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Who's Who in the Zoo?
 

Who's Who in the Zoo?

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    Who's Who in the Zoo? Who's Who in the Zoo? Presentation Transcript

    • Who’s Who in the Zoo? • Sponsor-The person or group that provides the financial resources, in cash or kind for the project. • Project Manager-The person assigned to PROJECT SCOPE achieve the project’s objectives. MANAGEMENT • Stakeholder-Person or organization that is actively involved in the project, or whose interests may be positive or negatively affected by execution or completion of the project. • Project Team What is Scope? How Do We Know the Scope? • Scope is the sum of the products, • In the beginning, the Sponsor tells us services, and results to be provided what they want. This can be verbally, as a project. or through: – A Project Charter: A formal approval to begin a project. – An RFP (Request for Proposals): A request by a sponsor to companies to suggest ways to meet the sponsor’s need – A Tender: for a product or service
    • We Respond With… What’s a Deliverable? • The Project Scope Statement: a • A deliverable is a product or services description of the project scope, that must be produced as part of a including major deliverables, project project. objectives, assumptions and constraints. • Often a deliverable is a key part of the • The Project Scope Statement is part project. of the Project Management Plan and • The Sponsor usually accepts a signed-off by the Sponsor and Project deliverable with a sign-off. Manager as a way of showing their agreement. What’s a Sign-off? How do we Sign-off? • We sign-off on a written statement or • By the Project Manager and the document to show that we are Sponsor: satisfied that the document is – Signing their names to a piece of paper, accurate. or • Once a document is signed-off, it is – By clearly agreeing to a document in an baselined meaning we can rely on it. e-mail. A baselined document can only be changed by agreement of both parties.
    • Which of the Following are A Sign-off is not… Sign-offs? • Vague • From: Scott • From: Scott To: Mo To: Mo • Confusing • An idea I received your I like your idea for • A suggestion project plan. It the project plan. I looks good and think it’s a good • A verbal agreement meets all our one. You have my • A hand shake needs. Please support. • A telephone call proceed with the work. • From: Scott • From: Scott • From: Scott To: Mo To: Mo To: Mo I received your project I showed your It was good to plan. It looks good and proposal to my boss have you discuss meets all our needs and she likes your your ideas over except that the cost is idea. Good job! lunch yesterday. 10% too much. Go ahead and Reduce the cost and then proceed with the make it happen. plan.
    • What is Involved in Managing Scope Planning Scope? • Scope Planning • We need to understand what the • Scope Definition project will do using: – Documents supplied by the Sponsor • Create the WBS • Project Charter • Scope Verification • Request for Proposals • Other Documents • Scope Control – Interviews with the Sponsor and their employees – Planning sessions with the Project Team and the Sponsor Scope Definition Defining Project Scope • We develop a detailed project scope statement. • This statement will be the basis for future project decisions. • The statement allows us to estimate the cost and time for the project. • The statement is incorporated into a Project Management Plan.
    • Create the WBS • The Work Breakdown Structure • A WBS is a deliverable-oriented grouping of the work involved in a project that defines the breaks down the major project total scope of the project deliverables into smaller, more • WBS is a foundation document that provides manageable components. the basis for planning and managing project schedules, costs, resources, and changes • We need a WBS to accurately • Decomposition is subdividing project estimate project cost and time. deliverables into smaller pieces • We need a WBS to assign work and • A work package is a task at the lowest level of the WBS schedule people and resources. Three Levels of WBS The WBS as a Chart
    • The WBS as a List The WBS as a Gantt Chart 1.0 Concept 1.1 Evaluate current systems 1.2 Define Requirements 1.2.1 Define user requirements 1.2.2 Define content requirements 1.2.3 Define system requirements 1.2.4 Define server owner requirements 1.3 Define specific functionality 1.4 Define risks and risk management approach 1.5 Develop project plan 1.6 Brief Web development team 2.0 Web Site Design 3.0 Web Site Development 4.0 Roll Out 5.0 Support WBS Dictionary Advice for Creating the WBS • Many WBS tasks are vague and must be • A unit of work should appear at only explained more so people know what to do and can estimate how long it will take one place in the WBS and what it will cost to do the work • You must be able to estimate a work • A WBS dictionary is a document that describes detailed information about each package. If you can’t estimate it, WBS item decompose it more. • The approved project scope statement and its WBS and WBS dictionary form the • A work package must be less than a scope baseline, which is used to week in duration. If it is longer than a measure performance in meeting project week, decompose it more. scope goals
    • • Project team members should be • Involve users in project scope involved in developing the WBS to management: Assign key users to ensure consistency and buy-in the project team and give them • Keep the scope realistic: Don’t make projects so large that they ownership of requirements definition can’t be completed; break large and scope verification projects down into a series of • Develop a good project selection smaller ones process and insist that sponsors are from the user organization • Have users on the project team in • Don’t promise to deliver when you important roles know you can’t • Have regular meetings with defined • Co-locate users with developers agendas, and have users sign off on key deliverables presented at meetings • Deliver something to users and sponsors on a regular basis
    • What Went Wrong? • Use off-the-shelf hardware and • A project scope that is too broad software whenever possible: It is and grandiose can cause severe nice to use the latest and greatest technology, but business needs, not problems technology trends, must take priority – Scope creep and an overemphasis • Follow good project management on technology for technology’s sake processes: There are well-defined resulted in the bankruptcy of a large processes for managing project pharmaceutical firm, Texas-based scope and others aspects of projects FoxMeyer Drug Scope Verification – In 2001, McDonald’s fast-food chain • How will we know when we have initiated a project to create an intranet completed a deliverable? that would connect its headquarters with – Verification means we need to test our all of its restaurants to provide detailed quality before giving it to the client. operational information in real time; after spending $170 million on consultants – If we have met our quality, then we ask and initial implementation planning, the client to sign-off that we have McDonald’s realized that the project was completed the deliverable. too much to handle and terminated it. • When the project is completely done, we have the Sponsor give us a final sign-off.
    • Scope Control Summary: Definitions • How can we make sure that changes • Sponsor to the project are within scope? • Stakeholders – People sometimes suggest changes for • Scope/Project Scope other reasons: • Political • Deliverables • Giving work to a friend • Project Scope Statement • Cheaper quality • Sign-offs • Baseline Summary: Tasks in Scope References Management • Scope Planning • Project Management Institute (PMI) • Defining Scope A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (3rd Ed.). • Creating the WBS Newtown Square, PA, ©2004. • Scope Verification ISBN 978-930699-45-8 • Scope Control • Schwalbe, Kathy Information Technology Project Management (4th Ed.). Thomson Course Technology, Canada, ©2006. ISBN 0-619-21528-3