Using Management Information Systems Chapter 2 Information ...

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  • 1. Using MIS 2e Chapter 2 Information Systems for Collaboration David Kroenke Edited by Spiros Velianitis © Pearson Prentice Hall 2009 2-
  • 2. Study Questions
    • Q1 – What is collaboration?
    • Q2 – How can you use collaboration systems to improve team communication?
    • Q3 – How can you use collaboration systems to manage content?
    • Q4 – How can you use collaboration systems to control workflow?
    • Q5 – How do businesses use collaboration systems for decision making?
    • Q6 – How do businesses use collaboration systems for problem solving?
    • Q7 – How do businesses use collaboration systems for project management?
    © Pearson Prentice Hall 2009 2-
  • 3.
    • Q1 – What is collaboration?
    • Q2 – How can you use collaboration systems to improve team communication?
    • Q3 – How can you use collaboration systems to manage content?
    • Q4 – How can you use collaboration systems to control workflow?
    • Q5 – How do businesses use collaboration systems for decision making?
    • Q6 – How do businesses use collaboration systems for problem solving?
    • Q7 – How do businesses use collaboration systems for project management?
    © Pearson Prentice Hall 2009 2-
  • 4. Q1 – What is collaboration?
    • Collaboration occurs when two or more people work together to achieve a common
      • Goal
      • Result
      • Work product
    • Greater than individuals working alone
    • Involves more than coordination and communication alone
    • Feedback and iteration provide an opportunity for team members to:
      • Proceed in a series of steps (iterations) by continuously reviewing and revising each other’s work
      • Learn from each other rather than working in isolation
      • Change the way they work and what they produce
      • Ultimately produce a product that’s greater (and better) than an individual could accomplish working alone
    © Pearson Prentice Hall 2009 2-
  • 5. Q1 – What is collaboration?
    • The three critical collaboration drivers are:
      • Communication
        • The success of the collaboration group depends on the availability of effective communication systems that allow them to share their skills and abilities
      • Content management
        • Users need to manage the content of their work to avoid conflicting with other team members.
      • Workflow control
        • Workflow is a process or procedure to create, edit, use, and dispose of content.
    © Pearson Prentice Hall 2009 2-
  • 6.
    • Q1 – What is collaboration?
    • Q2 – How can you use collaboration systems to improve team communication?
    • Q3 – How can you use collaboration systems to manage content?
    • Q4 – How can you use collaboration systems to control workflow?
    • Q5 – How do businesses use collaboration systems for decision making?
    • Q6 – How do businesses use collaboration systems for problem solving?
    • Q7 – How do businesses use collaboration systems for project management?
    © Pearson Prentice Hall 2009 2-
  • 7. Q2 – How can you use collaboration systems to improve team communication?
    • Synchronous communication
      • Team members meet at the same time, but not necessarily at the same geographic location.
      • It may include conference calls, face-to-face-meetings, or online meetings.
    • Asynchronous communication
      • Team members do not meet at the same time or in the same geographic location.
      • It may include discussion forums or email exchanges.
    © Pearson Prentice Hall 2009 2-
  • 8. Q2 – How can you use collaboration systems to improve team communication?
    • Fig 2-1 Information Technology for Communication
    © Pearson Prentice Hall 2009 2-
  • 9. Q2 – How can you use collaboration systems to improve team communication?
    • Virtual meetings don’t require everyone to be in the same place at the same time.
      • Conference calls – can be difficult to arrange the right time
      • Multiparty text chat – easier to arrange if everyone has mobile texting
      • Videoconferencing – requires everyone to have the proper equipment
      • Email – most familiar but has serious drawbacks in content management
      • Discussion forums – content is more organized than email
      • Team surveys – easy to manage but don’t provide very much interactive discussion
    © Pearson Prentice Hall 2009 2-
  • 10.
    • Q1 – What is collaboration?
    • Q2 – How can you use collaboration systems to improve team communication?
    • Q3 – How can you use collaboration systems to manage content?
    • Q4 – How can you use collaboration systems to control workflow?
    • Q5 – How do businesses use collaboration systems for decision making?
    • Q6 – How do businesses use collaboration systems for problem solving?
    • Q7 – How do businesses use collaboration systems for project management?
    © Pearson Prentice Hall 2009 2-
  • 11. Q3 – How can you use collaboration systems to manage content?
    • Fig 2-5 Information Technology for Sharing Content
    © Pearson Prentice Hall 2009 2-
    • There are three categories for sharing content. Your choice depends on the degree of control your team needs to complete their tasks
  • 12. Q3 – How can you use collaboration systems to manage content?
    • The following methods of sharing are effective but provide no control over content management.
      • Email attachments are the most primitive but have numerous problems.
        • Someone may not receive the email or ignores it.
        • It’s difficult to manage attachments.
      • A shared file server provides a single storage location for all team members.
        • It uses FTP technology to access files.
        • Problems can occur if multiple team members try using the same file at the same time.
    © Pearson Prentice Hall 2009 2-
  • 13. Q3 – How can you use collaboration systems to manage content?
    • These methods of content sharing provide version management
      • Wikis
      • Google Docs and Spreadsheets
      • Microsoft Office Groove
    © Pearson Prentice Hall 2009 2-
  • 14. Q3 – How can you use collaboration systems to manage content?
    • Wikis are shared knowledge bases, repositories of team knowledge, which have or use tracking mechanisms for changes.
    • Most commonly known wiki is wikipedia.com.
    © Pearson Prentice Hall 2009 2-
  • 15. Q3 – How can you use collaboration systems to manage content?
    • Google Docs and Spreadsheets
      • Access it at http://docs.google.com with a Google account (different from a Gmail account).
      • Documents are stored on Google servers making them accessible from anywhere.
      • Team members can track revisions and review change summaries.
      • It’s a free service but you must use Google programs for processing.
    © Pearson Prentice Hall 2009 2-
  • 16. Q3 – How can you use collaboration systems to manage content?
    • Microsoft Office Groove
      • You create a workspace and invite others to join.
      • Document changes are automatically provided to all team members.
      • You can use VoIP rather than separate phone lines for conversations.
      • You can use it asynchronously or synchronously.
      • You can use any computer or server to access workspaces.
      • Each user must purchase a license and install it on each computer (may be exceptions).
    © Pearson Prentice Hall 2009 2-
  • 17. Q3 – How can you use collaboration systems to manage content?
    • Shared content with version control provides more limitations than version management and more control over changes to documents.
      • It uses shared libraries (directories) to store documents.
      • Users are given permissions that limit what they can do with the documents.
      • It requires users to check out documents and check them back in.
      • Microsoft SharePoint is the most popular for business use.
        • It requires a publicly accessible server.
        • It’s difficult to install.
    © Pearson Prentice Hall 2009 2-
  • 18.
    • Q1 – What is collaboration?
    • Q2 – How can you use collaboration systems to improve team communication?
    • Q3 – How can you use collaboration systems to manage content?
    • Q4 – How can you use collaboration systems to control workflow?
    • Q5 – How do businesses use collaboration systems for decision making?
    • Q6 – How do businesses use collaboration systems for problem solving?
    • Q7 – How do businesses use collaboration systems for project management?
    © Pearson Prentice Hall 2009 2-
  • 19. Q4 – How can you use collaboration systems to control workflow?
    • Sequential workflow
      • When documents are reviewed by multiple members of a team one after another
    • Parallel workflow
      • When documents are reviewed by multiple members of a team simultaneously
    • SharePoint site
      • Defines workflows and ensures team members perform required tasks
    © Pearson Prentice Hall 2009 2-
  • 20.
    • Q1 – What is collaboration?
    • Q2 – How can you use collaboration systems to improve team communication?
    • Q3 – How can you use collaboration systems to manage content?
    • Q4 – How can you use collaboration systems to control workflow?
    • Q5 – How do businesses use collaboration systems for decision making?
    • Q6 – How do businesses use collaboration systems for problem solving?
    • Q7 – How do businesses use collaboration systems for project management?
    © Pearson Prentice Hall 2009 2-
  • 21. Information Systems for Decision Making
    • Decision making in organizations is varied and complex.
    • Decisions occur at three levels in organizations (decision levels):
    • Operational decisions concern day-to-day activities.
      • Information systems that support operational decision making are called transaction processing systems (TPS).
    • Managerial decisions concern the allocation and utilization of resources.
      • Information systems that support managerial decision making are called management information systems (MIS).
    • Strategic decision making concern broader-scope organizational issues.
      • Information systems that support strategic decision making are called executive information systems (EIS).
  • 22. Information Systems for Problem Solving
    • Information systems can be used to solve problems.
    • Problem definition
      • A problem is a perceived difference between what is and what is not.
      • A problem is a perception.
      • A good problem definition defines the differences between what is and what ought to be by describing both the current and desired situations.
      • Different problem definitions require the development of different information systems.
      • All personnel in the organization must have a clear understanding of which definition of the problem the information system will address.
  • 23. Decision Making and Problem Solving
    • Problem solving is the most critical activity a business organization undertakes. Problem solving begins with decision making.
    • In the intelligence stage , potential problems and /or opportunities are identified and defined
    • In the design stage , alternative solutions to the problem are developed
    • In the choice stage , a course of action is selected
    • In the implementation stage , action is taken to put the solution into effect
    • In the monitoring stage , the implementation of the solution is evaluated to determine if the anticipated results were achieved and modify the process
  • 24. The Decision Process
    • Two decision processes (method by which a decision is to be made) are structured and unstructured.
    • Structured decision process is one for which there is an understood and accepted method for making the decision.
    • Unstructured process is one for which there is no agreed on decision making process.
    • The terms structured and unstructured refers to the decision process-not the underlying subject.
  • 25. Q5 – How do businesses use collaboration systems for decision making?
    • Fig 2-15 Collaboration Needs for Decision Types
    © Pearson Prentice Hall 2009 2-
  • 26. Optimization, Satisficing, and Heuristic
    • Optimizing is finding the best solution and is usually best fit for problems that can be modeled mathematically with a low degree of estimation risk. For example, find how many products an organization should produce to meet a profit goal.
    • Satisficing is finding a good, but not necessarily the best, solution. Satisficing does not look at all possible solutions, but at those that are likely to give good results. Satisficing is a good decision method because it is sometimes too expensive to analyze every alternative to get the best solution. A satisficing example is when you have to select a location for a new plant.
    • Heuristics are guidelines or procedures that usually find a good solution by using “rules of thumb”.
  • 27. Different Types of Information Systems for Different Types of Decisions
    • Automated information systems are those by which the computer hardware and program components do most of the work.
      • Humans start the programs and use the results.
    • Augmentation information systems are those in which humans do the bulk of the work.
      • These systems augment, support, or supplement the work done by People (email, instant messaging, video-conferencing, etc) to aid in decision making.
  • 28.
    • Q1 – What is collaboration?
    • Q2 – How can you use collaboration systems to improve team communication?
    • Q3 – How can you use collaboration systems to manage content?
    • Q4 – How can you use collaboration systems to control workflow?
    • Q5 – How do businesses use collaboration systems for decision making?
    • Q6 – How do businesses use collaboration systems for problem solving?
    • Q7 – How do businesses use collaboration systems for project management?
    © Pearson Prentice Hall 2009 2-
  • 29. Q6 – How do businesses use collaboration systems for problem solving?
    • Collaboration systems provide team members with feedback and iteration that helps them:
      • Identify numerous solution alternatives rather than just one.
      • Make a choice by allowing them to discuss the pros and cons of each alternative.
      • Broker the selected solution and make necessary adjustments that benefit all parties.
    © Pearson Prentice Hall 2009 2-
  • 30. Q6 – How do businesses use collaboration systems for problem solving?
    • Problem solving and collaboration systems are more effective when they successfully employ the three collaborative drivers:
      • Communication systems that allow a regular and reliable exchange of ideas and information
      • Content-management systems that control document changes and revisions so everyone has the most current version
      • Workflow control is less important because of the nature of the unstructured decision-making process
    © Pearson Prentice Hall 2009 2-
  • 31.
    • Q1 – What is collaboration?
    • Q2 – How can you use collaboration systems to improve team communication?
    • Q3 – How can you use collaboration systems to manage content?
    • Q4 – How can you use collaboration systems to control workflow?
    • Q5 – How do businesses use collaboration systems for decision making?
    • Q6 – How do businesses use collaboration systems for problem solving?
    • Q7 – How do businesses use collaboration systems for project management?
    © Pearson Prentice Hall 2009 2-
  • 32. Q7 – How do businesses use collaboration systems for project management?
    • The three collaborative drivers are important to ensure the success of a project.
      • Communication systems help decision makers communicate with one another and deal with unexpected problems as they occur.
      • Content-management systems control document changes and revisions that occur during the project.
      • Workflow control is important because of task dependencies inherent in projects.
    © Pearson Prentice Hall 2009 2-
  • 33. Q7 – How do businesses use collaboration systems for project management?
    • Fig 2-17 Collaboration Systems for Decision Making, Problem Solving & Project Mgt
    © Pearson Prentice Hall 2009 2-