Who’s Who in the Zoo?
• Sponsor-The person or group that
provides the financial resources, in cash or
kind for the project.
• Project Manager-The person assigned to
PROJECT SCOPE achieve the project’s objectives.
MANAGEMENT • Stakeholder-Person or organization that is
actively involved in the project, or whose
interests may be positive or negatively
affected by execution or completion of the
• Project Team
What is Scope? How Do We Know the Scope?
• Scope is the sum of the products, • In the beginning, the Sponsor tells us
services, and results to be provided what they want. This can be verbally,
as a project. or through:
– A Project Charter: A formal approval to
begin a project.
– An RFP (Request for Proposals): A
request by a sponsor to companies to
suggest ways to meet the sponsor’s
– A Tender: for a product or service
We Respond With… What’s a Deliverable?
• The Project Scope Statement: a • A deliverable is a product or services
description of the project scope, that must be produced as part of a
including major deliverables, project project.
objectives, assumptions and
constraints. • Often a deliverable is a key part of the
• The Project Scope Statement is part project.
of the Project Management Plan and • The Sponsor usually accepts a
signed-off by the Sponsor and Project deliverable with a sign-off.
Manager as a way of showing their
What’s a Sign-off? How do we Sign-off?
• We sign-off on a written statement or • By the Project Manager and the
document to show that we are Sponsor:
satisfied that the document is – Signing their names to a piece of paper,
• Once a document is signed-off, it is – By clearly agreeing to a document in an
baselined meaning we can rely on it. e-mail.
A baselined document can only be
changed by agreement of both
Which of the Following are
A Sign-off is not…
• Vague • From: Scott • From: Scott
To: Mo To: Mo
• An idea I received your I like your idea for
• A suggestion project plan. It the project plan. I
looks good and think it’s a good
• A verbal agreement meets all our one. You have my
• A hand shake needs. Please support.
• A telephone call proceed with the
• From: Scott • From: Scott • From: Scott
To: Mo To: Mo To: Mo
I received your project I showed your
It was good to plan. It looks good and proposal to my boss
have you discuss meets all our needs and she likes your
your ideas over except that the cost is idea. Good job!
lunch yesterday. 10% too much.
Go ahead and Reduce the cost and
then proceed with the
make it happen.
What is Involved in Managing
• Scope Planning • We need to understand what the
• Scope Definition project will do using:
– Documents supplied by the Sponsor
• Create the WBS • Project Charter
• Scope Verification • Request for Proposals
• Other Documents
• Scope Control
– Interviews with the Sponsor and their
– Planning sessions with the Project Team
and the Sponsor
Scope Definition Defining Project Scope
• We develop a detailed project
• This statement will be the basis for
future project decisions.
• The statement allows us to estimate
the cost and time for the project.
• The statement is incorporated into a
Project Management Plan.
Create the WBS
• The Work Breakdown Structure • A WBS is a deliverable-oriented grouping of
the work involved in a project that defines the
breaks down the major project total scope of the project
deliverables into smaller, more • WBS is a foundation document that provides
manageable components. the basis for planning and managing project
schedules, costs, resources, and changes
• We need a WBS to accurately • Decomposition is subdividing project
estimate project cost and time. deliverables into smaller pieces
• We need a WBS to assign work and • A work package is a task at the lowest level
of the WBS
schedule people and resources.
Three Levels of WBS The WBS as a Chart
The WBS as a List The WBS as a Gantt Chart
1.1 Evaluate current systems
1.2 Define Requirements
1.2.1 Define user requirements
1.2.2 Define content requirements
1.2.3 Define system requirements
1.2.4 Define server owner requirements
1.3 Define specific functionality
1.4 Define risks and risk management approach
1.5 Develop project plan
1.6 Brief Web development team
2.0 Web Site Design
3.0 Web Site Development
4.0 Roll Out
WBS Dictionary Advice for Creating the WBS
• Many WBS tasks are vague and must be • A unit of work should appear at only
explained more so people know what to
do and can estimate how long it will take one place in the WBS
and what it will cost to do the work • You must be able to estimate a work
• A WBS dictionary is a document that
describes detailed information about each package. If you can’t estimate it,
WBS item decompose it more.
• The approved project scope statement
and its WBS and WBS dictionary form the • A work package must be less than a
scope baseline, which is used to week in duration. If it is longer than a
measure performance in meeting project week, decompose it more.
• Project team members should be • Involve users in project scope
involved in developing the WBS to management: Assign key users to
ensure consistency and buy-in
the project team and give them
• Keep the scope realistic: Don’t
make projects so large that they ownership of requirements definition
can’t be completed; break large and scope verification
projects down into a series of • Develop a good project selection
process and insist that sponsors are
from the user organization
• Have users on the project team in • Don’t promise to deliver when you
important roles know you can’t
• Have regular meetings with defined • Co-locate users with developers
agendas, and have users sign off on
key deliverables presented at
• Deliver something to users and
sponsors on a regular basis
What Went Wrong?
• Use off-the-shelf hardware and • A project scope that is too broad
software whenever possible: It is and grandiose can cause severe
nice to use the latest and greatest
technology, but business needs, not problems
technology trends, must take priority – Scope creep and an overemphasis
• Follow good project management on technology for technology’s sake
processes: There are well-defined resulted in the bankruptcy of a large
processes for managing project pharmaceutical firm, Texas-based
scope and others aspects of projects FoxMeyer Drug
– In 2001, McDonald’s fast-food chain • How will we know when we have
initiated a project to create an intranet completed a deliverable?
that would connect its headquarters with
– Verification means we need to test our
all of its restaurants to provide detailed
quality before giving it to the client.
operational information in real time; after
spending $170 million on consultants – If we have met our quality, then we ask
and initial implementation planning, the client to sign-off that we have
McDonald’s realized that the project was completed the deliverable.
too much to handle and terminated it. • When the project is completely done,
we have the Sponsor give us a final