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Kestrel - Past, Present, Future

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I discuss the history of my Kestrel home computer project, where it currently stands, and where I'm taking it in the future.

I discuss the history of my Kestrel home computer project, where it currently stands, and where I'm taking it in the future.

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  • 1. KESTRELPAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURESamuel A. Falvo II <kc5tja@arrl.net>Fri Jun 14 22:04:28 PDT 2013
  • 2. YESTERDAYS KESTREL
  • 3. KESTREL 1CPU 65816CPU Type 16-bit Accumulator CISCCPU/Bus Speed (MHz) 4 / 4RAM (Min/Nom/Max, B) 32K / 32K / 32KRAM Type AsynchronousROM —Performance 1.00
  • 4. KESTREL 1 (CONT)Video —Audio —Keyboard —Mouse —Other I/O 65C22 VIA providing 1 synchronous serial port,and 16 bi-directional I/O pins.Timers Two 16-bit count-down (65C22)SystemSoftware—
  • 5. KESTREL 1 (CONT)
  • 6. TODAYS KESTREL
  • 7. KESTREL 2CPU S16X4CPU Type 16-bit non-Forth MISCCPU/Bus Speed (MHz) 12.5 / 12.5RAM (Min/Nom/Max, B) 32K / 32K / 52KRAM Type AsynchronousROM —Performance 6.25
  • 8. KESTREL 2 (CONT)Video MGIA (640x200, bitmapped, black and white)Audio —Keyboard KIAMouse —Other I/O GPIA provides 32 bits of fixed, unidirectionalI/O (16 inputs, 16 outputs)Timers —SystemSoftware—
  • 9. KESTREL 2 (CONT)
  • 10. TOMORROWS KESTREL
  • 11. KESTREL 2CPU S16X4BCPU Type 16-bit non-Forth MISCCPU/Bus Speed (MHz) 12.5 / 12.5RAM (Min/Nom/Max, B) 32K / 32K / 52KRAM Type AsynchronousROM —Performance 6.25
  • 12. KESTREL 2 (CONT)Video MGIAAudio 8-voice, 2-channel, SN76489-inspired PSGKeyboard KIAMouse —Other I/O GPIA provides 32 bits of fixed, unidirectionalI/O (16 inputs, 16 outputs)Timers At least two, 32-bit count-down.SystemSoftwarePort of eForth
  • 13. KESTREL 3ACPU SeP64X11ACPU Type 64-bit Forth-Optimized MISCCPU/Bus Speed (MHz) 13.0 / 13.0RAM (Min/Nom/Max, B) 256KB / 8MB / 264RAM Type AsynchronousROM —Performance 6.50
  • 14. KESTREL 3A (CONT)Video CGIA-1Audio 8-voice, 2-channel PSG (Kestrel-2 compatible)8-voice, 2-channel, 16-bit, DMA-fed DACsKeyboard KIAMouse KIAOther I/O GPIA-2 provides 128 bits of fixed, unidirectionalI/O (64 inputs, 64 outputs)Timers At least two, 32-bit count-down.SystemSoftwareExpanded Port of eForth (vocabularies,multitasking, simple GUI)
  • 15. KESTREL 3BCPU SeP64X11BCPU Type 64-bit Forth-Optimized MISCCPU/Bus Speed (MHz) 50.0 / 50.0RAM (Min/Nom/Max, KiB) 256 / 8192 / 264RAM Type SynchronousROM —Performance 25.0
  • 16. KESTREL 3B (CONT)Video CGIA-2Same as CGIA-1 but with support for synchronous RAMAudio 8-voice, 2-channel PSG (Kestrel-2 compatible)8-voice, 2-channel, 16-bit, DMA-fed DACsKeyboard KIAMouse KIAOther I/O GPIA-2 provides 128 bits of fixed, unidirectionalI/O (64 inputs, 64 outputs)Timers At least two, 32-bit count-down.SystemSoftwareExpanded Port of eForth (vocabularies,multitasking, possibly even a GUI)
  • 17. KESTREL 3B (CONT)MMU Segmented with LinearPagingVirtual / Effective / Real AddressSpace264 / 280 / 223Page Size 4096 bytesSLB Refill Method SoftwareTLB Refill Method Software
  • 18. KESTREL 3B (CONT)EXPERIMENTAL SUPPORT IN FORTH(MICROKERNEL IN FORTH?)EXPERIMENTAL PORT OF PLAN 9 FROM BELL LABS
  • 19. CGIA BASIC THEORY OFOPERATION
  • 20. CGIA BASIC THEORY OFOPERATIONSEPARATE VIDEO MEMORY FETCH FROM VIDEO MEMORYINTERPRETATION.
  • 21. CGIA BASIC THEORY OFOPERATIONUSE ALTERNATING LINE BUFFERS TO QUEUE RASTER DATA.
  • 22. CGIA BASIC THEORY OFOPERATIONVIDEO FETCH CAN OCCUR AT MAXIMUM BUS SPEEDINDEPENDENT OF DISPLAY RATE.(AS LONG AS IT COMPLETES BEFORE THE NEXT SCANLINE DISPLAYS, YOURE GOLDEN!)
  • 23. CGIA BASIC THEORY OFOPERATIONCPU AND OTHER PERIPHERALS GET LEFT-OVER BANDWIDTH.
  • 24. CGIA BASIC THEORY OFOPERATIONRAW MEMORY BANDWIDTH DETERMINES HORIZONTALRESOLUTION AND COLOR DEPTH.DESIRED CPU PERFORMANCE AND FRAME RATE LARGELYDETERMINES VERTICAL RESOLUTION.
  • 25. CGIA BASIC THEORY OFOPERATIONHORIZONTAL RESOLUTION25MHZ DOT CLOCK: 320, 640, AND MAYBE 1280.65MHZ DOT CLOCK: 256, 512, AND 1024.
  • 26. CGIA BASIC THEORY OFOPERATIONCOLOR DEPTHS1, 2, 4, 8, AND 16 BITS/PIXEL.
  • 27. CGIA BASIC THEORY OFOPERATIONVERTICAL RESOLUTION25MHZ DOT CLOCK: 200, 240, 400, AND 480 SUPPORTED.65MHZ DOT CLOCK: 192, 384, 768 SUPPORTED.
  • 28. MMU BASIC THEORY OFOPERATION
  • 29. MMU BASIC THEORY OFOPERATIONPROGRAMS RUN INSIDE AN ADDRESS SPACE.
  • 30. MMU BASIC THEORY OFOPERATIONRANGES OF ADDRESSES CORRESPOND TO SEGMENTS.FOR EXAMPLE, $0000-$1FFF MIGHT CORRESPOND TO THE FORTH INTERPRETER.
  • 31. MMU BASIC THEORY OFOPERATIONSEGMENT REGISTERS INFORM THE CPU OF THE PROCESSADDRESS MAP.SEGMENTS MAP INTO AN 80-BIT VIRTUAL ADDRESS SPACE.
  • 32. MMU BASIC THEORY OFOPERATIONEXTRA ADDRESS BITS USED TO TELL ONE PROGRAM FROMANOTHER.PREVENTS NEED TO FLUSH ALL ADDRESS MAPPING CONFIGURATION ON EVERY TASK SWITCH.
  • 33. MMU BASIC THEORY OFOPERATIONTRANSLATION REGISTERS INFORM THE CPU WHERE PAGESOF A SEGMENT RESIDE IN PHYSICAL MEMORY.
  • 34. MMU BASIC THEORY OFOPERATIONSEGMENT AND TRANSLATION REGISTERS ARE MANAGED BYSOFTWARE.PAGE AND SEGMENTATION FAULT HANDLERS MANAGE THESEREGISTERS ON BEHALF OF THE CURRENTLY RUNNINGPROCESS.
  • 35. MMU BASIC THEORY OFOPERATIONDURING A TRAP, CPU MUST PRESERVE NOT JUST PC, BUTALSO INSTRUCTION PACKET AEDDRESS, FAULTING ADDRESS,AND INSTRUCTION SLOT NUMBER.
  • 36. PSG BASIC THEORY OFOPERATION
  • 37. PSG BASIC THEORY OFOPERATION8 VOICES2 CHANNELSSTEREO GOODNESS.
  • 38. PSG BASIC THEORY OFOPERATIONEACH VOICE A COMPLETE COPY OF THE SAME CIRCUIT.
  • 39. PSG BASIC THEORY OFOPERATIONSQUARE WAVE AND PRNG NOISE SYNTHESIS ONLY.I MIGHT INCLUDE PULSE WIDTH CONTROL FOR MOREINTERESTING SOUND EFFECTS.
  • 40. PSG BASIC THEORY OFOPERATIONINSPIRED BY TEXAS INSTRUMENTS SN76489TEXAS INSTRUMENTS TI-99/4ASEGA MASTER SYSTEM... COUNTLESS OTHER USES.
  • 41. GITHUBKC5TJA@ARRL.NEThttp://www.github.com/sam-falvo/kestrel
  • 42. THANK YOU!Q & A

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