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Using Management Information Systems Chapter 2 Information ...
 

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    Using Management Information Systems Chapter 2 Information ... Using Management Information Systems Chapter 2 Information ... Presentation Transcript

    • Using MIS 2e Chapter 2 Information Systems for Collaboration David Kroenke Edited by Spiros Velianitis © Pearson Prentice Hall 2009 2-
    • Study Questions
      • Q1 – What is collaboration?
      • Q2 – How can you use collaboration systems to improve team communication?
      • Q3 – How can you use collaboration systems to manage content?
      • Q4 – How can you use collaboration systems to control workflow?
      • Q5 – How do businesses use collaboration systems for decision making?
      • Q6 – How do businesses use collaboration systems for problem solving?
      • Q7 – How do businesses use collaboration systems for project management?
      © Pearson Prentice Hall 2009 2-
      • Q1 – What is collaboration?
      • Q2 – How can you use collaboration systems to improve team communication?
      • Q3 – How can you use collaboration systems to manage content?
      • Q4 – How can you use collaboration systems to control workflow?
      • Q5 – How do businesses use collaboration systems for decision making?
      • Q6 – How do businesses use collaboration systems for problem solving?
      • Q7 – How do businesses use collaboration systems for project management?
      © Pearson Prentice Hall 2009 2-
    • Q1 – What is collaboration?
      • Collaboration occurs when two or more people work together to achieve a common
        • Goal
        • Result
        • Work product
      • Greater than individuals working alone
      • Involves more than coordination and communication alone
      • Feedback and iteration provide an opportunity for team members to:
        • Proceed in a series of steps (iterations) by continuously reviewing and revising each other’s work
        • Learn from each other rather than working in isolation
        • Change the way they work and what they produce
        • Ultimately produce a product that’s greater (and better) than an individual could accomplish working alone
      © Pearson Prentice Hall 2009 2-
    • Q1 – What is collaboration?
      • The three critical collaboration drivers are:
        • Communication
          • The success of the collaboration group depends on the availability of effective communication systems that allow them to share their skills and abilities
        • Content management
          • Users need to manage the content of their work to avoid conflicting with other team members.
        • Workflow control
          • Workflow is a process or procedure to create, edit, use, and dispose of content.
      © Pearson Prentice Hall 2009 2-
      • Q1 – What is collaboration?
      • Q2 – How can you use collaboration systems to improve team communication?
      • Q3 – How can you use collaboration systems to manage content?
      • Q4 – How can you use collaboration systems to control workflow?
      • Q5 – How do businesses use collaboration systems for decision making?
      • Q6 – How do businesses use collaboration systems for problem solving?
      • Q7 – How do businesses use collaboration systems for project management?
      © Pearson Prentice Hall 2009 2-
    • Q2 – How can you use collaboration systems to improve team communication?
      • Synchronous communication
        • Team members meet at the same time, but not necessarily at the same geographic location.
        • It may include conference calls, face-to-face-meetings, or online meetings.
      • Asynchronous communication
        • Team members do not meet at the same time or in the same geographic location.
        • It may include discussion forums or email exchanges.
      © Pearson Prentice Hall 2009 2-
    • Q2 – How can you use collaboration systems to improve team communication?
      • Fig 2-1 Information Technology for Communication
      © Pearson Prentice Hall 2009 2-
    • Q2 – How can you use collaboration systems to improve team communication?
      • Virtual meetings don’t require everyone to be in the same place at the same time.
        • Conference calls – can be difficult to arrange the right time
        • Multiparty text chat – easier to arrange if everyone has mobile texting
        • Videoconferencing – requires everyone to have the proper equipment
        • Email – most familiar but has serious drawbacks in content management
        • Discussion forums – content is more organized than email
        • Team surveys – easy to manage but don’t provide very much interactive discussion
      © Pearson Prentice Hall 2009 2-
      • Q1 – What is collaboration?
      • Q2 – How can you use collaboration systems to improve team communication?
      • Q3 – How can you use collaboration systems to manage content?
      • Q4 – How can you use collaboration systems to control workflow?
      • Q5 – How do businesses use collaboration systems for decision making?
      • Q6 – How do businesses use collaboration systems for problem solving?
      • Q7 – How do businesses use collaboration systems for project management?
      © Pearson Prentice Hall 2009 2-
    • Q3 – How can you use collaboration systems to manage content?
      • Fig 2-5 Information Technology for Sharing Content
      © Pearson Prentice Hall 2009 2-
      • There are three categories for sharing content. Your choice depends on the degree of control your team needs to complete their tasks
    • Q3 – How can you use collaboration systems to manage content?
      • The following methods of sharing are effective but provide no control over content management.
        • Email attachments are the most primitive but have numerous problems.
          • Someone may not receive the email or ignores it.
          • It’s difficult to manage attachments.
        • A shared file server provides a single storage location for all team members.
          • It uses FTP technology to access files.
          • Problems can occur if multiple team members try using the same file at the same time.
      © Pearson Prentice Hall 2009 2-
    • Q3 – How can you use collaboration systems to manage content?
      • These methods of content sharing provide version management
        • Wikis
        • Google Docs and Spreadsheets
        • Microsoft Office Groove
      © Pearson Prentice Hall 2009 2-
    • Q3 – How can you use collaboration systems to manage content?
      • Wikis are shared knowledge bases, repositories of team knowledge, which have or use tracking mechanisms for changes.
      • Most commonly known wiki is wikipedia.com.
      © Pearson Prentice Hall 2009 2-
    • Q3 – How can you use collaboration systems to manage content?
      • Google Docs and Spreadsheets
        • Access it at http://docs.google.com with a Google account (different from a Gmail account).
        • Documents are stored on Google servers making them accessible from anywhere.
        • Team members can track revisions and review change summaries.
        • It’s a free service but you must use Google programs for processing.
      © Pearson Prentice Hall 2009 2-
    • Q3 – How can you use collaboration systems to manage content?
      • Microsoft Office Groove
        • You create a workspace and invite others to join.
        • Document changes are automatically provided to all team members.
        • You can use VoIP rather than separate phone lines for conversations.
        • You can use it asynchronously or synchronously.
        • You can use any computer or server to access workspaces.
        • Each user must purchase a license and install it on each computer (may be exceptions).
      © Pearson Prentice Hall 2009 2-
    • Q3 – How can you use collaboration systems to manage content?
      • Shared content with version control provides more limitations than version management and more control over changes to documents.
        • It uses shared libraries (directories) to store documents.
        • Users are given permissions that limit what they can do with the documents.
        • It requires users to check out documents and check them back in.
        • Microsoft SharePoint is the most popular for business use.
          • It requires a publicly accessible server.
          • It’s difficult to install.
      © Pearson Prentice Hall 2009 2-
      • Q1 – What is collaboration?
      • Q2 – How can you use collaboration systems to improve team communication?
      • Q3 – How can you use collaboration systems to manage content?
      • Q4 – How can you use collaboration systems to control workflow?
      • Q5 – How do businesses use collaboration systems for decision making?
      • Q6 – How do businesses use collaboration systems for problem solving?
      • Q7 – How do businesses use collaboration systems for project management?
      © Pearson Prentice Hall 2009 2-
    • Q4 – How can you use collaboration systems to control workflow?
      • Sequential workflow
        • When documents are reviewed by multiple members of a team one after another
      • Parallel workflow
        • When documents are reviewed by multiple members of a team simultaneously
      • SharePoint site
        • Defines workflows and ensures team members perform required tasks
      © Pearson Prentice Hall 2009 2-
      • Q1 – What is collaboration?
      • Q2 – How can you use collaboration systems to improve team communication?
      • Q3 – How can you use collaboration systems to manage content?
      • Q4 – How can you use collaboration systems to control workflow?
      • Q5 – How do businesses use collaboration systems for decision making?
      • Q6 – How do businesses use collaboration systems for problem solving?
      • Q7 – How do businesses use collaboration systems for project management?
      © Pearson Prentice Hall 2009 2-
    • Information Systems for Decision Making
      • Decision making in organizations is varied and complex.
      • Decisions occur at three levels in organizations (decision levels):
      • Operational decisions concern day-to-day activities.
        • Information systems that support operational decision making are called transaction processing systems (TPS).
      • Managerial decisions concern the allocation and utilization of resources.
        • Information systems that support managerial decision making are called management information systems (MIS).
      • Strategic decision making concern broader-scope organizational issues.
        • Information systems that support strategic decision making are called executive information systems (EIS).
    • Information Systems for Problem Solving
      • Information systems can be used to solve problems.
      • Problem definition
        • A problem is a perceived difference between what is and what is not.
        • A problem is a perception.
        • A good problem definition defines the differences between what is and what ought to be by describing both the current and desired situations.
        • Different problem definitions require the development of different information systems.
        • All personnel in the organization must have a clear understanding of which definition of the problem the information system will address.
    • Decision Making and Problem Solving
      • Problem solving is the most critical activity a business organization undertakes. Problem solving begins with decision making.
      • In the intelligence stage , potential problems and /or opportunities are identified and defined
      • In the design stage , alternative solutions to the problem are developed
      • In the choice stage , a course of action is selected
      • In the implementation stage , action is taken to put the solution into effect
      • In the monitoring stage , the implementation of the solution is evaluated to determine if the anticipated results were achieved and modify the process
    • The Decision Process
      • Two decision processes (method by which a decision is to be made) are structured and unstructured.
      • Structured decision process is one for which there is an understood and accepted method for making the decision.
      • Unstructured process is one for which there is no agreed on decision making process.
      • The terms structured and unstructured refers to the decision process-not the underlying subject.
    • Q5 – How do businesses use collaboration systems for decision making?
      • Fig 2-15 Collaboration Needs for Decision Types
      © Pearson Prentice Hall 2009 2-
    • Optimization, Satisficing, and Heuristic
      • Optimizing is finding the best solution and is usually best fit for problems that can be modeled mathematically with a low degree of estimation risk. For example, find how many products an organization should produce to meet a profit goal.
      • Satisficing is finding a good, but not necessarily the best, solution. Satisficing does not look at all possible solutions, but at those that are likely to give good results. Satisficing is a good decision method because it is sometimes too expensive to analyze every alternative to get the best solution. A satisficing example is when you have to select a location for a new plant.
      • Heuristics are guidelines or procedures that usually find a good solution by using “rules of thumb”.
    • Different Types of Information Systems for Different Types of Decisions
      • Automated information systems are those by which the computer hardware and program components do most of the work.
        • Humans start the programs and use the results.
      • Augmentation information systems are those in which humans do the bulk of the work.
        • These systems augment, support, or supplement the work done by People (email, instant messaging, video-conferencing, etc) to aid in decision making.
      • Q1 – What is collaboration?
      • Q2 – How can you use collaboration systems to improve team communication?
      • Q3 – How can you use collaboration systems to manage content?
      • Q4 – How can you use collaboration systems to control workflow?
      • Q5 – How do businesses use collaboration systems for decision making?
      • Q6 – How do businesses use collaboration systems for problem solving?
      • Q7 – How do businesses use collaboration systems for project management?
      © Pearson Prentice Hall 2009 2-
    • Q6 – How do businesses use collaboration systems for problem solving?
      • Collaboration systems provide team members with feedback and iteration that helps them:
        • Identify numerous solution alternatives rather than just one.
        • Make a choice by allowing them to discuss the pros and cons of each alternative.
        • Broker the selected solution and make necessary adjustments that benefit all parties.
      © Pearson Prentice Hall 2009 2-
    • Q6 – How do businesses use collaboration systems for problem solving?
      • Problem solving and collaboration systems are more effective when they successfully employ the three collaborative drivers:
        • Communication systems that allow a regular and reliable exchange of ideas and information
        • Content-management systems that control document changes and revisions so everyone has the most current version
        • Workflow control is less important because of the nature of the unstructured decision-making process
      © Pearson Prentice Hall 2009 2-
      • Q1 – What is collaboration?
      • Q2 – How can you use collaboration systems to improve team communication?
      • Q3 – How can you use collaboration systems to manage content?
      • Q4 – How can you use collaboration systems to control workflow?
      • Q5 – How do businesses use collaboration systems for decision making?
      • Q6 – How do businesses use collaboration systems for problem solving?
      • Q7 – How do businesses use collaboration systems for project management?
      © Pearson Prentice Hall 2009 2-
    • Q7 – How do businesses use collaboration systems for project management?
      • The three collaborative drivers are important to ensure the success of a project.
        • Communication systems help decision makers communicate with one another and deal with unexpected problems as they occur.
        • Content-management systems control document changes and revisions that occur during the project.
        • Workflow control is important because of task dependencies inherent in projects.
      © Pearson Prentice Hall 2009 2-
    • Q7 – How do businesses use collaboration systems for project management?
      • Fig 2-17 Collaboration Systems for Decision Making, Problem Solving & Project Mgt
      © Pearson Prentice Hall 2009 2-