192229. Eaton Corp, USA (1051/Cal/97) An improved rotary fluid pressure device does not have a designation192230. Emami Ltd, Calcutta (87/Cal/01) Process for preparing cream for enhancing component as all countries are complexion designated for all types of protection.192231. International Business Machines A thin film low profile write head The PCT will also offer an enhancedCorp, USA (718/Mas/95) search and examination system192232. Switched Reluctance Drives Ltd, A controller for an electric machine to check compliance with mainEngland (782/Mas/95) patentibility criteria.192233. Abb Schweiz Holding Ag, A method of producing a varistor havingSwitzerland (804/Mas/95) a mixture of a mixed metal oxide powder (Patent World, February 2004) and zno powder192234. Inmarsat Ltd, England Apparatus for use in a satellite n Spain jurisdiction has begun(894/Mas/95) communications earth station using tdma accepting electronic patent filings channels via epoline. Finland and France192235. Mitsubishi Jukogyo Babushiki A wet flue gas desulfurization process are already using the systemKaisha, Japan (969/Mas/95) and an apparatus thereof and Germany and the United192236. Mobile Oil Corp, USA A process for the production of low Kingdom are also joining soon.(1063/Mas/95) sulfur containing gasoline of high octane number Epoline is making good progress192237. Institut Francais Du Petrole, since 1998 when the electronicFrance (1071/Mas/97) A catalyst composition for converting ethylene to light alpha olefins filing system first took shape.192238. Sms Schloemann SiemagAktiengesellschaft Eduard Schloemann An apparatus for heat treatment of steel (Patent World, February 2004) wire Contd on...13 Visit us at www.indianpatents.org.in12
  13. 13. Strasse, Republic Of Germany (1273/Mas/ An adhesive sheet material suitable for Contd from...1295) use on wet surfaces International News ......192239. Minnesota Mining AndManufacturing Co, USA (1275/Mas/95) A polymer mixture n The WIPO details on international patents filed via PCT for the year192240. Dow Global Technologies Inc, A device for measuring the density ofMichigan (1305/Mas/95) liquefied petroleum gases 2003 showed 110,000 applications192241. Lpg Equipment Research Centre, A transportable storage stable peroxide with 35% being accounted by theBangalore (710/Mas/95) composition US alone. The companies that filed192242. Akzo Nobel Nv Velperweg, The A process for separating undesired the most patent applications cameNetherlands (940/Mas/95) components from a butyne diol solution from Germany (Siemens, Bosch,192243. S K Corp, Republic Of Korea An extrusion die assembly Infineon and BASF), Japan(1039/Mas/95) (Matsushita and Sony) and the US192244. Societe Des Produits Nestle, A pre fabricated double skin panel (3M and Intel)Switzerland (1203/Mas/95)192245. Corus Uk Ltd, England Glass gob shearing apparatus (Patent World, March 2004)(1318/Mas/95) n Handy Lab Inc, a US company,192246. Owens Brockwayglass A coffee making machineContainer Inc, USA (1320/Mas/ has developed a prototype for a95) Width stretching unit device to confirm the presence of192247. Tribhuvansimh Amritlal Rathode, infection in fluid samples within 45Chennai (1326/Mas/95) minutes of testing. The device called A process for the polymerization of192248. Kusters Zittauer Maschinenfabrik ethylene with propylene lab-on-a-chip is a use and throwGmbh,Germany (1346/Mas/95) A slide fastner slider chip and its IPR remains with Handy192249. Enichem Elastomeri Srl, Italy(1448/Mas/95) Lab in the US. The company has already launched the group B192250. Ykk Corp, Japan (1459/Mas/ A process for converting a95) hydrocarbonaceous feedstock into lower Streptococci test used for screening boiling materials all pregnant women at 35 to 37D. March 27, 2004 weeks in America. A method of obtaining a cellulosic textile192251. Shell International Research, The fabric with reduced tendency to pillingNetherlands (1562/Mas/95) formation (Business Line, 21 April, 04) A process for manufacturing filament n The International Treaty on Plant192252. Novozy Mes A S A Danish Joint yarns for technical applications by spinning Genetic Resource for Food andStock Co, Denmark (1597/Mas/95) a polymer and a polyester filament yarn made thereby Agriculture will become a law from A process for the selective high efficiency June 29 since already 48 countries192253. A Cordis Industrial Fibers BV,The Netherlands (1706/Mas/95) hydrogenation of an aromatic hydrocarbon (including India) have ratified it. The cut US and 47 other nations have signed A device for determining the instantaneous the treaty but not ratified it. The192254. Institut Francais Du Petrole travel speed of documentsAvenue De Bois Preau, France treaty is to ensure equitable(78/Mas/96) A process for manufacturing strontium distribution of genetic resources carbonate of above 99 percentage purity192255. Ascom Monetel S A Rue Claude and to share the benefits with theChappe, France (362/Mas/96) A novel method for preparation of ethnic conservators and indigenous192256. Travancore Chemical crystalline polymorph form ii of sertraline breeders. It will facilitate scientistsManufacturing Co Ltd, Tamil Nadu hydrochloride to have systematic access to genetic(1393/Mas/96) A novel recrystallization process for the resources for breeding and research.192257. Dr Reddy S Laboratories Ltd, preparation of form v of sertraline hydrochloride It also provides for sharing the profitsHyderabad (765/Mas/00) An improved process for conversion of arising out of the use, including192258. Dr Reddy S Laboratories Ltd, trans n methyl 4 3 4 dichlorophenyl 1 2 commercialization of new varietiesHyderabad (768/Mas/00) 3 4 tetrahydro 1 naphthaleneamine to its even by the private sector. cis n methyl 4 3 4 dichlorophenyl 1 2 3 4 tetrahydro 1 naphthaleneamine an (The Financial Express, 25 April, 04) intermediate of sertraline hydrochloride Contd on...14 Visit us at www.indianpatents.org.in 13
  14. 14. An exothermic heterogenous catalytic Contd from...13192259. Dr Reddy S Laboratories Ltd, synthesis reactors International News ......Hyderabad (819/Mas/00) A process for producing a hydrowax n The plagiarism detection192260. Methanol Casale S A, Switzerland(815/Mas/95) softwares are becoming increas- ingly popular along with internet’s192261. Shell International Research A method of producing a catalyst forMaatschappij B V, The Netherlands copy-enabling power in order to reforming or aromatization(791/Mas/95) restrict white-collared copy-cats. A rotating catalytic cleaning device for192262. Chevron Philips Chemical Co, gaseous effluents having polluting This technology makes a digitalUSA (803/Mas/95) substances fingerprint of an entire document192263. Institut Francais Du Petrole, France A depilatory strip and compares against material onand Bourcier Jacques, France the internet and other sources to(1710/Mas/95) An apparatus for treating particulate check and ensure originality.192264. Reckitt Colman France, France material with gaseous medium Plagiarism-detection providers(33/Mas/96) A method of producing a wear and rolling include iParadigm LLC, Glatt192265. G Prem Sagar, Pandiaraj Corsley contact fatigue resistant carbide free Plagiarism Services and MyDropBoxKotagiri, The Nilgris (82/Mas/96) bainitic steel rail LLC. The clients of this software192266. Corus Uk Ltd, England Method and apparatus for producing a include companies that produce(91/Mas/96) tubular container with closure means instruction or training material, An apparatus forcontinuously annealing attorneys searching for copyright192267. Plastech Aps, Denmark amorphous alloy coreswith closed(186/Mas/96) violations and military agencies magnetic path that check officers’ applications192268. Vijai Electricals Ltd, Hyderabad A method of production of a polyvinyl(503/Mas/96) ether compound for promotions. A process for preparing 5 chloro 1 4 (Deccan Chronicle, 7 April, 04)192269. Idemitsu Kosan Co Ltd, Tokyo fluorophenyl 3 1 2 3 6 tetrahydropyridin(1319/Mas/97) 4 yl indole n The efforts by a group of developing192270. H Lundbeck A S, Denmark countries led by India and Brazil to An improved inflatable bladder thereof(776/Mas/00) resolve the potential conflict between the TRIPS192271. Henry K Obermeyer, USA and Connection element for a diversity reception Agreement and the Convention onRobert D Eckman, USA (1111/Cal/96) antenna Biological Diversity (CBD) by A transducer192272. Saint Gobain Vitrage, France bringing amendments to the TRIPS hit(1640/Cal/96) a major roadblock at the TRIPS Council Apparatus for determining a high voltage192273. Noise Cancellation Technologies required for programming and or erasure meet last month. The US and JapanInc, USA (1868/Cal/96) in a programmable and erasable read contended that CBD only semiconductor memory should not be enforced by patent law192274. Siemens Aktiengesellschaft,Germany (1950/Cal/96) Receiver for receiving a time domain and the discussions in this multiplex downlink signal and regard should take place in WIPO. communication system and method for broadcasting of program According to the developing192275. Worldspace Inc, USA countries there is a potential disharmony(2094/Cal/96) A magnetic resonance imaging mri scanner subassembly between the CBD which recognises the members’ sovereign rights over A method of preparing 3 alkoxyphenyl192276. General Electric Company, USA magnesium chlorides their biological resources namely plants,(1265/Cal/97) animals and microorganisms and the A refrigerator in which air curtains are192277. Grunenthal Gmbh, Germany formed at the cooling compartments TRIPS Agreement which contains no(247/Cal/97) provisions preventing biopiracy acts. Apparatus for the biological purification192278. Daewoo Electronics Corp, Seoul of waster water (The Economic Times, 11 April, 04)Korea (1057/Cal/97) A process for preparing extra shine shampoo Contd on...15 Visit us at www.indianpatents.org.in14