Artificial Intelligence Course- Introduction


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  • Intelligence is what we use when we don’t know what to do.People can recognize intelligence in other people and animals.from "Mainstream Science on Intelligence" (1994), an editorial statement by fifty-two researchers: A very general mental capability that, among other things, involves the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly (conceptually), comprehend complex ideas, learn quickly and learn from experience. (Gottfredson, L.S., 1997). from "Intelligence: Knowns and Unknowns" (1995), a report published by the Board of Scientific Affairs of the American Psychological Association: Individuals differ from one another in their ability to understand complex ideas, to adapt effectively to the environment, to learn from experience, to engage in various forms of reasoning, to overcome obstacles by taking thought. (Neisser, 1997) and (Perloff, 1996)
  • Intelligence requires an ability toPerform complex tasksRecognize complex patternsSolve unseen problemsLearn from experienceLearn from instructionUse Natural Language: English , French, Dutch, etc.Be aware of self (consciousness)Use toolsAbility to interact with the real worldto perceive, understand, and acte.g., speech recognition and understanding and synthesise.g., image understandinge.g., ability to take actions, have an effectReasoning and Planningmodeling the external world, given inputsolving new problems, planning, and making decisionsability to deal with unexpected problems, uncertaintiesLearning and Adaptationwe are continuously learning and adaptingour internal models are always being “updated”e.g., a baby learning to categorize and recognize animals
  • Artificial Intelligence is a branch of Science which deals with helping machines in a human-like fashion. In short it can be described as:Simple things turn out to be the hardest to automate: *Recognizing a face.*Navigating a busy street.*Understanding what someone says
  • The important aspects of human intelligence seem to following the use of intuition, common sense, judgment, creativity, goal directedness, plausible reasoning, knowledge and beliefs.Meaning of intelligence is not human brain’s information processing ability but the ability of humans to demonstrate their intelligence by communicating effectively.
  • Artificial Intelligence Course- Introduction

    1. 1. Air University, Multan Campus A Faderally Charted Public Sector University Introduction Course: Artifical Intelligence Tutor: Dr. Muhammad Sanaullah
    2. 2. What is Intelligence? 2
    3. 3. What is Intelligence?  Intelligence is an umbrella term used to describe a property of the mind that encompasses many related abilities, such as the capacities to        reason plan solve problems think abstractly comprehend ideas use language learn.  Intelligence may be judged by       3 creativity personality character knowledge wisdom skills
    4. 4. Features of Intelligence Intelligence is the ability to learn about, learn from, understand, and interact with the environment. It may encompassed of the following specific features:         4 Adaptability to a new environment or to changes in the current environment Capacity for knowledge and the ability to acquire it Capacity for reason and abstract thought Ability to comprehend relationships Ability to evaluate and judge Capacity for original and productive thought
    5. 5. Intelligence of Computer According to the British computer scientist Alan Turing's test in (1950):   “a computer would deserves to be called intelligent if it could deceive a human into believing that it was human.” The users remain unaware of computer existence and the system can automatically performed the activities according to the prescribed specifications.  5
    6. 6. What is Artificial Intelligence (AI)?  “A branch of a computer science which studies the development of software and hardware which simulates human intelligence” (Dr. Ghassan Issa)  “AI is the study of how to make computer do things at which, at the moment, people are better” (Rich and Knight) 6
    7. 7. What is Artificial Intelligence (AI)?  “AI is study of idea that enable computers to be intelligent” (Patrick H. Winston)  Thus, AI is the study of programmed systems that can simulate, to some extent, human activities such as perceiving, thinking, learning and acting. 7
    8. 8. Academic Disciplines relevant to AI Disciplines Methods Philosophy Logic, methods of reasoning, mind as physical system, foundations of learning, language, rationality. Mathematics Formal representation and proof, algorithms, computation, (un)decidability, (in)tractability Probability/Statistics modeling uncertainty, learning from data Economics utility, decision theory, rational economic agents Neuroscience neurons as information processing units. Psychology/ Cognitive how do people behave, perceive, process cognitive Science information, represent knowledge. Computer Engineering building fast computers Control theory design systems that maximize an objective function over time Linguistics knowledge representation, grammars 8
    9. 9. Human Intelligence VS Artificial Intelligence 9
    10. 10. Human Intelligence VS Artificial Intelligence Pros Human Intelligence    Intuition, Common sense, Judgement, Creativity, Beliefs etc The ability to demonstrate their intelligence by communicating effectively Plausible Reasoning and Critical thinking 10 Artificial Intelligence    Ability to simulate human behavior and cognitive processes Capture and preserve human expertise Fast Response. The ability to comprehend large amounts of data quickly.
    11. 11. Human Intelligence VS Artificial Intelligence Cons Human Intelligence • Humans are fallible • They have limited knowledge bases • Information processing of serial nature proceed very slowly in the brain as compared to computers  Humans are unable to retain large amounts of data in memory. 11 Artificial Intelligence     No “common sense” Cannot readily deal with “mixed” knowledge May have high development costs Raise legal and ethical concerns
    12. 12. Human Intelligence VS Conventional Computing We achieve more than we know. We know more than we understand. We understand more than we can explain (Claude Bernard, 19th C French scientific philosopher) 12
    13. 13. Human Intelligence VS Conventional Computing Artificial Intelligence   AI software uses the techniques of search and pattern matching Programmers design AI software to give the computer only the problem, not the steps necessary to solve it 13 Conventional Computing   Conventional computer software follow a logical series of steps to reach a conclusion Computer programmers originally designed software that accomplished tasks by completing algorithms
    14. 14. 14 Design Time Methodology for the Formal Modeling and Verification of Smart Environments