Autism pre


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Autism pre

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  2. 2. Autism--- Developmental Disability• Disabilities attributable to mental or physical impairments• Manifested prior to age 18.• CAUSES: 1. Brain injury or infection before, during or after birth 2. Growth or nutrition problems 3. Abnormalities of chromosomes and genes 4. Premature birth or birth after expected date 5. Diet and Health care 6. Intake of drugs and Alcohol during pregnancy 2
  3. 3. 7. Physical maltreatment8. Neglect9. Sexual abuse• Other sensory disabilities can coexist with developmental disabilities• PERVASIVE DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS PDD:• Characterized as severe and pervasive impairment in several areas of development• Apparent difficulties in reciprocal social interactions, communication skills, and stereotyped behavior, interest and activities. 3
  4. 4. • PDD become evident in the first few years of life• PDD can be observed with some degree of Mental Retardation & sometimes cab observed with other medical conditions like ( chromosomal abnormalities, congenital infections, structural abnormalities of the CNS.• PDD can occasionally may develop schizophrenia.• Autism in the umbrella of PDD.• Autisms term coined by Leo Kenner,• Autism is modern term, previously known as childhood schizophrenia. 4
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  7. 7. • What is Autism?• Definition:• According to the IDEA “Autism” is:• A developmental disability significantly affecting verbal & non-verbal communication,• Social interaction,• Generally evident before age three, or manifested prior to 30 months of age,• Engagement in repetitive activities,• Stereotyped movements,• Resistance to change in environment, n in daily routine,• Unusual response to sensory experiences. 7
  8. 8. • It is a syndrome, not a disorder,• The term autism not apply if child’s behavior primarily affected by emotional disturbance. (U. S deptt. Of Education)• Capacity to relate to people, events & objects.• Disturbances in developmental rates may include: 1. Delays 2. Arrests 3. Regressions in motor, cognitive and social behaviors.• Over or under reactivity auditory, visual, tactile, or olfactory stimulis. 8
  9. 9. • Children with autism never make eye contact• Inside a child with autism is a genius• Children with autism cant show affection• Progress means a child does not have autism 9
  10. 10. • Autism can be outgrown• Bad parenting causes autism• Children with autism cannot learn• Autism is rare• DSM CRITERIA:Traits of Autism• No or little speech• Non-speech vocalizations• Delayed development of speech• Echolalia: speech consisting of literally repeating something heard• Delayed echolalia: repeating something heard at an earlier time• Confusion between the pronouns "I" and "You 10
  11. 11. • Lack of interaction• Lack of eye contact• Lack of response to people• Aggressive behavior due to anxiety and/or frustration• When picked up, offering no "help" ("feels like lifting a sack of --potatoes")• Preoccupation with hands• Flapping hands/ this may be accompanied by jumping up and down with excitement• Spinning• Balancing, e.g. as if standing on a fence• Walking on tiptoes 11
  12. 12. • Extreme dislike of touching certain textures• Dislike of being touched / close contact• Either extremely passive behavior or extremely nervous, active behavior• Extreme dislike of certain foods• Behavior that is aggressive to others• Lack of interest• Desire to follow set patterns of behavior / interaction• Desire to keep objects in a certain physical pattern• Repetitive behavior• Self-injurious behavior• Ritualistic behavior 12
  13. 13. • Prevalence:• In U.S now, one in 88, previously one in 10, 000.• CAUSES:• Chromosomes/ genetics• CNS• PKU• Chemicals• Brain• COMMON Tools to Diagnose:• ABC• CARS• Other Checklists 13
  14. 14. • Programs to Treat:• ABA Method: Focuses on adaptive behavior training techniques or behavior counseling by ADL criteria.• TEACCH (Treatment and Education of Autistic and Related Communication-Handicapped Children):• Developed by psychologist Eric Schopler at the University of North Carolina in the 1960s; it is used by many public school systems today.• A TEACCH classroom is structured, with separate, defined areas for each task, such as individual work, group activities, and play. It relies heavily on visual learning, a strength for many children with autism and PDD. 14
  15. 15. • Son- Rise program:• Son-Rise is a home-based program for children with autism spectrum disorders and other developmental disabilities, which was developed by Barry Neil Kaufman and Samahria Lyte Kaufman for their autistic son• The program is a parent-directed, relationship-based play therapy.• Parents are trained at an institute on how to be aware of their attitudes—a core principle of the therapy—for bonding and relationship building 15
  16. 16. • Sensory Integration Therapy:• Sensory integration therapy is driven by four key principles• 1. The child must be able to successfully meet the challenges that are presented through playful activities (Just Right Challenge);• 2. The child adapts her behavior with new and useful strategies in response to the challenges presented (Adaptive Response)• 3. The child will want to participate because the activities are fun (Active Engagement)• 4. The childs preferences are used to initiate therapeutic experiences within the session (Child Directed). 16
  17. 17. • The aim of sensory integration therapy is to improve the ability of the brain to process sensory information so that the child will function better in his daily activities.• 17
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  19. 19. • Classroom Setup: 19
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  21. 21. • Teaching Methodologies: 21
  22. 22. • Flash Cards: Games & play Social Stories orange a 22
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  24. 24. THANK YOU 24