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Unit Lesson 1: Project Management - NASA Style


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  • 1. UNIT - Lesson 1 Lesson Title: Project Management - NASA Style Lesson Duration: Standards: Students will: • develop an understanding of the core concepts of technology (STL-2) • develop abilities of technological design (AAAS-Standard E) • understand and apply basic concepts of probability. (NCTM-17) Benchmarks: • Management is the process of planning, organizing, and controlling work. (STL-2, EE) • Write clear, step-by-step instructions for conducting investigations, operating something, or following a procedure. (AAAS-65) • Use tables, charts, and graphs in making arguments and claims in oral and written presentations. (AAAS-65Q) • Use simulations to construct empirical probability distributions. (NCTM-17, H) Learning Objectives: Students will: 1. identify, describe, and apply principles of project management used by NASA 2. identify and describe significant ‘historical’ methods employed by NASA to manage APOLLO missions (60s-70s) 3. identify, describe, and apply NASA project planning methods 4. identify, describe, and apply NASA project organization methods 5. identify, describe, and apply NASA project scheduling or controlling methods 6. participate in NASA management roles collaboratively 7. use materials, tools, and equipment safely per NASA safety guidelines 8. communicate information using NASA formats or styles. Student Assessment Tools and/or Methods: Assessment Instrument - Engineering Design - 12 Steps Category Below Target At Target Above Target Defining the Rephrases the Rephrases the Rephrases the Problem problem with limited problem clearly. problem clearly and clarity. precisely. Brainstorming Contributes few or Contributes a Contributes multiple implausible ideas. plausible idea. plausible ideas. Researching and Contributes ideas Contributes one Contributes multiple Generating Ideas but without docu- plausible idea based plausible ideas mented research. on documented based on docu- Produces in- research. Produces mented research. complete sketches. marginally accurate Produces accurate Does not present a pictorial and ortho- pictorial and ortho- concept. graphic sketches of graphic sketches of design concepts. design concepts. 6/3/2010 1
  • 2. Identifying Criteria Does not restate the Restates the criteria Restates the criteria and Specifying criteria clearly and clearly and identifies clearly and precisely Constraints fails to identify several constraints. and identifies many constraints. constraints. Exploring Inadequately Satisfactorily Thoroughly analyzes Possibilities analyzes the pluses analyzes the pluses the pluses and and minuses of a and minuses of a minuses of a variety variety of possible variety of possible of possible solutions. solutions. solutions. Selecting an Selection of solution Selects a promising Selects a promising Approach is not based on solution based on solution based on a consideration of criteria and thorough analysis criteria and constraints. criteria and constraints. constraints with high quality. Developing a Design proposal is Design proposal is Design proposal is Design Proposal inadequate lacking adequate containing accurate and pertinent all pertinent comprehensive. information. elements. Making a Model or Prototype meets the Prototype meets the Prototype meets the Prototype task criteria to a task criteria. task criteria in limited extent. insightful ways. Testing and Testing and Testing and Testing processes Evaluating the evaluation evaluation are innovative. Design Using processes are processes are Specifications inadequate. adequate for refining the problem solution. Refining the Refinement based Refinements made Significant Design on testing and based on testing improvement in the evaluation is not and evaluation design is made evident. results. based on prototype testing and evaluation. Creating or Making Finished solution Finished solution Finished solution It (product) fails to (product) meets (product) exceeds meet specifications. specifications. specifications. Communicating Solution presented Solution presented Solution presented Processes and with limited accurately. concisely with clarity Results accuracy. Some supporting and accuracy Limited supporting evidence on how the .Extensive evidence on how the solution meets the supporting evidence solution meets the task criteria. on how the solution task criteria. meets the task criteria. Comment Comment Comment Comment 6/3/2010 2
  • 3. Rubric for Project Management Category Below Target At Target Above Target Planning Little or no attempt at Effective use of Outstanding examples strategic or operational strategic and of well developed planning. Few, if any operational planning for planning tools for the planning tools were entire project. entire project were used to accomplish Appropriate planning evident and applied in financial, personnel, tools were used to both critical and product performance, accomplish financial, creative ways. All areas product forecasting, personal, product of project management, product life-cycle, or analysis, forecasting, including financial, qualitative or predictions using both personal, product quantitative analysis. qualitative and development and quantitative analysis, forecasting assessment strategies. and predicting using both qualitative and quantitative methods. Organizing There was minimal Effective use of Outstanding attempt to generate an appropriate organiza- organizational structure organizational structure tional structures which was employed through- related to the following addressed all critical out the project. Creative areas: design teams, areas: design teams, examples of organiza- span of control, specific span of control, specific tional tools were responsibilities, special- responsibilities, special- employed to direct all ization of work or tasks, ization of work or tasks, areas: design teams, work arrangements and work arrangements and span of control, specific relationships. relationships. responsibilities, special- Leadership roles were Leadership roles were ization of work or tasks, unclear or not identified clearly defined and work arrangements and appropriately. functioned effectively. relationships. Leadership roles were Exemplary leadership poorly defined or not roles were exhibited. present at all. Controlling Activities, strategies, Activities, strategies, Activities, strategies, and techniques and techniques and techniques reflective of contempo- reflective of contempo- reflective of contempo- rary project control rary project control rary project control were were not evident. There were used effectively used in critical and was little attempt to and appropriately. creative ways. Industry establish industry Industry standard standard practices to standard practices to practices to regulate, regulate, access work regulate, access and access work and and evaluate results to evaluate results for evaluate results to secure maximum securing maximum secure maximum productivity and reduce productivity and reduce productivity and reduce unacceptable perform- unacceptable perform- unacceptable perform- ance were designed ance. There was very ance were designed and used to generate little attempt to and used effectively outstanding perform- establish and use throughout the project. ance data throughout accepted control This included the the project. This techniques for people, collection, analysis and included the collection, process, or product. storing of pertinent analysis and storing of data, compare perform- pertinent data, compare ance against standards, performance against generate detailed standards, generate reports based on detailed reports based measurement tools. on measurement tools. 6/3/2010 3
  • 4. Limits of tolerance were Limits of tolerance were established for people, clearly established for process, and product people, process, and with adequate clarity, product. but lacking some quality in detail and presenta- tion. Comment Comment Comment Comment Rubric for Quality Assurance Category Below Target At Target Above Target Planning Little attempt at Effective identification Outstanding establishing critical and use of critical identification and use of processes and roles to processes and roles to critical processes and ensure quality for all ensure quality for all roles to ensure quality planning phases of the planning phases of the for all planning phases project. Critical areas project. Critical areas of the project. Critical such as quality such as quality areas such as quality standards for people, standards for people, standards for people, process and product process and product process and product were not clear in project were present and clear were present, clear and planning, training to in project planning, included extraordinary ensure quality for training to ensure detail and focus in people, process, and quality for people, project planning, product development, process, and product training to ensure goal setting in all development, goal quality for people, planning documents, setting in all planning process, and product quality councils, documents, quality development, goal reporting timelines with councils, reporting setting in all planning milestones and the use timelines with mile- documents, quality of industry standard stones and the use of councils, reporting techniques such as, but industry standard timelines with mile- not limited to; quality techniques such as, but stones and the use of function deployment, not limited to; quality industry standard criteria trees, needs function deployment, techniques such as, but metrics, milestone criteria trees, needs not limited to; quality schedules, Gantt metrics, milestone function deployment, charts, house of quality schedules, Gantt criteria trees, needs charts. charts, house of quality metrics, milestone charts. Clearly defined schedules, Gantt roles and strategies charts, house of quality were integrated into all charts. Clearly defined planning and presented roles and strategies before project was were integrated into all initiated. planning and presented before project was initiated. Organizing The organization of The organization of The organization of work tasks, assign- work tasks, assign- work tasks, assign- ments, and responsibil- ments, and responsibil- ments, and responsibil- ities was unclear or ities was effectively ities was superbly poorly attempted. There accomplished. There completed. There was was little evidence of was sufficient evidence significant and quality assurance with of quality assurance exemplary evidence of respect to the deploy- with respect to the quality assurance with ment of people to deploy-ment of people respect to the deploy- complete specific tasks to complete specific ment of people to 6/3/2010 4
  • 5. related to product tasks related to product complete specific tasks design and develop- design and develop- related to product ment, production ment, production design and develop- processes, manage- processes, manage- ment, production ment processes and all ment processes and all processes, manage- industry standard industry standard ment processes and all techniques used to techniques used to industry standard ensure structure and ensure structure and techniques used to organization for the organization for the ensure structure and entire project. entire project. organization for the Organization docu- entire project. ments were submitted Organization docu- in a timely fashion with ments were submitted adequate detail. in a timely fashion with outstanding detail and reflected the most contemporary industry practices for ensuring quality in all organiza- tion and structure. Controlling Quality assurance Quality assurance Quality assurance techniques or strategies techniques or strategies techniques or strategies were unclear or simply were effectively were designed and not used to ensure any designed and used to used to in an exemplary appropriate level of ensure appropriate fashion to ensure control with respect to levels of control with significantly high levels people, process or respect to people, of control with respect product. There were process and product. to people, process and very few instances or in There were numerous product. There were some cases no attempt instances to employ numerous creative to employ industry industry standard instances to employ standard practices to practices for controlling industry standard establish standards for tasks, measuring practices for controlling controlling tasks, performance, evalu- tasks, measuring measuring perform- ating performance and performance, evalu- ance, evaluating optimizing productivity ating performance and performance and for people, processes optimizing productivity optimizing productivity and product(s). for people, processes for people, processes Documentation was and product(s). and product(s). clearly developed and Documentation was offered adequate clearly developed and evidence of appropriate offered exemplary control of people, evidence for the control processes and product of people, processes, design and develop- and product design and ment. development. Comment Comment Comment Comment Assessment Instrument - Brief Constructed Response (BCR) - All Assigned Topics Category Below Target At Target Above Target Understanding Response Response Response demonstrates an demonstrates an demonstrates an implied, partial, or understanding of the understanding of the superficial text. complexities of the understanding of the text at a deep level text and/or the of understanding. 6/3/2010 5
  • 6. question. Focus Lacks transitional Addresses the Exceeds the information to show demands of the demands of the the relationship of question. question. the support to the question. Use of Related Uses minimal Uses some Effectively uses Information information from the expressed or implied expressed or implied text to clarify or information from the information from the extend meaning. text to clarify or text to clarify or extend meaning. extend meaning in all statements. Comment Comment Comment Comment Assessment Instrument - Class Seminar for All Scheduled Meetings Category Below Target At Target Above Target Participation Unacceptable Adequate Active level of interaction and participation offering participation, offer- participation with valuable comments ing solid comments numerous inter- at times, with only and ideas but not ruptions or off-topic occasional inter- overbearing, allow- discussions. ruption of others ing others to engage in discussion. Contribution Rarely offers Comments are Comments and appropriate appropriate and on ideas are of high comments and topic, with some value and enable seeks to disrupt the ideas of high value, more intense dis- meeting. enabling good dis- cussion of seminar cussion of seminar topic. topic. Cooperation Exhibited little Appropriate level of High level of courtesy towards courtesy towards courtesy towards others through others enabling others facilitating inappropriate good discussion on engaging and topical comments and seminar topic and discussion on behavior during little disruption selected topics. meeting. observed. Topic Focus Not focused on topic Comments usually Comments are and seeks to disrupt on target and always focused on with inappropriate appropriate, seminar topic, questions and including questions including questions comments through- and topical and discourse with out the meeting. discourse during others during entire entire meeting. meeting. Comment Comment Comment Comment 6/3/2010 6
  • 7. Assessment Instrument - Business Letter - Various Requests Category Below Target At Target Above Target Mechanics Header, salutation, Header, salutation, Header, salutation, and signature and signature and signature in full contain inaccurate accurate. accordance with that information or are specified by accepted incomplete. business format. Author Author or Author identity The author has Identity organization and organization properly identified missing. stated. him/her self and the organization to which he/she belongs. Content Purpose of letter Purpose of letter Purpose of letter is questionable. stated. clearly stated. No direct action Language is direct or information and to the point. No requested. excessive wording present. Grammar One major or No errors. Flawless, with several minor exceptional use of errors present. grammar. Referenced This letter follows This letter follows This letter follows Communication another. . ., which another. . ., which is another letter, phone (if applicable) refers to previous identified by name, call, or e-mail, which contact, but does date, and context of is clearly identified not fully identify previous by name, date, and such. communication. context of previous communication. Comment Comment Comment Comment Assessment Instrument - Extended Constructed Response (ECR) for All Assigned Topics Category Below Target At Target Above Target Context and Context Context appropriate. Context appropriate. Argument inappropriate. Argument Argument Argument satisfactory. satisfactory. unsatisfactory. Clearly stated thesis included. Evidence Evidence is largely Ample and Abundant, relevant missing or appropriate specifics (names, generalized. evidence provided. events, legislation, court decisions, etc.) provided. Includes obscure, but important evidence. Thorough chronology. 6/3/2010 7
  • 8. Analysis Minimal analysis or Organizes argument Well-reasoned cause fallacious reasoning. and uses data to and effect arguments. support conclusions. Fully explained Recognizes conclusions. causation, change, Refers to views of and continuity. others. Historical Many errors. May have a few Virtually error free; Accuracy errors. Mistakes minor mistakes do may slightly hinder not compromise argument, but do not argument. detract from the overall accuracy. Thoroughness Covers question Covers entire Covers all areas of superficially. question, but may be question in approxi- May not complete slightly imbalanced. mate proportions to all tasks. their importance. Presentation Inconsistent Uses clear Uses clear, organization. language. appropriate and Grammatical errors Well organized. precise language. cloud argument to a Contains few Cohesive organiza- major degree. grammatical errors. tion. Very few grammatical errors. Comment Comment Comment Comment Assessment Instrument - Graphic Organizer- All Assigned Topics Category Below Target At Target Above Target Arrangement of Main concept not Main concept easily Main concept easily Concepts clearly identified; identified; most identified; sub- subconcepts don’t subconcepts branch concepts branch consistently branch from main idea. appropriately from from main idea. main idea. Links and Linking Linking lines not Most linking lines Linking lines connect Lines always pointing in connect properly; related terms/point correct direction; most linking words in correct direction; linking words don’t accurately describe linking words clarify relationships the relationship accurately describe between concepts; between concepts; relationship between hyperlinks don’t most hyperlinks concepts; hyperlinks function or fail to effectively used. effectively used. enhance the topic. Graphics Graphics used Graphics used Graphics used inappropriately and appropriately most appropriately; excessively; of the time; most greatly enhance the graphics poorly graphics selected topic and aid in selected and don’t enhance the topic, comprehension; are enhance the topic; are of good quality, clear, crisp and well some graphics are and are situated in situated on the blurry and ill-placed. logical places on the page. page. Content Contains extraneous Reflects most of the Reflects essential 6/3/2010 8
  • 9. information; is not essential information; is logically arranged; information; is logically arranged; contains numerous generally logically concepts succinctly spelling and arranged; concepts presented; no grammatical errors. presented without misspellings or too many excess grammatical errors. words; only one High quality detail misspelling or presented. grammatical error. Text Font too small to Most text is easy to Easy to read/ read easily; more read; uses no more appropriately sized; than four different than four different no more than three fonts used; text fonts; amount of text different fonts; amount is excessive generally fits amount of text is for intended intended audience. appropriate for audience. intended audience; boldface used for emphasis. High quality text through- out document. Design Cluttered design; Design is fairly Clean design; high low in visual appeal; clean, with a few visual appeal; four or requires a lot of exceptions; diagram fewer symbol scrolling to view has visual appeal; shapes; fits page entire diagram; four or fewer symbol without a lot of choice of colors shapes; fits page scrolling; color used lacks visual appeal well; uses color effectively for and impedes effectively most of emphasis. comprehension. time. Knowledge Gained Student demon- Student can Student can strates a lack of accurately answer accurately answer knowledge about the most questions all questions related content and the related to content to content and the processes used to and the processes processes used to create the poster. used to create the create the poster. poster. Comment Comment Comment Comment Assessment Instrument - Group Work - All Group Assignments Category Below Target At Target Above Target Contributions Seldom cooperative. Cooperative. Always willing to Does little work. Works at assign- help and do more. Rarely offers useful ments. Does more than ideas. Usually offers useful required. ideas. Routinely offers useful ideas. Cooperation Rarely listens to, Usually listens to, Always listens to, shares with, or shares with, and shares with, and supports the efforts of supports the efforts of supports the others. 6/3/2010 9
  • 10. Often is not a good others. efforts of others. team member. Does not cause Tries to keep problems in the people working group. together. Focus on the Task Does not focus on the Focuses on the task Almost always task and what needs and what needs to be focused on the to be done. done most of the time. task and what Lets others do the needs to be done. work. Self-directed. Comment Comment Comment Comment Assessment Instrument - Journal (Daily Entries Required) Category Below Target At Target Above Target Organization Journal is sloppy Parts of the journal Journal contains a and/or haphazardly show organization, chronological section organized. however some parts as well as sections for could be enhanced. sketches, reference sources, people, business contacts, etc. Daily Entries Journal is missing Journal has daily Details of many daily entries. entries with information gathered appropriate detail. and/or work accom- plished for each day is entered with high degree of quality and supplemental docu- mentation or verbage. Content Journal entries are Most information is Journal entries are insufficiently descrip- detailed, however sufficiently descriptive tive to completely a few details may be to completely recreate recreate the daily missing. the daily accomplish- accomplishments. ments. Proper Some sources are All information is Has APA approved Citation of missing and other documented and documented citations Journals! sources are sources are correctly of all sources in the Books! incorrectly cited. cited. journal and informa- Videos! tion is documented Websites properly with high quality detail. Drawings Quantity of Sketches are Journal contains and Sketches sketches and drawn explaining the sketches and drawings are topic adequately. drawings that are insufficient to related to the topic explain the topic. and express what will be created. Referencing Note cards have Note cards are Note cards contain Materials incomplete infor- adequately prepared. paraphrased infor- (Note Cards) mation and lack mation from source 6/3/2010 10
  • 11. citations. and cited reference with high level of detail. Phone Missing information Most information Phone conversations Conversation vital for calling back required is complete. are documented for: Abstracts contacts. contact, phone number, information, company, address, date. Business Some contacts are Has all contacts Lists business Contacts missing and with sufficient detail. contacts including information is addresses, phone missing. numbers, e-mails, company, fax numbers, discussion exist exemplary detail. Comment Comment Comment Comment Assessment Instrument - Multimedia Presentation for All Assigned Topics Category Below Target At Target Above Target Content - Content confusing or Most content All content Accuracy contains more than accurate but there is throughout the one factual error. one piece of presentation information that accurate seems inaccurate. No factual errors. Sequencing of No clear plan for the Most information is Information organ- Information organization of infor- organized in a clear, ized in a clear, logical mation. logical way. way. One slide or piece of Easy to anticipate the information out of next element. place. Effectiveness Lacking several key Consistent with Includes all material elements and has driving question. needed to give a inaccuracies. Contains key good understanding Completely elements. of the topic. inconsistent with driving question. Use of Graphics Graphics unattractive A few graphics All graphics attractive and detract from the moderately done but (size and colors) and content of the all support the topic support the topic of presentation. of the presentation. the presentation. Text - Font Choice Difficult to read the Format carefully Formats (color, bold, and Formatting text material. planned to enhance italic) carefully readability. planned to enhance readability and content. Spelling and More than 2 1-2 misspellings, but No misspellings or Grammar grammatical and/or no grammatical grammatical errors. spelling errors. errors. Excellent grammar! 6/3/2010 11
  • 12. Delivery Spoke a little faster Spoke at a good Spoke at a good rate. or slower than rate. Volume Volume excellent for necessary, or too appropriate. setting. quietly or loudly. Good grammar. Good grammar. Used unacceptable Maintained some Maintained eye- grammar. Failed to eye-contact with contact with maintain eye-contact. audience. audience. Relied too much on their notes. Comment Comment Comment Comment Assessment Instrument - Oral Presentation for All Assigned Topics Category Below Target At Target Above Target Organization Audience has Student presents Student presents difficulty following information in logical information in logical, presentation sequence which interesting sequence because student audience can follow. which audience can jumps around. follow. Subject Knowledge Student is Student is at ease Student uncomfortable with with expected demonstrates full information and is answers to all knowledge (more able to answer only questions, but fails than required) by rudimentary to elaborate. answering all class questions. questions with explanations and elaboration. Graphics Student occasionally Student's graphics Student's graphics uses graphics that relate to text and explain and reinforce rarely support text presentation. screen text and and presentation. presentation. Mechanics Presentation has Presentation has no Presentation has no three or more more than one misspellings or misspellings and/or misspelling and/or grammatical errors. grammatical errors. grammatical error. Eye Contact Student occasionally Student maintains Student maintains uses eye contact, eye contact most of eye contact with but still reads most the time but audience, seldom of report. frequently returns to returning to notes. notes. Elocution Student's voice is Student's voice is Student uses a clear low. Student clear. Student voice and correct, incorrectly pronounces most precise pronounces terms. words correctly. pronunciation of Audience members Most audience terms so that all have difficulty members can hear audience members hearing presentation. can hear presentation. presentation. Comment Comment Comment Comment 6/3/2010 12
  • 13. Assessment Instrument - Research Paper for All Assigned Topics Category Below Target At Target Above Target Timeliness The student has The student has The student has submitted the final submitted the final submitted the final version of the version of the version of the research paper one research paper on research paper week late. time. early. Content- The student was The student is The student's paper Whole Paper missing multiple missing no contains all content sections, or sections applicable to sections required sections expected the research project. by the teacher. to be separate were Sections on combined. Introduction, Identifying the Problem, Initial Research, The Proposed Solution, Researching the Solution, Proto- typing, Testing, Evaluating test results and data, and a conclusion are most common. Content - Large quantities of There are minor Each section of the Within Each information are occurrences where paper contains the Section placed in sections information is placed in material appro- inconsistent with a section in which it priate for that the purpose of the does not belong, or section. section. sections do not refer to The sections are other sections where it cross-referenced would make sense to where necessary. do so. No material is misplaced. Excellent content sections. Organization Evidence of Within each section, Within each organization, but material is presented section, the with serious flaws. in a fairly well material presented Decisions discussed organized manner, is very clearly without background but there are some organized. information. items which seem Discussion misplaced. Each progresses along section still follows lines of logic. an outline. Readability is facilitated by crisp organization of thoughts. 6/3/2010 13
  • 14. Language Distractingly frequent Minimal occurrences of Free of spelling, Mechanics occurrences of spelling, punctuation, punctuation, and spelling, punctuation, and grammatical grammatical errors. and grammatical errors. errors. Technical Numerous minor Minor technical The technical Accuracy technical flaws flaws exist in words, content of the exist. Units are units, or calculations, paper is without ignored or misused. but these do not flaw. Exacting care Overall credibility detract from the overall has been given to of the author's points made by the ensure facts, data, proficiency is author. and results are damaged. stated in a technically correct manner. Numerical quantities are given proper units. Calculations are properly docu- mented and executed. References Numerous minor or A few minor errors Referenced some major errors or omissions exist in material is or omissions exist the referencing of annotated in proper in the referencing others' work. AP A or MLA style of others' work. consistently throughout. Works Cited page is in correct format. All items requiring citation are properly cited. Appendices Some appendix Bulky amounts of The paper includes (if appropriate) Information provided, information or Appropriate but it is obviously drawings are included appendices to incomplete. in the main body of the support the text of paper itself, rather than the paper. in the appendix. Appendices are References missing referenced in the or in error. text of the paper. Comment Comment Comment Comment Identify Resource Materials: Printed Materials - • Product Design and Development, Karl Ulrich, McGraw-Hill • Design Concepts for Engineers, Mark Horenstein, Prentice Hall • Fundamentals of Engineering Design, Barry Hyman, Prentice Hall • Engineering Design, Rudolph Eggert, Prentice Hall • Engineering by Design, Gerard Voland, Prentice Hall 6/3/2010 14
  • 15. • Engineering Design Methods, Nigel Cross, John Wiley Publisher • Engineering Management, Challenges in the New Millennium, C.M. Chang, Prentice Hall • Managing Engineering and Technology, Daniel Babcock, Prentice Hall • Design for Sixth Sigma, C. M. Creveling, Prentice Hall • Project Risk Management, Bruce Barkley, McGraw-Hill • Getting Started in Sixth Sigma, Michael Thomsett, John Wiley Publisher • Engineering Robust Designs with Sixth Sigma, John Wang, Prentice Hall Audiovisual Materials - • NASA - 40 Years of Solutions CD/Video, Marshall Space Flight Center, Technology Transfer Office, Huntsville, Alabama 35812 • Introduction to Lean Manufacturing - Six Sigma Print Materials - • Product Design and Development, Karl Ulrich, McGraw-Hill • Design Concepts for Engineers, Mark Horenstein, Prentice Hall • Fundamentals of Engineering Design, Barry Hyman, Prentice Hall • Engineering Design, Rudolph Eggert, Prentice Hall • Engineering by Design, Gerard Voland, Prentice Hall • Engineering Design Methods, Nigel Cross, John Wiley Publisher • Engineering Management, Challenges in the New Millennium, C.M. Chang, Prentice Hall • Managing Engineering and Technology, Daniel Babcock, Prentice Hall • Design for Sixth Sigma, C. M. Creveling, Prentice Hall • Project Risk Management, Bruce Barkley, McGraw-Hill • Getting Started in Sixth Sigma, Michael Thomsett, John Wiley Publisher • Engineering Robust Designs with Sixth Sigma, John Wang, Prentice Hall Audiovisual Materials - Introduction to Lean Manufacturing - Six Sigma Internet Sites - Six Sigma %20Management.html Lean Management 6/3/2010 15
  • 16. Project Management Management.htm Enginee.../index.html APPL’s project Management Development Process The Apollo 15 Flight Journal The Latest from the National Space Society Working on the Moon Why Colonize the Moon First? The ultimate public-private partnership The Space Settlement Initiative Purpose of the Lesson: Enable students to understand and apply the most contemporary NASA project management processes as part of the lunar exploration initiative. Required Knowledge and Skills: Students should be able to graph linear, quadratic and exponential equations and construct or prepare charts and graphs with a variety of data points and other key information. Students should be able to use software applications (Office Suite) to prepare documents and spreadsheets as well as make highly informative, multi- media presentations. Students must be able to conduct a highly effective, efficient, and ethical Internet search. Students must be able to use tools, materials, and 6/3/2010 16
  • 17. equipment safely or after review by instructor. In addition, students should be able to create mechanical drawings using CADD software. Lesson: (5-E Model from Science) Engagement: 1. The instructor should lead a discussion with students on the issue of humans living and working on the lunar surface. Usually, students are very interested in space travel and the many social, environmental, political and economic impacts that have been part of so many congressional and presidential debates as well as national television special productions. It seems everyone is curious about the ‘magic’ that NASA is able to perform with every mission or special project that involves humans safely traveling in space. It is suggested that students be presented with the following question: Should humans be sent to live and work on the lunar surface or other planets? It would be interesting to learn about the various student views on this topic. Charting student responses would be most beneficial and offer a way to review key points. Students should be challenged to state their opinion and offer as much supporting detail as possible to defend their point of view. A focus on social, environmental, economic, and political impacts might be worthy organizers for this discussion. The instructional team might offer the following NASA overview as an article to read by students. Once each student has read the article, students should be placed in small groups (2-3) and asked to analyze the various strategies presented in the article that explain exactly how NASA hopes to send humans once again to the moon safely and return them also. All groups will return as one class and each group will offer an analysis and their opinions or concerns regarding a return to the lunar surface- A good thing or not? How We'll Get Back to the Moon Before the end of the next decade, NASA astronauts will again explore the surface of the moon. And this time, we're going to stay, building outposts and 6/3/2010 17
  • 18. paving the way for eventual journeys to Mars and beyond. There are echoes of the iconic images of the past, but it won't be your grandfather's moon shot. This journey begins soon, with development of a new spaceship. Building on the best of Apollo and shuttle technology, NASA's creating a 21st century exploration system that will be affordable, reliable, versatile, and safe. The centerpiece of this system is a new spacecraft designed to carry four astronauts to and from the moon, support up to six crewmembers on future missions to Mars, and deliver crew and supplies to the International Space Station. The new crew vehicle will be shaped like an Apollo capsule, but it will be three times larger, allowing four astronauts to travel to the moon at a time. The new spacecraft has solar panels to provide power, and both the capsule and the lunar lander use liquid methane in their engines. Why methane? NASA is thinking ahead, planning for a day when future astronauts can convert Martian atmospheric resources into methane fuel. The new ship can be reused up to 10 times. After the craft parachutes to dry land (with a splashdown as a backup option), NASA can easily recover it, replace the heat shield and launch it again. Coupled with the new lunar lander, the system sends twice as many astronauts to the surface as Apollo, and they can stay longer, with the initial missions lasting four to seven days. And while Apollo was limited to landings along the moon's equator, the new ship carries enough propellant to land anywhere on the moon's surface. Once a lunar outpost is established, crews could remain on the lunar surface for up to six months. The spacecraft can also operate without a crew in lunar orbit, eliminating the need for one astronaut to stay behind while others explore the surface. Safe and Reliable The launch system that will get the crew off the ground builds on powerful, reliable shuttle propulsion elements. Astronauts will launch on a rocket made up of a single shuttle solid rocket booster, with a second stage powered by a shuttle main engine. A second, heavy-lift system uses a pair of longer solid rocket boosters and five shuttle main engines to put up to 125 metric tons in orbit -- about one and a half times the weight of a shuttle orbiter. This versatile system will be used to carry cargo and to put the components needed to go to the moon and Mars into orbit. The heavy-lift rocket can be modified to carry crew as well. 6/3/2010 18
  • 19. Best of all, these launch systems are 10 times safer than the shuttle because of an escape rocket on top of the capsule that can quickly blast the crew away if launch problems develop. There's also little chance of damage from launch vehicle debris, since the capsule sits on top of the rocket. The Flight Plan In just five years, the new ship will begin to ferry crew and supplies to the International Space Station. Plans call for as many as six trips to the outpost a year. In the meantime, robotic missions will lay the groundwork for lunar exploration. In 2018, humans will return to the moon. Here's how a mission would unfold: A heavy-lift rocket blasts off, carrying a lunar lander and a "departure stage" needed to leave Earth's orbit (below left). The crew launches separately (below, center), then docks their capsule with the lander and departure stage and heads for the moon (below, right). Three days later, the crew goes into lunar orbit (below, left). The four astronauts climb into the lander, leaving the capsule to wait for them in orbit. After landing and exploring the surface for seven days, the crew blasts off in a portion of the lander (below, center), docks with the capsule and travels back to Earth. After a de-orbit burn, the service module is jettisoned, exposing the heat shield for the first time in the mission. The parachutes deploy, the heat shield is dropped and the capsule sets down on dry land (below, right). 6/3/2010 19
  • 20. 'Into the Cosmos' With a minimum of two lunar missions per year, momentum will build quickly toward a permanent outpost. Crews will stay longer and learn to exploit the moon's resources, while landers make one way trips to deliver cargo. Eventually, the new system could rotate crews to and from a lunar outpost every six months. Planners are already looking at the lunar south pole as a candidate for an outpost because of concentrations of hydrogen thought to be in the form of water ice, and an abundance of sunlight to provide power. These plans give NASA a huge head start in getting to Mars. We will already have the heavy-lift system needed to get there, as well as a versatile crew capsule and propulsion systems that can make use of Martian resources. A lunar outpost just three days away from Earth will give us needed practice of "living off the land" away from our home planet, before making the longer trek to Mars. As President Bush said when he announced the Vision for Space Exploration, "Humans are headed into the cosmos." Now we know how we'll get there. 6/3/2010 20
  • 21. Students should be challenged to identify as many project management functions as possible. Using the graphic organizer below, have students complete a blank version and identify as many management functions as possible during a class brainstorming session led by the instructor. 6/3/2010 21
  • 22. Once students have identified as many functions as possible, the instructor should assist with completing the chart by offering those items that were not identified by the students. Once a comprehensive list of all key management functions has been obtained, the instructor should require students to provide a brief definition for each of these using appropriate research techniques. Students should present their definitions as part of a class discussion with clarification of terms by the instructor. It is important that students have an understanding for the historical development of project management. It is a process that has evolved over many years and morphed into a very sophisticated process of mathematically based techniques that also require the ability to understand people and performance motivation strategies. In effect, producing a blend of science and art in order to achieve an optimized control over numerous and diverse organizational functions. In order for students to understand and appreciate the historical perspective for this subject, students should be challenged to research key people and events that have contributed to contemporary project management styles. Students should investigate the topics listed below and fill in the accomplishments section of this organizer: 6/3/2010 22
  • 23. Historical Development of Management Theory and Practices Era Persons or Events Accomplishments Ancient Management The Great Wall in China, Pyramids of Involved management practices of coordination, Thoughts Egypt, monoliths on Easter Island, Mayan control, and monitoring of many people over Temples in South America, Stonehenge in extended periods of time. (No records were England available.) Chinese Emperors (2350 B.C.) Practiced organizing, directing, and controlling. Constitution of Chow (1100 B.C.) Organization chart for officials and craft specialization. Persepolis in Persia (500 B.C.) Built the 2600-km Royal Road and set up message systems using horse riders. Sun Tzu (500 B.C.) The art of war--planning and directing. Alexander the Great (336--332 B.C.) Practiced informal council with specific roles and responsibilities to its members. India (321 B.C.) Practiced the concepts of government, commerce, and custom. China (120 B.C.) Selected and classified officials by examinations into nine specific grades. Production Practice Arsenal of Venice (1436) Streamlined production process of outfitting (15th Century) ships, inventory control, standardization of specification, double-entry accounting, and cost control. Industrial Revolution Steam engine invented by James Watt Factories are formed involving equipment and (18th Century) (1769); other technological inventions workers; destroyed the cottage industry in England; created problems related to child labor, poor living conditions for workers, crime, and brutality; induced the creation of factory layout planning, inventory control, production planning, work-flow analysis, and cost analysis. Industrial Develop- Railroads, textile mills, steel mills, and ment in the United waterways were built States (19th Century) Charles Babbage (1792-1871) Advanced the concepts of division of labor, factory size optimization, profit-sharing scheme, method of observing manufactures, and the time- study method. West Point Military Academy (1817) started Expansion of engineering and management teaching engineering and management; education in the United States. Norwich University (1819), Rensselear Polytechnic Institute (1823), Union College (1845), Harvard, Yale, and Michigan (1847) Morrill Land Grant Act (1862) Authorized federal land for each state to establish at least one college to teach "scientific and classical studies . . . agricultural and mechanical arts." The mechanical arts became engineering. Formation of several associations: Promoted the exchange of best practices in American Society of Engineering engineering and management. Education (1893), American Society of Mechanical Engineers (1880), and American Society of Civil Engineers (1982) Scientific Manage- Frederick Taylor (1856-1915) Pioneered the time-and-motion study to break ment (20th Century) down a complex job into elementary motions and find the most efficient procedure of doing the job. Taylor's study formed the corner stone of the discipline of industrial engineering. Frank Gillbreth (1868-1924) and Lillian M. Pioneered the study of human factors in the Gillbreth (1878-1972) workplace. Gantt (1861-1919) Developed charts and graphed performance against time for project management. Henri Fayol (1841-1925) Divided the industrial undertaking into six groups: technical (production), commercial (marketing), financial, security, accounting, and administrative activities (planning/forecasting, organization, command, coordination, and control). Max Weber (1864-1920) Developed a model for rational and efficient organizations involving position charter, roles and responsibility, compensation policy, and others Human Factors (20th Douglas M. McGregor (1906-1964) Developed Theory X and Theory Y. Century) William Ouchi (1943-) Developed Theory Z. 6/3/2010 23
  • 24. Elton Mayo (1880-1945) and Fritz J. Conducted extensive studies at Hawthorne Works Roethlisberger (1898-1974) near Cicero, Illinois, to study the impact of environmental, psychological, group factors, and other factors affecting workers productivity. To complete engagement, students should be challenged to participate in the following task: A collection of ball point pens (10) should be provided to production teams (4-5 students). Students should disassemble the pens and place all the same parts (springs, housings, button, plunger, etc.), in small cups or containers. Several objects can be used to accomplish this engagement activity. If ballpoint pens are not available, a simple flashlight can be used that offers multiple parts that can easily be disassembled and reassembled. This is also true for a simple penlight which in most cases has numerous and diverse parts. The images below provide assembly drawings showing such parts. 6/3/2010 24
  • 25. Exploded diagram of a handtorch. Case Button Spring Battery Bulb Cap Assembly drawing of penlight showing standard and special-purpose components. 6/3/2010 25
  • 26. One early task for the group should be to analyze the device and generate a listing of all parts, with descriptions or a decomposition diagram as shown below for the penlight product: Product component decomposition diagram of a penlight. Students should be required to organize themselves and reassemble the pens in the shortest time possible and ensure that all pens function properly. Student production teams should conduct several efficiency tests, producing key data that could impact organizational or management decisions. The instructor should videotape the entire process as a class for future examination. Students should be required to plan and conduct appropriate efficiency tests, which should include all tables, charts, and graphs clearly showing results for such tests. It might be necessary for subassembly drawings and time charts to show the gains in efficiency with regard to disassembly and reassembly for the selected product. Product Standard Special-purpose Subassembly A Subassembly B part part Special purpose part Special-purpose part Standard part Subassembly B1 Standard part Special-purpose part Product component decomposition diagram of a product having parts and subassemblies, both standard and special-purpose. 6/3/2010 26
  • 27. Each team should try to reach maximum efficiency with their production system. This should be presented as a class competition, with the winning team receiving some special extra credit or appropriate reward. Results should be posted for all students to examine. Students should document all special organizational techniques they used to create an efficient assembly process. A final multi-media report and presentation should be made by each team clearly describing their final production method and organizational strategies. Students should also describe how they resolved critical production problems. This report should also include any key tables, charts, and graphs that help explain how the production team achieved their success. The instructor should lead a debriefing with the class to analyze, compare, and contrast each teams approach to this problem. Students should be required to compare and contrast each team’s approach using the new project management vocabulary acquired during the previous tasks in engagement. Students should be required to prepare an Extended Constructed Response (ECR) report that explains, using management function terms, how they achieved improvement in production efficiency as a result of employing key strategies for organizing the work of the group. Final reports should be shared with the entire class. The instructor might lead a discussion as part of a closure component for this engagement. One goal is to see if students can identify major organizers for the work that was required to manage the entire process of disassembly and reassembly of the small scale product. Even with such a simple activity, there should have been significant gains in productivity and efficiency resulting from specific task or project management strategies. One thought is that the instructor should try to lead the group to such organizers reflected in recent project management literature and research such as the topics identified below: • Planning • Organizing • Controlling The instructor should lead students in a final discussion on the topic of project management and the need to engineering organizations to participate in such endeavors in order to conduct work in an efficient way and remain competitive. The class should strive to write a final definition for project management that is comprehensive and helps students remain focused throughout this lesson. An example for such a definition is provided below. Project management is… The systematic integration of technical, human, and financial resources to achieve goals and objectives. 6/3/2010 27
  • 28. The image below is provided as an example for one way to represent the definition above. It might be a worthwhile activity for students to generate their own graphical representation for the definition determined by the instructor and students for each class. Interactions of functional groups in technology companies. Exploration: During engagement, students were left with a sense that organizing engineering work is a critical component for successful product development and overall competitiveness in the market. The simple definition and graphic representation activity offered students a way to understand in a rather simplistic sense what project management involves. However, it is very important that students explore in a more detailed way the intricate scope of authentic engineering project management. In order to accomplish this, students should be challenged to investigate and generate a report with a detailed representation for all critical components within an engineering organization. This investigation should include contacting local or regional engineering companies to obtain examples of organizational representations. An example is provided below to guide this task. 6/3/2010 28
  • 29. Corporate vice president and general manager division D Vice Vice Vice Vice Vice president Vice Vice Vice president president president president president research and president president product support administration marketing contracts and pricing finance engineering manufacturing quality control (logistics) Technical Advanced Contracts Budgeting Research Industrial Quality Test and services product management and engineering assurance support Drafting planning and analysis Engineering equipment Reproduction subcontracts design Publications, Plant Quality proposals, art engineering control Library and maintenance Marketing General System engineering Technical data analysis Purchasing accounting Engineering design • Conceptual design Management • Preliminary Procurement Training and services quality training system design Manufacturing control equipment Policies and • Detailed design engineering procedures • Design review Computer support Communications Customer Production facilities operations Engineering Supply support support Production shops Reliability Customer field Maintainability service Industrial Human factors engineering relations Logistics engineering Model shop Other support Bonding Personnel administration Machining Welding Painting Calibration Other shops Modification kits Engineering and prototype model development, test, and evaluation Engineering laboratories Engineering activities within a division of a large corporation. This task can be accomplished as independent work or with small groups (2-3 students) depending on instructor preference. Students should present their findings with graphic examples to the entire class. Students should defend their analysis orally in a class seminar. Students were able to address the concept of project management principles during engagement for this lesson by defining and describing some key principles associated with this topic. It is critical that students explore the key functions of engineering management. Students should be challenged to continue their research by investigating the following topics identified below. This task should be addressed by students in the following way: students should provide the following for each topic presented in the outline for ‘Functions of Engineering Management’: • Statement of definition or description of function elements • Critical questions that need to be addressed by this function • Practical example to illustrate each function • Sources of all information must be sited. 6/3/2010 29
  • 30. Functions of Engineering Management: 1. Planning Definition (Engineering Context) Articulating who will do what, how, where, when, and with which resources to enhance the effectiveness by providing focus and direction. Types • Strategic planning • Operational planning Tools for Planning • SWOT analysis • Financial what-if analysis and modeling • Performance benchmarks • Technology forecasting • Product life-cycle analysis • Qualitative and quantitative forecasting methods Critical Questions (Examples) • What are companies mission, vision, and value system? • What business is the company to be in? • What specific goals should the company accomplish? • What new products or redesigned products should the company offer? • What core technologies should the company maintain, develop, acquire, or utilize? • What performance metrics are to be used for monitoring company success? • What is the most efficient way to accomplishing a project with known objectives? • What are the operational guidelines for performing specific work? 2. Organizing Definition (engineering context) Arranging and relating work so that it can be done efficiently by appropriate people. Legal Forms • Sole Proprietorship • Partnership • Corporation 6/3/2010 30
  • 31. Types • Line organization (business management, production, sales and marketing, customer service) • Staff organization (R&D, financial and accounting, information technology procurement, legal affairs, public relations, facility engineering) Activities • Develop an organizational structure • Identify appropriate teams • Identify span of control • Identify specific responsibilities • Identify specialization of work • Identify work arrangement and relationships • Delegating Critical Questions (Examples) • What work needs to be accomplished? • Who should lead specific work? • What organizational tools are available? • What research data is available regarding organizational methods? • How will work be organized? • What leadership roles are needed? • What is the relationship between departmental tasks? 3. Controlling Definition (engineering context) Activities taken on by management to assess and regulate work in progress, evaluate results for securing maximum productivity, and reduce unacceptable performance. Controlling Tasks • Setting standards of performance • Benchmarking (internal and external) • Control methods/tools Measuring Performance • Collect, analyze, store, and report data • Compare performance against established standards • Generate reports • Measurement tools (people, process, and product) Evaluate Performance 6/3/2010 31
  • 32. • Establish limits of tolerance • Note deviations within tolerance limits • Provide recognition for good performance • Performance evaluation tools (people, process, and product) Critical Questions (Examples) • How should we measure the performance of employees? • How should we correct poor performance of employees? • How should we measure product performance? • What standards should be used to establish performance measures? • How should we measure efficiency of design process? • How should we measure efficiency of production process? • How do we correct performance in all areas? • What are critical project control issues? • How do we control product quality? • How do we control employee performance? Students should present their final report for the outline above with all appropriate supporting information; tables, charts, graphs, etc. Managing Risk One critical element in business management for engineering projects is analysis of ‘risk.’ In terms of project management, risk is defined as ‘uncertainty’ that has been defined. When estimating costs for engineering design or production costs, some costs are well defined, while others are not. Therefore, some projects in engineering are somewhat risk free, while others are not. Risk can also be described as a ‘measure of the potential variability of an outcome from its expected value’. Risks must be accounted for in projects. Risky events may be represented mathematically by the normal probability density function, which is defined by two parameters, standard deviation and mean. Besides the normal function, several other probability density functions may also be used to represent risky costs. These are represented by the images below: 6/3/2010 32
  • 33. Triangular probability density Normal probability density function. function. Beta probability density function. Poisson probability function. The following discussion from NASA sources offers background information for the instructional team. One suggestion is that this review might be offered to students as assigned reading. Students could be assigned to small groups (2-3) and required to conduct an analysis of the major elements for Risk Management as performed by NASA and bring the groups together to share, discuss, and reach agreement on the key principles employed by NASA to ensure minimal risk with regards to aerospace engineering design work. 6/3/2010 33
  • 34. Continuous Risk Management at NASA Dr. Linda H. Rosenberg Theodore Hammer Albert Gallo Unisys @ NASA GSFC SATC NASA GSFC Unisys @ NASA GSFC SATC Bld 6 Code 300.1 Bld 6 Code 302 Bld 6 Code 300.1 Greenbelt, MD 20771 Greenbelt, MD 20771 Greenbelt, MD 20771 301-286-0087 301-286-7123 301-286-8012 Linda.Rosenberg@gsfc.nasa.go v Abstract NPG 7120.5A, "NASA Program and Project Management Processes and Requirements" enacted in April, 1998, requires that "The program or project manager shall apply risk management principles…" The Software Assurance Technology Center (SATC) at NASA GSFC has been tasked with the responsibility for developing and teaching a systems level course for risk management that provides information on how to comply with this edict. This risk management structure of functions has been taught to projects at all NASA Centers and is being successfully implemented on many projects. The course was developed in conjunction with the Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie Mellon University, then tailored to the NASA systems community. This presentation will briefly discuss the six functions for risk management: (1) Identify the risks in a specific format; (2) Analyze the risk probability, impact/severity, and timeframe; (3) Plan the approach; (4) Track the risk through data compilation and analysis; (5) Control and monitor the risk; (6) Communicate and document the process and decisions. Finally, the presentation will give project managers the information needed to implement Continuous Risk Management successfully at a cost they can afford. Introduction Software risk management is important because it helps avoid disasters, rework, and overkill, but more importantly because it stimulates win-win situations. The objectives of software risk management are to identify, address, and eliminate software risk items before they become threats to success or major sources of rework. In general, good project managers are also good managers of risk. It makes good business sense for all software development projects to incorporate risk management as part of project management. NPG 7120.5A, the NASA guidebook for project managers, requires risk management applications and includes a section briefly discussing what should be included in a risk management plan. A course in continuous risk management was developed by the Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie Mellon University and has been adapted to NASA by the Software Assurance Technology Center (SATC) at NASA 6/3/2010 34
  • 35. GSFC. The course was first taught in January, 1998, and has since been taught to over 300 students at all NASA centers. There are a number of definitions and uses for the term risk, but there is no universally accepted definition. What all definitions have in common is agreement that risk has two characteristics: uncertainty: An event may or may not happen. loss: An event has unwanted consequences or losses. Therefore, risk involves the likelihood that an undesirable event will occur, and the severity of the consequences of the event, should it occur. Risk management can: • Identify potential problems and deal with them when it is easier and cheaper to do so - before they are problems and before a crisis exists. • Focus on the project’s objective and consciously look for things that may affect quality throughout the production process. • Allow the early identification of potential problems (the proactive approach) and provide input into management decisions regarding resource allocation. • Involve personnel at all levels of the project; focus their attention on a shared product vision, and provide a mechanism for achieving it. • Increase the chances of project success. At NASA, we focus on Continuous Risk Management that can be applied to any development process: hardware, software, systems, etc. It provides a disciplined environment for proactive decision making to: • assess continually what could go wrong (risks) • determine which risks are important to deal with • implement strategies to deal with those risks • assure, measure effectiveness of the implemented strategies Risk management must not be allowed to become "shelfware". The process must be a part of regularly scheduled periodic product management. It requires identifying and managing risks routinely throughout all phases of the project's life. The paradigm shown in Figure 1 illustrates the set of continuous risk management functions throughout the life cycle of a project. These functions serve as the foundation for the application of continuous risk management. Each risk nominally goes through these functions sequentially, but the activity occurs continuously, concurrently, and iteratively. Risks are usually tracked in parallel while new risks are identified and analyzed, and the mitigation plan for one risk may yield another risk. 6/3/2010 35
  • 36. Figure 1: Continuous Risk Management Principle Functions Continuous Risk Management Principle Functions 1 - Identify The purpose of identification is to consider risks before they become problems and to incorporate this information into the project management process. Anyone in a project can identify risks to the project. Each individual has particular knowledge about various parts of a project. During Identify, uncertainties and issues about the project are transformed into distinct (tangible) risks that can be described and measured. During this function, all risks are written with the same, two part format. The first part is the risk statement, written as a single statement concisely specifying the cause of the concern as well as its impact. The second part may contain additional supporting details in the form of a context. The aim for a risk statement is that it be clear, concise, and sufficiently informative that the risk is easily understood. Risk statements in standard format must contain two parts: the condition and the consequence. The condition-consequence format provides a complete picture of the risk, which is critical during mitigation planning. It is read as follows: given the <condition> there is a possibility that <consequence> will occur The condition component focuses on what is currently causing concern; it must be something that is true or widely perceived to be true. This component provides information that is useful when determining how to mitigate a risk. The consequence component focuses on the intermediate and long-term impact of the risk. Understanding the depth and breadth of the impact is useful in determining how much time, resources, and effort should be allocated to the mitigation effort. A well-formed risk statement usually has only one condition, but may have more than one consequence. 6/3/2010 36
  • 37. Risk statements should avoid: • abbreviations/acronyms that are not readily understood • sweeping generalizations • massive, irrelevant detail Since the risk statement is to be concise, a context is added to provide enough additional information about the risk to ensure that the original intent of the risk can be understood by other personnel, particularly after time has passed. An effective context captures the what, when, where, how, and why of the risk by describing the circumstances, contributing factors, and related issues (background and additional information that are NOT in the risk statement). A diagram of the complete risk statement and context are shown in Figure 2. Figure 2: Risk Statement and Context An example is shown in Figure 3. Note there is one condition and two consequences in the risk statement. The context explains why this is a risk. Figure 3: Example Risk Statement and Context Risk identification depends heavily on both open communication and a forward-looking view to encourage all personnel to bring forward new risks and to plan beyond their immediate problems. Although individual contributions play a role in risk management, teamwork improves the chances of identifying new risks by allowing personnel to combine their knowledge and understanding of the project. 2 - Analyze 6/3/2010 37
  • 38. The purpose of Analyze is to convert the data into decision-making information. Analysis is a process of examining the risks in detail to determine the extent of the risks, how they relate to each other, and which ones are the most important. Analyzing risks has three basic activities: evaluating the attributes of the risks (impact, probability, and timeframe), classifying the risks, and prioritizing or ranking the risks. Evaluating - The first step provides better understanding of the risk by qualifying the expected impact, probability, and timeframe of a risk. This involves establishing values for: Impact: the loss or negative affect on the project should the risk occur Probability: the likelihood the risk will occur Timeframe: the period when you must take action in order to mitigate the risk Figure 4 demonstrates sample values that might be used to evaluate a risk's attributes Attribute Value Description Probability Very Likely (H) High chance of this risk occurring, thus becoming a problem > 70% Probable (M) Risk like this may turn into a problem once in a while {30% < x Improbable (L) < 70%} Not much chance this will become a problem {0% < x < 30%} Impact Catastrophic Loss of system; unrecoverable failure of system operations; (H) major damage to system; schedule slip causing launch date to be missed; cost overrun greater than 50% of budget Minor system damage to system with recoverable operational capacity; cost overrun exceeding 10% (but less than 50% of 6/3/2010 38
  • 39. Critical (M) planned cost Minor system damage to project; recoverable loss of operational capacity; internal schedule slip that does not Marginal (L) impact launch date cost overrun less than 10% of planned cost Timeframe Near-term (N) Within 30 days Mid-term (M) 1 to 4 months from now Far-term (F) more than 4 months from now NOTE: refers to when action must be taken Figure 4: Sample Attribute Values Classifying - The next step is to classify risks. There are several ways to classify or group risks. The ultimate purpose of classification is to understand the nature of the risks facing the project and to group any related risks so as to build more cost-effective mitigation plans. The process of classifying risks may reveal that two or more risks are equivalent - the statements of risk and context indicate that the subject of these risks is the same. Equivalent risks are therefore duplicate statements of the same risk and should be combined into one risk. Prioritize - The final step in the Analysis function is to prioritize the risks. The purpose is to sort through a large number of risks and determine which are most important and to separate out which risks should be dealt with first (the vital few risks) when allocating resources. This involves partitioning risks or groups of risks based on the "vital few" sense and ranking risks or sets of risks based on consistently applying an established set of criteria. No project has unlimited resources with which to mitigate risks. Thus, it is essential to determine consistently and efficiently which risks are most important and then to focus those limited resources on mitigating risks. Conditions and priorities will change during a project, and this natural evolution can affect the important risks to a project–. Risk analysis must be a continual process. Analysis requires open communication so that prioritization and evaluation is accomplished using all known information. A forward-looking view enables personnel to consider long-range impacts of risks. 3 - Plan 6/3/2010 39
  • 40. Planning is the function of deciding what, if anything, should be done about a risk or set of related risks. In this function decisions and mitigation strategies are developed based on current knowledge of project risks. The purpose of plan is to: • make sure the consequences and the sources of the risk are known • develop effective plans • plan efficiently (only as much as needed or will be of benefit) • produce, over time, the correct set of actions that minimize the impacts of risks (cost and schedule) while maximizing opportunity and value • plan important risks first Figure 5 indicates the potential approaches to Risk Planning. Figure 5: Planning Approaches There are four options to consider when planning for risks: 1. Research: establish a plan to research the risk(s) 2. Accept: decide to "accept" the risk(s) and document the rationale behind the decision 3. Watch: monitor risk conditions for any indications of change in probability or impact (tracking metrics must be established and documented) 4. Mitigate: allocate resources and assign actions in order to reduce the probability or potential impact of risks. This can range from simple tasking to sweeping activities: Action Items: a series of discrete tasks to mitigate risk Task Plan: formal, well-documented and larger in scope Dealing with risk is a continuous process of determining what to do with new concerns as they are identified and efficiently utilizing project resources. An integrated approach to management is needed to ensure mitigation actions do not conflict with project or 6/3/2010 40
  • 41. team plans and goals. A shared product vision and global perspective are needed to create mitigation actions on the macro level to the benefit the project, customer and organization. The focus of risk planning is to be forward looking, to prevent risks from becoming problems. Teamwork and open communication enhance the planning process by increasing the amount of knowledge and expertise that can be applied to the development of mitigating actions. 4 - Track Tracking is the process by which risk status data are acquired, compiled, and reported The purpose of Track is to collect accurate, timely, and relevant risk information and to present it in a clear and easily understood manner to the appropriate people/group. Tracking is done by those responsible for monitoring "watched" or "mitigated" risks. Tracking status information become critical to performing the next function in the Continuous Risk Management paradigm, i.e. Control. Supporting information, such as schedule and budget variances, critical path changes, and project/performance indicators can be used as triggers, thresholds, and risk- or plan-specific measures where appropriate. When a mitigation plan has been developed for a risk or risk set, both the mitigation plan and the risk attributes are tracked. Tracking the mitigation plan, or even a list of action items, will indicate whether the plan is being executed correctly and/or on schedule. Tracking any changes in the risk attributes will indicate whether the mitigation plan is reducing the impact or probability of the risk. In other words, tracking risk attributes gives an indication of how effective the mitigation plan is. Program and risk metrics provide decision makers with the information needed for making effective decisions. Normally program metrics are used to assess the cost and schedule of a program as well as the performance and quality of a product. Risk metrics are used to measure a risk’s attributes and assess the progress of a mitigation plan. They can also be used to help identify new risks. Example: A program metric might look at the rate of module completion. If this metric indicates that the rate of completion is lower than expected, then a schedule risk should be identified. Open communication regarding risk and mitigation status stimulates the project and risk management process. Tracking is a continuous process - current information about a risk status should be conveyed regularly to the rest of the project. Risk metrics provide decision makers with the information needed for making effective decisions. 5 - Control 6/3/2010 41
  • 42. The purpose of the Control function is to make informed, timely, and effective decisions regarding risks and their mitigation plans. It is the process that takes in tracking status information and decides exactly what to do based on the reported data. Controlling risks involves analyzing the status reports, deciding how to proceed, and then implementing those decisions. Decision makers need to know 1) when or whether there is a significant change in risk attributes and 2) the effectiveness of mitigation plans within the context of project needs and constraints. The goal is to obtain a clear understanding of the current status of each risk and mitigation plan relative to the project and then to make decisions based on that understanding. Tracking data is used to ensure that project risks continue to be managed effectively and to determine how to proceed with project risks. Options include: • Replan - A new or modified plan is required when the threshold value has been exceeded, analysis of the indicators shows that the action plan is not working, or an unexpected adverse trend is discovered. • Close the risk - A closed risk is one that no longer exists or is no longer cost effective to track as a risk. This occurs when: the probability falls below a defined threshold, impact lies below a defined threshold, or the risk has become a problem and is tracked. • Invoke a contingency plan - A contingency plan is invoked when a trigger has been exceeded or some other related action needs to be taken. • Continue tracking and executing the current plan - No additional action is taken when analysis of the tracking data indicates that all is going as expected or project personnel decide to continue tracking the risk or mitigation plan as before. Open communication is important for effective feedback and decision making - a critical aspect of Control. Risk control is also enhanced through integrated management - combining it with routine project management activities enables comprehensive project decision making. 6 - Communication & Documentation The purpose of Communicate and Document is for all personnel to understand the project’s risks and mitigation alternatives as well as risk data and to make effective choices within the constraints of the project. Communication and Documentation are essential to the success of all other functions within the paradigm and is critical for managing risks. Identify: In risk identification, risk statements are communicated. Analyze: In analysis, project personnel communicate information about impact, probability, and timeframe attributes. Risk classification involves grouping risk information communicated by individuals. 6/3/2010 42
  • 43. Plan: During planning, action plans are developed and communicated to project personnel. Track: Reports designed to communicate data to decision-makers are compiled during tracking. Control: The decisions made during control must be communicated and recorded to project personnel. For effective risk management, an organization must have open communication and formal documentation. Communication of risk information is often difficult because the concept of risk comprises two subjects that people don’t normally deal well with: probability and negative consequences. Not only Continuous Risk Management, but the project as a whole are in jeopardy when the environment is not based on open communication. No one has better insight into risks than project personnel, and management needs that input. Experienced managers know that the free flow of information can make or break any project. Open communication requires: • Encouraging free-flowing information at and between all project levels • Enabling forma, informal and impromptu communication • Using consensus-based processes that value the individual voice, bringing unique knowledge and insight to identifying and managing risks. NASA Risk Management Course Risk is a daily reality on all projects, and Continuous Risk Management should become just as routine. It should be ongoing and comfortable and neither imposed nor forgotten. Like any good habit, it should seamlessly fit into the daily work. During the course taught at NASA, various tools and methods are demonstrated that will work for any project. The key is to adhere to the principles, perform the functions, and adapt the practice to fit the project's needs. Continuous risk management is not "one size fits all". To be effective, tailoring is needed. Tailoring occurs when organizations adapt the processes, select methods and tools which best fit their project management practice and their organizational culture. Following the principles of the continuous risk management is the key to successful tailoring. With this in mind, the Continuous Risk Management course for NASA was tailored to 2 days. The first day is lecture, covering all material with some exercises applying the methods and tools. This is a very intense day since there is a lot of information to absorb. The second day is devoted to a "project" workshop. In most classes, personnel from one or two projects attend the lecture then split for the workshop (Classes are 6/3/2010 43
  • 44. limited to 20 students.) The workshop is done in small groups, periodically these groups come together to review what each group has chosen to work on. (It is interesting as the instructor to observe the similarities in their results.) Depending on the audience, there are two possible workshops, one for management and the other for the implementation team. The workshop for management starts by compiling the project information needed for the risk management plan. This starts with getting the functional organizational chart, identifying key meetings where risk management activities should take place, and identifying key personnel. The methods and tools to be used are then selected, and the criteria for the attributes probability, impact and timeframe are defined. This usually takes 2-3 hours. A shortened version of the implementation workshop described below is then applied. The implementation workshop starts by identifying risks to the project based on everyone's knowledge. Phrases are used, with brainstorming to get a list of over 20 potential risks. It is stressed that if it is a problem now, it is not a risk. From this list 5 risks are identified as those the group feels they can do something about and would like to work on. The risks are then written using the correct format of condition and consequence. The risk context is discussed but not written. Using these 5 risks and the attribute definitions from management, the risks are classified and prioritized. A mitigation plan for the top risk is developed, data for tracking is identified and presentation formats discussed. Depending on time, 2 or 3 risks are processed through this cycle so that the attendees not only feel comfortable with the process, they have some risks specific to their project that they can start working on. Based on course feedback, it is believed the workshop is the key to the success of this training. When a class is not all from the same project, either the group is told to make up a project based on common experience, or use a project that many of them are familiar with. The second option is encouraged so real work is actually accomplished although it only benefits a few of the attendees. After completion of the course, students should: • Understand the concepts and principles of Continuous Risk Management and how to apply them • Possess basic risk management skills for each function of the risk management paradigm • Be able to use the key methods and tools • Be able to tailor CRM to a project or organization Implementation Three steps should be considered by projects when implementing risk management. First, project risk management should be arranged. The training in itself is not important, it is what the training does for the project. The training helps the project to see how a formal process can be used to manage risks, but more importantly facilitate 6/3/2010 44
  • 45. communication and initial brainstorming among project personnel. Second, the project should adopt tools that they are familiar with to aid in the tracking of risks and communication of risk status. The key is that the project use tools that they know how to use and that they will use. Lastly, the risk management process needs to be integrated into the normal project management process. Risk management must become the normal way of doing project business. This will ensure that rather than a separate process requiring extra overhead, risk management is ingrained in the project. This will lead to a cost-effective implementation within the project. Conclusion Most project managers agree that risk management works, but the difficulty lies in actually implementing it, even when required to do so. The risk management plan is often hastily written and then thrown in a corner to gather dust. In addition to the course, one of the steps NASA has taken is to establish a risk management web site ( that contains sample risk management plans and a schedule of classes. Much time is spent discussing with managers the benefits of taking a formal training course, which is more than recovered by a project when all team members are working toward common goals in a coordinated manner. "Continuous Risk Management at NASA" was presented at the Applied Software Measurement / Software Management Conference, February 1999, San Jose, California. Students should be challenged to investigate the concept of risk management in engineering and offer a definition and description of ways in which this is addressed quantitatively and qualitatively. Students should also offer an authentic engineering example from their research showing the use of at least one input distribution function presented in the images above. In addition, students should analyze the two functions presented below and the cost estimation chart for a capital project. What results can be described? 6/3/2010 45
  • 46. Normal probability density function for total project cost. Cumulative distribution function for total project cost. Beta probability density function. The following are presented as examples of results that can be offered by student analysis: • The most likely total project cost is $5,136,000. • There is an 80% probability that the project cost will exceed $5,100,000. • There is a 20% probability that the project cost will exceed $5,170,000. • The maximum project cost is $5,250,000. • The minimum project cost is $4,989.71. Students can work in teams (2-3) to address the research topic and the analysis of the capital project risk sample and present their work as part of a final report to the entire class. Students should identify at least six specific examples of how 'Risk Manage- ment' was accomplished by NASA with Apollo missions. Another key management function is the use of evaluation matrices to perform job performance evaluations. In order to introduce this concept to students, the rating scale for cartoon heroes is presented below. Students should be challenged to identify the correct cartoon hero for each rating. This humorous example is provided to guide student thinking and research to locate several ‘authentic’ examples of personnel rating systems used in engineering organizations. Samples from Internet searches as well as local or regional businesses should be gathered by student groups and presented as part of class seminar. Rating Scale for Cartoon Heroes Performance Far Exceeds Exceeds Meets Needs Does Not Meet Factors Requirements Requirements Requirements Improvement Requirements Quality Leaps tall Must take a Can leap only Crashes into Cannot buildings with a running start to over short buildings when recognize single bound leap over tall buildings attempting to buildings at all buildings leap over them Timeliness Is faster than a Is as fast as a Not quite as fast Would you Wounds self speeding bullet speeding bullet as a speeding believe a slow with bullet when bullet bullet attempting to shoot Initiative Is stronger than Is stronger than Is stronger than Takes bull by Shoots the bull 6/3/2010 46
  • 47. a locomotive a bull elephant a bull the horns Ability Walks on water Walks on water Washes with Drinks water Has water on consistently in emergencies water the knee Communications Talks with God Talks with Talks to himself Argues with Loses those angels himself arguments Another industry standard tool for project management is the use of PERT and Gantt charting methods. These are very useful and accepted flow diagrams that illustrate exactly what tools and best practices are going to be used within each phase of technology development or product design. Students should be challenged to investigate both of these management tools and provide the following information: • Definition • Software tools available to generate these two tools (Microsoft Project, Microsoft Excel, Crystal Ball Monte Carlo Simulator, etc.) • Authentic examples for each • Define terms: (critical path, total cycle-time, phase, Integrated Program Plan (IPP), nominal control, statistical control, Upper and Lower Specification Limits (USL, LSL). • Describe what it means when PERT charts are linked in phase and show a completed example from engineering design project similar to the blank template provided below: PERT Charts Linked in Phase 6/3/2010 47
  • 48. Identifying the Critical Path Below is an example of a Gantt chart depicting a product development process schedule. Gantt charts offer a detailed method for disciplined scheduling and tracking of work and resources enhancing efficiency and product success from design to production. Students should locate examples of 'NASA' charts and identify as Gantt or Pert or 'Other" configuration and explain how it is being used. % ID  Task Name Duration Start Finish Prede Complete 1 Stage 1 Systems Design and Requirements Definition 195 days Fri 3/3/00 Fri 12/1/00 33% 2 Program management 136 days Fri 3/3/00 Mon 9/11/00 95% 3 √ Detailed program schedule 8 days Fri 3/3/00 Fri 3/3/00 100% 4 √ Manpower planning 6 days Fri 3/3/00 Fri 3/3/00 100% 5 √ Schedule management review 4 days Tue 8/13/00 Fri 6/16/00 100% 6 √ Program plan (internal) 2 days Mon 6/19/00 Tues 6/20/00 100% 7  Schedule baseline established 1 day Mon 9/11/00 Mon 9/11/00 8, 5 0% 8 System engineering 56 days Mon 8/28/00 Tue 11/14/00 60% 24 Reliability engineering 10 days Mon 9/11/00 Fri 9/22/00 0% 27 Safety engineering 50 days Mon 9/25/00 Fri 12/1/00 0% 32 Stage 2 Detailed Design 302 days Fri 11/19/99 Tue 1/16/01 44% 33 Electronics design and development 71 days Mon 6/19/00 Tue 9/26/00 72% 34 Attitude/revert panel redesign 16 days Tue 9/5/00 Tue 9/26/00 52% 35 √ Mechanical specification 2 days Mon 9/11/00 Tue 9/12/00 100% 36 √ Procure 2 wks Wed 9/13/00 Tue 9/26/00 35 100% 37 Validate 11 days Tue 9/5/00 Tue 9/19/00 0% 38  Tester design and fabricate 2 wks Tue 9/5/00 Mon 9/18/00 0%  39 Evaluate panel 1 day Tue 9/19/00 Tue 9/19/00 38 0% 40 RDR-1E/F 63 days Mon 6/19/00 Thu 9/14/00 87% 41 √ Electrical design changes 1 wk Mon 6/19/00 Fri 6/23/00 100% 42 √ Incorporate lightning/EMI mods 5 days Mon 6/26/00 Fri 6/30/00 41 100% 43 √ Procure PWB 3 wks Wed 7/5/00 Tue 7/25/00 42 100% 44 √ Build CCA 2 days Wed 8/23/00 Thu 8/24/00 100% 45  Verification and test 1 day Mon 9/11/00 Mon 9/11/00 44 0%  46  Integrate four CCAs in chassis 3 days Tue 9/12/00 Thu 9/14/00 45 0% 47 Software requirements documentation 235 days Tue 2/1/00 Tue 12/26/00 27% 6/3/2010 48
  • 49. Tracking Gantt chart. In 2004, President George Bush declared that our nation should revisit the mission to reach the moon and place humans there to live and work. It was this presidential charge that has provided direction for NASA’s work in the early 21st century. January 14, 2004 -- Indeed it is the nature of humanity to explore beyond our horizons. Humanity explores in order to discover, discovers in order to gain new knowledge, and gains new knowledge to enhance the quality of life for itself. It has been by looking beyond current horizons that human civilization advances. ~ President George W. Bush However, our nation already visited the moon during 1969 and subsequently during the 1970’s. Students may not be aware of the APOLLO missions and the incredible history associated with one of the great NASA success stories. In 1962, President John Kennedy made a similar charge that led our nation and NASA to plan, organize, and control sophisticated and diverse engineering work in order to transport humans to the lunar surface and return them safely. The APOLLO missions were very successful and are worthy research for all students interested in engineering. It is suggested that students be divided into teams and each team assigned one of the APOLLO missions to investigate using numerous resources and prepare a multi-media presentation on each mission. Each group will become the ‘consultants’ for their respective APOLLO mission. Students should be required to compare and contrast each mission, articulating successes and any failures that may have occurred during each mission. These should be recorded and organized so that the entire class can review and discuss the overall APOLLO mission accomplishments. These presentations should be comprehensive and offer substantial detail that clearly articulates the scope of the specific mission, including, but not limited to the following: • Astronauts involved • Scientific experiments conducted • Engineering Milestones achieved • Length of mission (time, distance, etc.) • Payload details (human and scientific cargo) • Launch details (thrust, propulsion data, ratios) • Lunar landings (details and activities on lunar surface) • Major discoveries or revelations • All critical mission dates (day by day review) • Recovery operations (all details) 6/3/2010 49
  • 50. • Debriefing status (post-mission data) • Mission failures (low-high status) • New technologies demonstrated (per mission) As part of project management review, students should read the following excerpt from NASA documents on project management and continue an investigation on how the APOLLO missions were managed with structural management details and processes. This sample description of key processes is just one example of many layers of project management employed by NASA currently. An interesting challenge for students is to compare and contrast management evolution from the 1960’s and 70’s APOLLO MISSIONS to with current techniques and methods- These principles are listed here for clarity: (1) plan all work scope for the project to completion; (2) break down the project work scope into finite pieces that can be assigned to a responsible person or organization for control of technical, schedule, and cost objectives; (3) integrate project work scope, schedule, and cost objectives into a performance measurement baseline plan against which accomplishments may be measured and control changes to the baseline; (4) use actual costs incurred and recorded in accomplishing the work performed; (5) objectively assess accomplishments at the work performance level; (6) analyze significant variances from the plan, forecast impacts, and prepare an estimate at completion based on performance to date and work to be performed; and (7) incorporate Earned Value Management into the projects decision- making and review processes. (Sample NASA Project Management Overview - 2005) Technology Readiness Levels is a key concept and process used by NASA as part of project management at all agencies. The following is provided as background for the instructional team and may be addressed via lecture/ discussion with students or as preferred by the instructional team. 6/3/2010 50
  • 51. TECHNOLOGY READINESS LEVELS John C. Mankins Advanced Concepts Office Office of Space Access and Technology NASA Introduction Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) are a systematic metric/measurement system that supports assessments of the maturity of a particular technology and the consistent comparison of maturity between different types of technology. The TRL approach has been used-on-and- off in NASA space technology planning for many years and was recently incorporated in the NASA Management Instruction (NMI7100) addressing integrated technology planning at NASA - Figure 1 (attached) provides a summary view of the technology maturation process model for NASA space activities for which the TRL’s were originally conceived; other process models may be used. However, to be most useful the general model must include: (a) ‘basic’ research in new technologies and concepts (targeting identified goals, but not necessary specific systems), (b) focused technology development addressing specific technologies for one or more potential identified applications, (c) technology development and demonstration for each specific application before the beginning of full system development of that application, (d) system development (through first unit fabrication), and (e) system ‘launch’ and operations. Technology Readiness Levels Summary TRL 1 Basic principles TRL 2 Technology concept and/or application formulated TRL 3 Analytical and experimental critical function and/or characteristic proof-of-concept TRL 4 Component and/or breadboard validation in laboratory environment TRL 5 Component and/or breadboard validation in relevant environment TRL 6 System/subsystem model or prototype demonstration in a relevant environment (ground or space) TRL 7 System prototype demonstration in a space environment TRL 8 Actual system completed and “flight qualified” through test and demonstration (ground and space) TRL 9 Actual system “flight proven” through successful mission operations Discussion of Each Level 6/3/2010 51
  • 52. Two additional terms need to be introduced and explored by students in order to gain a comprehensive overview of NASA project management techniques. These terms are: • pull technology development • push technology development Pull technologies are developed in response to an immediate need. Given this urgency, the tendency is to avoid extensive dependence on innovation but rather to adapt existing, mature technologies by incorporating the minor modifications required for the application niche. By definition, the customer is fully prepared to cover all costs associated with the development, and the outcome has a high probability of success. Push technologies, on the other hand, are ‘disruptive’ and are based almost exclusively on the innovator’s vision of customers’ perceived needs. On the plus side, this type of development carries the promise of a pioneering effort. The downside, however, is that most often the outcome has a low probability of success. In a few cases, this high failure rate could be attributed to unforeseen, technical ‘fatal flaws’. Most of the failures are due to the inability of the technology development to cross the TRL gap to become a ‘pull’ technology. The causes to failure are peculiar to each case but, in general, are a combination of unenthusiastic customer perception. Impedance mismatch with customer needs, bad timing, insufficient niche development, and a lack of necessary technological support infrastructure, among other reasons. The end result of the TRL gap is that the infusion of advanced technology is slowed, and in some cases, stopped. Therefore, the TRL gap problem can be reformulated as the challenge of how to efficiently transition push technologies into pull technologies. With this as background, students should be challenged to investigate the interesting issue of push and pull technology development. One approach is to divide the class to address each topic and have them prepare a detailed presentation that clearly and accurately describes, with examples from NASA technology development how push-pull technology development is addressed. NASA uses a system of assessing the status of technological development. This process is a key element for all project management and final determination of whether a technology or project moves further in terms of 6/3/2010 52
  • 53. research or actual development or deployment on a mission. This process is referred to as TECHNOLOGY READINESS LEVEL or TRL. This is a key process and students should investigate further or be part of a class lecture/discussion on this topic. Background information is provided for the instructional team. The final instructional decision rests with the team in terms of how this information will be presented to students. Students should be given the following document to read and critique and then after that reading, the instructional team should lead a class seminar designed to engage students further with respect to this critical process used by all NASA agencies: Closing the TRL Gap Thomas George and Robert Powers, NASA jet Propulsion Laboratory In recent years, while accumulating a unique and extensive base of experience in spaceflight, NASA has had to face decreasing budgets. These factors have had a profound impact on new technology development for future space applications, and have resulted in a technology readiness level (TRL) gap in the development of advanced aerospace technologies. NASA has pioneered the use of the TRL scale for assessing the maturity of a particular technology. The utility of the scale, which consists essentially of nine levels of technology development maturity, has led to its widespread use among other government agencies and in the commercial sector. The TRL gap is not unique to NASA. Although described using different terminology (funding gap, valley of death, Darwinian sea, the wall between research and product), it exists in all industry sectors. Stated simply, it is the problem of efficiently transitioning a new technology from concept to viable product in the shortest possible time and at least cost. Although the solution proposed here is relevant for space technology development, parallels can be drawn to address similar issues in other sectors of industry. A close analog of the TRL scale is the “S-curve” commonly used in industry. The S-curve assesses the maturity of a technology either in terms of value to the company or the price a new product can potentially command. It introduces a parameter not explicitly addressed by the TRL scale- the time required to develop the technology (plotted on the X-axis). However, considering development time alone does not adequately describe the technology development process. We propose to modify the X-axis parameter to an as-yet-undefined complex function of time and investment. Value 6/3/2010 53
  • 54. Time Time The S-curve for technology development shows the value of a new product for a new product for a company plotted as a function of development. Two more terms need introduction in order to fully understand the technology development process: “pull technology development” and “push technology development.” Pull technologies are developed in response to an immediate need. Given this urgency, the tendency is to avoid extensive dependence on innovation but rather to adapt existing, mature technologies by incorporating the minor modifications required for the application niche. By definition, the customer is fully prepared to cover all costs associated with the development, and the outcome has a high probability of success. Push technologies, on the other hand, are “disruptive,” and are based almost exclusively on the innovator’s vision of customers’ perceived needs. On the plus side, this type of development carries the promise of a pioneering effort. The downside, however, is that most often the outcome has a low probability of success. In a few cases, this high failure rate could be attributed to unforeseen, technical “fatal flaws.” Most of the failures, however, are due to the inability of the technology development to cross the “TRL gap” to become a pull technology. The causes for failure are peculiar to each case but, in genera, are a combination of unenthusiastic customer perception, “impedance mismatch” with customer needs, subcritical investment, bad timing, insufficient niche development, and a lack of necessary technological support infrastructure, among others. The end result of the TRL gap is that the infusion of advanced technology is slowed, and in some cases stopped. In light of this, the TRL gap problem can be reformulated as the challenge of how to efficiently transition push technologies into pull technologies. Doing Things the Old Way Two historical technology developments, both of which have had an 6/3/2010 54
  • 55. enormous impact on aerospace, were the result of long, painful development. One is electric ion propulsion, a revolutionary concept conceived in the 1930s but not fully implemented until 1998; another is GPS, which underwent many stops and starts its three-decade development. An ion propulsion system generates thrust by accelerating electrically charged atoms out of an engine. Despite the tremendous potential savings in fuel mass and the greater specific thrust ion propulsion provides over chemical propulsion, the development of ion drives underwent a series of stops and starts throughout the 1950s and into the early 1990s. A major demotivator was the fact that chemical propulsion already existed as a proven technology, and in the race to get a man on the Moon, electrical propulsion development was perceived as a distraction from the goal at hand. It was not until the Deep Space-1 mission in 1998 that ion propulsion became truly operational for space missions. Now, it has been base lined as the critical technology for rapid flights to Mars and beyond. The Global Positioning System, considered one of the greatest inventions of humankind, is another technology with a long development history. The concept arose from pioneering work done in the 1960s on three-dimensional positioning, when the DOD developed the idea of global all-weather satellite positioning (the Transi and Timation programs). From these beginnings, however, GPS did not achieve full operation until 1995. Among the challenges holding back its rapid development were the lack of coordination among the various DOD agencies, competing initiatives, low and unstable funding, and the lack of a well-defined cost/benefit argument. Ultimately, the successful development of the GPS system required the establishment of a joint initiative among the Navy, the Army, and the Applied Physics Laboratory. Even then, it took several years for the group to establish the specifications for the system. Today, although the GPS system was developed to satisfy specific DOD positioning requirements, there has been an explosion in the number and diversity of its scientific and commercial applications, many probably not imagined by the original developers. Why a New Approach Now? It is recognized within the aerospace sector that a combination of risk-averse conservatism and lack of sufficient technology development funding has reduced the insertion of new technologies to a trickle. NASA and the U.S. aerospace industry at large are suffering from a broken technology development pipeline, which threatens to eliminate our competitive edge and with it our leadership in the aerospace sector. Clearly, the existing technology development process is unsuitable for the realities of today’s 6/3/2010 55
  • 56. environment and the constraints imposed on the infusion of new technologies. NASA’s technology development process is similar to that employed by most commercial firms, in which a Darwinian selection approach is applied to technology development and infusion. At the low TRL development stage, an attempt is made to increase the number of innovative ideas in hopes that there will ultimately be one or two productive concepts. The implicit assumption is that overcoming the low probability of success for push technologies requires the “seeding” of multiple concepts. It is questionable whether this is an efficient technology development paradigm. There are two key problems with this approach: • The overall resources allocated to low TRL development are severely limited. Therefore, by increasing one’s initial portfolio, one has further stretched these resources over an increased number of projects, driving each to be further sub-critically funded and thereby raising the probability of failure for each. • There is no one to “pick up the ball” once a technology has reached a mid-TRL stage. The link has not been made with potential customers and sponsors, who can carry the technology forward across the TRL gap. Crossing the TRL Divide Among the root causes of the TRL gap is the major divide in the mindsets of developers working in the high and low TRL areas. Individuals in the high TRL arena are accustomed to a relatively well-defined work environment in which the objective is to construct and demonstrate the technology at a system level. Technology development is generally straightforward, with few surprises. Low TRL folks, on the other hand, excel in an environment in which very little is precise. Chaos, serendipity, and ingenuity are woven intimately into the fabric of their work day. The primary challenge for NASA sponsors seeking to increase the efficiency of the technology “harvesting” process is to bring these communities together and create the most continuous technology development pipeline possible. The answer may lie in the creation of a TRL Maturation Team (TMT), composed of representatives from the high and low TRL communities. Given the current divide between the two, this may only happen via a NASA-inspired “shotgun marriage,” with strong management oversight, at least in the early stages. 6/3/2010 56
  • 57. Value Fn (time, investment) With this modified S-curve, the new product value is plotted as a function of both time and investment. Also seen are the equivalences with NASA’s TRL scale. The TMT concept is not original-the commercial sector has adopted “technology champion” and “transition team” concepts in an attempt to improve the efficiency of the technology maturation process. Ideally, the proposed TMT would be composed of the inventor of the technology, the high TRL system developer, reliability and testing personnel, and the end user. From an implementation perspective, the team should be formed at the early stages of low TRL development, essentially immediately after a new concept has been selected for funding. TRL SCALE (Abbreviated) TRL 1 Basic principles observed and reported TRL 2 Technology concept and/or application formulated TRL 3 Analytical and experimental critical function and/or characteristic proof-of concept TRL 4 Component and/or breadboard validation in the laboratory environment TRL 5 Component and/or breadboard validation in the relevant environment TRL 6 System/subsystem model or prototype demonstration in the relevant environment (ground or space) TRL 7 System prototype demonstration in a space environment TRL 8 Actual system completed and flight-qualified through test and demonstration (ground or flight) TRL 9 Actual system “flight-proven” through successful mission operations STUDENTS SHOULD CREATE THEIR OWN TRL SCALE FOR USE WITH ASSIGNED PROJECTS IN THIS UNIT. TMTs are created after funding decisions for low TRL concepts have been made to avoid coloring the initial technology selection process in any way with high TRL pragmatism. Instead, the selection process should be left pretty much in its current form, wherein a competitive process is employed in 6/3/2010 57
  • 58. which revolutionary or breakthrough concepts are selected by a panel of low TRL developers. Maintaining the status quo ensures that “diamonds in the rough” are not rejected. Even as a selection process can be expected to gather truly innovative concepts, the subsequent investment can also be made more efficient. By funding each project at the level required for a successful outcome, we can ensure that we are getting the best “bang” for our limited new technology development dollars. The shotgun marriage of the low and high TRL points of view within the TMT could prove to be mutually beneficial. During the low TRL development phase, high TRL team members play essentially an advisory role, guiding the inventor away from technological dead ends that could stop the technology from transitioning to the system level. Design changes are far cheaper and more cost-effective at low TRL than after the technology has matured in a direction that is not well aligned with the end application. In return, the high TRL members become intimately acquainted with the emerging technology and its various nuances, so that they can anticipate the challenges they will have to face during high TRL development. The TMT’s role becomes increasingly important once the proof-of-concept for the technology has been successfully demonstrated. The TMT assumes a critical role during the mid-TRL phase of the technology development. This is the crucial juncture in the development cycle - the point at which the TRL gap manifests itself. The reason mid-TRL development is such a dreaded phase is that a successful transition to high TRL depends on factors coming together in the correct order. The ultimate objective here is to change the character of the technology from “push” to “pull” - create a customer demand. In NASA terms, this means convincing mission mangers or principal investigators that the technology has significant advantages over the state- of-the-art. Just as in the commercial sector, the conversion process involves first adapting the technology to a sequential series of niche applications and technology demonstrations (as in the electric ion propulsion case) until the demonstrated successes combine to create a demand for the technology. Successful transition to high TRL is achieved when new missions are designed around the technology rather than the other way around. This is an expensive, time-consuming process and one in which the skills of the high TRL members of the team come to the forefront. Selling the Customers A TMT - like mechanism may prove to be a significant improvement over the status quo and offers program managers, and ultimately the agency, a 6/3/2010 58
  • 59. means to efficiently transition a larger number of new technologies within the same budgetary constraints. In the current technology development environment, it is incumbent on the inventor to develop the necessary skills to transition a technology across the TRL gap. With the proposed TMT approach, the burden of maturing the technology is shared by the TMT as a whole. Quite often, the hardest task the inventor faces is convincing potential customers and high TRL developers that the new technology will provide significant benefits over the state-of-the-art. The vicious cycle - inadequate results to attract funding to generate the necessary results - is an all-too- common occurrence in the low TRL world. The TMT-based technology development process, if implemented well, should result in a smooth transition through the various TRL levels. The success of the process rests primarily on the higher TRL “champions” for the technology. By making them an integral part of the TMT from the beginning, they will need no further convincing on the merits of the new technology. Within the TMT mechanism a smooth transition in “leading roles” is assured. During the low TRL development phase, the inventor’s role is ascendant; as the technology achieves higher maturity, member possessing the appropriate level of marketing and customer interface skills required for the further advancement assume leadership roles. BENEFITS OF THE TMT APPROACH * Creates a smoothly functioning “technology development pipeline.” * Minimizes the inefficiencies that currently exist in the transitioning of new technologies to mission applications by: • Reducing waste of low TRL investment, (increasing the probability of successful development outcomes) • Enabling low-cost design changes at the low TRL development stage to make the technology more compatible with the ultimate system implementation • Reducing “impedance mismatch” between low TRL technologies and high TRL end applications • Shortening the total life cycle for new technology development, including avoiding stops and starts • Avoiding additional investment and loss of infusion time at the high TRL stage by cash-strapped flight projects attempting to adapt the technology to fit within the mission constraints. * Establishes effective advocacy for the technology, beginning at the low TRL development stage. Students should conclude the reading of this article and class seminar discussion led by the instructional team with an ECR written statement that requires each student to describe the benefits of the TRL process. 6/3/2010 59
  • 60. Explanation: 1. Students should be challenged to address the following questions in both oral and written formats. Written statements should be brief constructed responses with oral responses given during class seminar or class discussion settings: • What are the major project management approaches used currently by diverse organizations and businesses? • How does NASA plan, organize, and control all of the work required to complete key missions or projects? • Why should NASA be interested in measuring or determining the maturity of a product or system? 2. Students will also offer their opinions with supporting information during discussions on selected topics presented by the instructor. One example is the critical engagement question: • Should humans be sent to live and work on the lunar surface or other planets? Responses should be presented orally as part of a class seminar or class discussion and if appropriate as a brief constructed response before a class discussion is initiated so that students will be prepared to address the key question. 3. TRL benefits analysis after reading of TRL article from authors at the Jet Propulsion laboratory as an ECR statement. 4. Project management review of management functions identified and discussed via BCR statement. 5. Multi-media presentation for the engagement task of organizing teams to assemble pens, penlights or flashlight components - review of team approach. 6. Multi-media presentation on selected APOLLO mission by student teams -management processes employed to control work functions and quality. 7. Analysis of "Risk Management" process in seminar. Extension: 1. Students will be challenged to design and develop their own version of a TRL scale which will be used to evaluate and manage future projects as part of several Engineering Design projects required later in this unit. Since NASA pioneered this scale and has used this system to assess the ‘maturity’ of a particular technology, it is essential that students fully understand how the scale was developed mathematically and its overall value for accurate technology assessment. The utility of the scale, which at NASA consists of nine levels of technology development maturity, has led to its widespread use among other government agencies as well as the commercial sector. A simple way to present a TRL feature is the use of a close analog of this 6/3/2010 60
  • 61. scale, the S-curve. The S-curve assesses the maturity of a technology either in terms of value to the company or the price a new product can command. It introduces a parameter not explicitly addressed by the TRL scale - the time required to develop the technology (plotted on the X-axis). However, considering development time alone does not adequately describe the technology development process. At NASA, things are a bit more complex with respect to final determination of product maturity. A proposal is to modify the X-axis parameter to an as-yet-undefined complex function of time and investment. The S-curve image below should be reviewed by students and discussed in terms of it’s mathematical value and construction: Value Time The S-curve for technology development shows the value of a new product for a new product for a company plotted as a function of development. 2. In preparation for fully understanding how the development time of new technologies or powerful systems for aerospace purposes can extend for many years, students should be challenged to investigate and report on two outstanding examples of technological development that have made significant contributions to space travel. One is electric ion propulsion - a revolutionary concept conceived in the 1930’s but not fully implemented until 1998. The other is GPS (Global Positioning System), which underwent many stops and starts in a three- decade development. These two examples will provide a strong background for students as they attempt to realize how complicated the process is for a new technology to be appropriately ‘mature’ and ready for integration into a full scale aerospace project with valuable and widespread use. This research could be accomplished via independent or small group work as determined by the instructor. One key feature of this research should include an explanation of ‘why’ such technologies required long development time periods. A discussion of the social, political, geopolitical, economic, and environmental impacts might be most worthwhile. Additional topics could also be explored that provide more quality examples of varying degrees of technological development from concept to application 6/3/2010 61
  • 62. such as, but not limited to: • Fission Rockets • Solar Sails • Stirling RTG Generators • Fuel Cells • Food Products (Space Travel) • Lunar Rover • Space Suit Designs • Robotic Exploration (Surface) • Radio Communications Evaluation: Rubrics for the following are provided: 1. Students should be challenged to address the following questions in both oral and written formats. Written statements should be brief constructed responses with oral responses given during class seminar or class discussion settings: • What are the major project management approaches used currently by diverse organizations and businesses? • How does NASA plan, organize, and control all of the work required to complete key missions or projects? • Why should NASA be interested in measuring or determining the maturity of a product or system? 2. Students will also offer their opinions with supporting information during discussions on selected topics presented by the instructor. One example is the critical engagement question: • Should humans be sent to live and work on the lunar surface or other planets? Responses should be presented orally as part of a class seminar or class discussion and if appropriate as a brief constructed response before a class discussion is initiated so that students will be prepared to address the key question. 3. TRL benefits analysis after reading of TRL article from authors at the Jet Propulsion laboratory as an ECR statement. 4. Project management review of management functions identified and discussed via BCR statement. 5. TRL benefits analysis after reading of TRL article from authors at the Jet Propulsion laboratory as an ECR statement. 6. Project management review of management functions identified and discussed via BCR statement. 7. Multi-media presentation for the engagement task of organizing teams to assemble pens, penlights or flashlight components - review of team approach. 8. Multi-media presentation on selected APOLLO mission by student teams 6/3/2010 62
  • 63. -management processes employed to control work functions and quality. 9. Risk management analysis and discussion in class seminar. Enrichment Activities: 1. Students should contact one of the NASA departments that conducts work that is interesting to them and request information about how projects are managed in that specific department. This request should include examples of how work or tasks are planned, organized, and controlled. Using these three terms should help obtain detailed information about such activities at that office. This contact should be made via a formal business letter that is highly professional per the Business Letter Rubric. 2. Software development is a rapidly increasing need for NASA projects. How does project management for software development differ from other projects? The following offered as background information on this highly controlled and monitored process. Students should be challenged to investigate further and based on interest, present a detailed multi-media presentation on this unique process. 3. Students should be challenged to write a simple program using current languages (visual basic, Java, etc.) that will require the NASA software development process to be used. Students will use the provided background information and their additional research to design, monitor, test, and evaluate a final software product that performs a critical 'mission' function. Some suggestions are provided below: • Program that monitors 'temperature' changes in a space suit • Program that monitors 'heart rate' of lunar crew in space suite • Program that monitors 'perspiration; in a space suite • Program that monitors 'personal body temperature' of lunar crew in space suit. These are just suggestions for authentic basic programs that could be written by student teams to showcase their understanding and application of the value of integrated software and hardware systems to 'monitor' critical functions of the lunar crew. It is a great opportunity for students to 'integrate' sensor technology through well designed programming to perform these important data analysis functions as part of human physiology and health of the lunar crew. Students show present their final program with 'sensor' integration as a formal presentation. There should be a clear review of how the NASA 'ISO' project monitoring was accomplished. ISD Project Monitoring & Control (PMC)-SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT Number: 580-PC-012-01 Approved By: (signature) 6/3/2010 63
  • 64. Effective Date: February 1, 2005 Name: Joe Hennessy Expiration Date: February 1, 2009 Title: Chief, ISD Responsible Office: 580/Information Systems Asset Type: Process Division (ISD) Title: Project Monitoring & Control (PMC) PAL Number: 1.4 Purpose This document establishes the process for Project Monitoring and Control (PMC) for all ISD mission software. PMC is performed to provide understanding and insight into the project’s progress so that appropriate corrective actions can be taken when the project’s performance deviates significantly from the plan. Aspects of a project’s progress include interfaces to other organizations, deliverables, schedules, cost, effort, risk, reviews, verification, validation, and amount of supporting services. Planned management of these aspects is captured in one or more software and/or system plans. Scope This document provides the basic PMC process and requirements for the life cycle of mission software. Context Software Project Management Processes Diagram Project Project Formulation Closeout Process Process Project Project Project Planning Startup Monitoring & Process Process Control Process Roles and Product Development Lead (PDL): Responsibilities • Responsible for project safety, cost, schedule, and technical performance • Develops a cooperative and performance-oriented team 6/3/2010 64
  • 65. • Ensures that products and services from the project meet customer needs Development Team Lead (DTL) • Responsible for products produced by the team • Produces consolidated status reports from the team Review Team • Responsible for review of designated products, project progress, and project specific areas Software Developer • Produces product elements and related status reports on work progress Usage Scenario Primary Usage Scenario: • This process starts as soon as the project starts. The process is ongoing during the whole project life cycle. Inputs Primary Usage Scenario: • Base lined SMP/PP and subsidiary plans • Established development environment • Initial progress tracking worksheet • Project status information • Technical review materials  Review packages  Change Requests  Requests For Action (RFAs)  Review Item Dispositions (RIDS)  Impact Analysis (for Requirements changes), etc. 6/3/2010 65
  • 66. Entry Criteria Primary Usage Scenario: This process starts as soon as the project starts. Ideally, one should have access to the following inputs as a minimum for PMC startup: • Baselined Software Management Plan/Product Plan (SMP/PP) and subsidiary plans • Initial progress tracking worksheet Exit Criteria Primary Usage Scenario: Only two events can end the operation of this process: • The project stops when an Abort/Suspend order has been issued. OR • The project reaches “End-of-Mission”. Outputs Primary Usage Scenario: • Project Status Reports • Issues • Lessons Learned • PMC Risk Information • Requests for Action • Review Item Dispositions OR • None, if Abort/Suspend order is received. Major Tasks The PDL shall perform continuously: • Monitor project activities and resources • Monitor work products and project data • Monitor software acquisition • Monitor commitments The PDL shall perform as needed: • Manage corrective actions • Generate reports and review progress • Conduct milestone reviews • Document lessons learned 6/3/2010 66
  • 67. Task 1 Monitor Project Activities, Resources, and Personnel (PDL) a) Monitor progress against the schedule by periodically measuring actual completion of activities and milestones. • Compare this progress against the planned documented schedule. • Identify significant deviations and trends. b) Monitor the project’s cost and effort by periodically measuring actual cost and effort expended by project staff. • Compare the cost and effort to the planned documented estimates. • Identify significant deviations and trends. c) Monitor resources provided and used by the project. • Compare the resources to the planned documented estimates. • Identify significant deviations and trends. d) Monitor documented risks in the context of the project’s current status and circumstances. • If project circumstances change which could give rise to new risk(s), then send relevant information (PMC Risk Information) to the ISD Software Risk Identification sub- process. • Revise the documentation on risks as additional information becomes available to incorporate changes. Communicate risk status to those affected. See ISD Software Risk Monitoring e) Monitor project personnel training schedule by periodically measuring the progress of scheduled training. • Compare actual training against the planned documented training • Identify and document significant deviations and trends. GUIDANCE: Monitoring typically involves measuring the actual values of the SMP/PP (i.e., completion rate of software elements, resource utilization, etc.), comparing actual values to the estimates in the plan, and identifying significant deviations. Examples of resources, Task 1c, include: • Development and test environment • Safety and security environments • Network capacity • Manpower usage and training • Processor (CPU) and memory usage • Process usage and improvement • Facility development 6/3/2010 67
  • 68. Task 2 Monitor Work Products and Project Data (PDL) a) Monitor the project’s work products and tasks by periodically measuring the actual characteristics of the work products and task, e.g., size, complexity, quality, security, etc. • Compare the actual characteristics and the changes to the characteristics to estimates documented in the SMP/PP. • Identify significant deviations and trends. b) Monitor data management activities against the description in the SMP/PP on a periodic basis. • Identify significant issues and their potential impacts. • Document the results from the data management monitoring. GUIDANCE: Some examples of project data covered includes: source code and related files, meeting minutes, metrics, project documentation, telemetry, test scripts, input data, science data, safety and security backup plans, etc. Task 3 Monitor Software Acquisitions (PDL) Monitor the project’s acquisition of software by periodically performing the following as needed: a) Reviewing the needs of the project for new acquisitions of software. b) Initiate Requests-for-Proposal (RFPs) to satisfy identified needs. c) Prepare or update contracts to acquire software. d) Monitor suppliers for compliance with contract provisions, on- time software delivery, and quality of software to be delivered. e) Monitor acceptance of software that is delivered to assure full compliance with acceptance processes and quality requirements. GUIDANCE: See the Software Acquisition process for details. Task 4 Monitor Commitments (PDL) a) Monitor internal and external commitments against the plan. b) Monitor the status of stakeholder involvement against the plan. c) Identify those commitments that have not been satisfied or those that are at significant risk of not being satisfied. d) Document the results of these reviews. GUIDANCE: Some examples of these types of commitments include: • Deliverables • Interface Control Documents (ICDs) • Interface Requirements Documents (IRDs) • Engineering Test Units (ETUs) • Requests for Action (RFAs) • Review Item Dispositions (RIDs) 6/3/2010 68
  • 69. • Simulator availability • Staff from other organizations Once the stakeholders are identified and the extent of their environment within the project is specified in the SMP/PP, that involvement must be monitored to ensure that the appropriate stakeholders. Task 5 Generate Reports and Review Progress (PDL) a) Gather issues for analysis developed during previous tasks or input from other processes. b) Analyze issues to determine need for corrective action. Document the analysis and appropriate actions needed to address the identified issues. c) Review and get agreement with the relevant stakeholders on the actions to be taken and the priority to be assigned for their completion. d) Negotiate changes to internal and external commitments. e) Monitor the corrective actions for completion. f) Analyze results of corrective actions to determine their effectiveness. If previous corrective actions did not produce the desired result, then return to step b) above to rework the issues involved. GUIDANCE: Issues are collected from reviews and the execution of other processes. Examples of issues to be gathered include: • Issues discovered through performing product development, maintenance, reviews, execution of other processes, verification and validation activities. • Significant deviations in schedule, cost, staffing, quality, product size, requirements, risk, etc. from the estimates in the SMP/PP. • Commitments (internal and external) that have not been satisfied. • Significant changes in risk status. • Data access, collection, privacy, safety, and security issues. • Stakeholder representation or involvement issues. • Change requests, impact analysis (for requirements changes) • Requests for action • Review item dispositions 6/3/2010 69
  • 70. Task 6 Generate Reports and Review Progress (PDL) a) Assemble project measures and the identified significant deviations and trends from what was planned in the SMP/PP. b) Use the data to generate Metrics Reports. c) Produce project status report (that includes the Metrics data). d) Communicate status on assigned activities and work products to relevant stakeholders, including project, line management, and the project team. e) Review the results of collecting and analyzing measures for controlling the project with relevant stakeholders. f) Identify and document significant issues and action items resulting from these project progress reviews. g) Track action items and issue resolution to closure. GUIDANCE: Data that should be included in the report: progress tracking data, schedule, risk, cost, effort, software error rates including severity, testing results, deficiency report (DR) summary, issues, etc. Examples of progress reviews include the following: • Reviews with the project team • Reviews with project management and suppliers • Reviews with line management • Reviews with customers and end users Stakeholders include managers, project team, customers, end users, suppliers, and others affected within the organization. Include these stakeholders in reviews as appropriate. Task 7 Conduct Milestone Reviews (PDL) a) Conduct the reviews at meaningful points in the project’s schedule with relevant stakeholders. b) Review the commitments, plan, status, and risks of the project. c) Collect and document significant issues and their impacts as Review Item Dispositions (RIDs) and Requests For Action (RFAs). d) Assign RIDs/RFAs for corrective action to the appropriate process. e) Track action items and issues to closure. GUIDANCE: Milestone reviews are planned during project planning and are typically formal reviews. • Software Requirements Review (SRR) • Software Preliminary Design Review (PDR) • Software Critical Design Review (CDR) • Acceptance Test Readiness Review (ATRR) • Operational Readiness Review (ORR 6/3/2010 70
  • 71. See checklists at for details. Stakeholders include managers, staff members, customers, end users, suppliers, and others affected within the organization. Include these stakeholders in milestone reviews as appropriate. Task 7d example: “Assign RIDs/RFAs for corrective action”, Requirements change RIDs/RFAs would be assigned to the Requirements Management process. Corrective action is required when the issue may prevent the project from meeting its objectives if left unresolved. Examples of potential actions include the following: • Modifying the statement of work • Modifying the requirements • Revising estimates and plans • Renegotiating commitments • Adding resources • Changing appropriate processes • Revising project risks Task 8 Document Lessons Learned (PDL) a) Collect and document issues that are found to have had a significant positive or negative impact on the project. If possible provide a suggestion for improvement to processes. b) Submit these significant issues (Lessons Learned) to the GSFC Engineering Process group for distribution to relevant stakeholders. GUIDANCE: Lessons Learned are those significant issues encountered during a project that have affected, either positively or negatively, the schedule, cost, effort, staffing, quality, product size, requirements, risk, required resources, commitments, training, stakeholder involvement, processes, etc. To view previous Lessons Learned or to submit a new one goes to the GSFC website . 6/3/2010 71
  • 72. Measures Recommended Measures: • Resource use (planned versus actual) • Commitments (both internal and external) • Project risks (status of current as well as possible new) • Training for project personnel (planned versus actual) • Stakeholder Involvement (planned versus actual) Required Measures are found in “In-House Development and Maintenance of Software Products”, GPG 8700.5, at • Schedule (planned versus actual) • Budget (cost and effort) • Product size • Product error information Tools and Templates Name Description Action Item Tracking Tracking and maintaining status Tool Earned Value Tool Excel-based workbook tool available at Microsoft Project Tool Tool for tracking schedule available as COTS software from Microsoft Corp. Risk Tracking Tool Tracking and maintaining status Training Course Name Description Earned Value Earned Value strategies and methods for the first time user of the Excel-based workbook tool. For more details see: training.htm Foundations FPM provides interesting and relevant instruction of of Project the methodologies, techniques, terms and Management guidelines used to manage cost, schedules and technical aspects through the life cycle of a project. The course is invaluable for project control and support personnel who need a better grasp of the project world. For more details see: 6/3/2010 72
  • 73. Training Quantitative A two-day course developed a FPL and taught by (continued) Software Jairus Hihn and Bill Decker. Contains GSFC- Management specific information. Course materials include lecture presentations, tools, spreadsheets, and supporting information. Individual presentations, tools, etc. can be accessed from the web page address provided. For more details see: http:/ / Risk This 2-day course familiarizes the student with the Management fundamentals of Continuous Risk Management (CRM) and provides for interactive learning through the use of various methods and tools and a hypothetical space flight project case study. The second day is dedicated to organization-specific activities that will: 1) establish and organization- specific risk baseline; 2) practice the functions of CRM paradigm; 3) promote teambuilding and a more cohesive work environment; 4) provide risk information that can be acted on immediately upon completion of the course. Emphasis can be placed on the creation of Risk Management Plan as deemed necessary by each organization. For more details see: Home.htm Software The Software Project Management Course is a 5- Project day, residential, intermediate project management Management course targeted at those interested in increasing their knowledge of systems and software. Attendees should have some experience in managing projects. The course provides an overview of project management and associated topics. Classroom activities are augmented by hands-on workshops and group projects (e.g., project management plans, earned value, risk management, cost/schedule/technical performance monitoring). For more details see: http://software. 6/3/2010 73
  • 74. Training Technical The TMT is a 6-day residential program that (continued) Manager’s focuses on presenting a high level overview of how Training work gets done in the Goddard environment. The Course Objectives are to: a) Learn about the Life Cycle of a project within the Goddard environment b) Get familiar with principles of good Project Management, (How to plan, organize, implement, and control technical projects) and c) Learn principles of how to increase effectiveness within work teams through collaborative team participation. There is a two-hour orientation at Goddard Greenbelt, 6 full days at Wallops and an hour and a half wrap-up session the following week in Goddard Greenbelt. The course begins on a Sunday and ends on a Friday. Developmental activities begin on the bus ride to Wallops. • Glossary: References Defines common terms used in ISD processes • ETVX Diagram: Link to the ETVX diagram for this process • Process Asset Library: Library of all ISD process descriptions • In-House Development and Maintenance of Software Products, GPG 8700.5, at • NASA Software Engineering Requirements, NPR 7150.x, at The latest versions of the following can be found in the Process Asset Library at • ISD Software Risk Identification • ISD Software Risk Monitoring and Control • Software Requirements Review (SRR) Checklist • Software Preliminary Design Review (PDR) Checklist • Software Critical Design Review (CDR) Checklist • Acceptance Test Readiness Review (ATRR) Checklist • Operational Readiness Review (ORR) Checklist Students will apply 'NASA' Project Management techniques to plan, organize, and control extension activities in Lessons 2-6. Specifically, they should apply their version of a 'TRL' Readiness Assessment. 6/3/2010 74
  • 75. Classroom - Laboratory Preparation: There needs to be a formal presentation area with overhead projector, computer projector, and screen. There should be an area for group work with large tables that can be reorganized to accommodate small or large group work. There must be a computer lab with full Internet capability and CADD software. In addition, there needs to be a comprehensive fabrication laboratory that includes numerous and diverse power equipment allowing all types of materials to be processed in order to generate final products as part of the design brief challenge. Tools/Materials Equipment: • Computers (a standard for all lessons in this course) • Computer projector (a standard for this course) • Screen (a standard for this course) • Overhead projector (a standard for this course) • Paper supplies, scissors, graph paper, chart paper, markers • CADD lab with appropriate software program (suggested solid works or similar 3-D development software) • Modeling materials (clay, Styrofoam, plastic, paper, cardboard, glue guns, etc.) • Numerous and diverse fabrication equipment (woods, metals, plastics) • Numerous and diverse materials for final product creation (modeling techniques) Laboratory/Classroom Safety and Conduct: Students should follow prescribed program and school safety rules. It is also assumed that every teacher will establish appropriate rules of conduct and a management system to ensure high performance behavior and interaction with peers by all students. A clear set of consequences and rewards should be defined, reviewed, and maintained throughout the school year. Specific rubrics for independent and group work are modeled in many lessons in this course guide. During this course, many lessons will suggest that students assume numerous, diverse, and authentic roles found in the engineering field. This technique offers students the opportunity to learn about ‘conduct’ becoming to a professional in engineering, science, or mathematics. It is highly recommended that each instructor offer as much job-task structure as possible so that students can experience the demanding and highly responsible nature of engineering careers. During this unit, all efforts by the instructional team should be made to ensure that students are engaged and challenged to function in an authentic NASA management system. Students should have clearly defined roles and responsibilities reflective of the most current NASA project management techniques used during the lunar exploration initiative. 6/3/2010 75
  • 76. If possible, students should be allowed to assume a wide variety of management and labor positions throughout the entire course. The structure and other more realistic options for such an approach can be found in the Project Management unit. In fact, some instructors actually assign salaries reflective of the industry and connect some aspects of assessment to a professional review for salary increases based on job-performance. Again, this enables students to better understand the issue of connecting ability, performance, work ethics, and attitude to actual career evaluation standards and processes via classroom activities. The more authentic the environment and class procedures, student gains in understanding how engineers perform their work will be greatly enhanced. The use of actual NASA ‘personnel’ charting or NASA ‘project-task’ charting for all group work as well as other simulations found in the course offers powerful, authentic experiences helping to prepare students for the rigor and challenge of engineering work accomplished within the numerous NASA research and development facilities. In this unit, students should assume roles and responsibilities consistent with NASA project management and quality control processes as they plan, organize, and control the required instructional tasks associated with living and working on the lunar surface. Students should be challenged to investigate and report on the following management processes employed by NASA agencies: • Foundations of Project Management (FPM) • Quantitative Software Management • Risk Management • Software Project Management NASA resources for these programs are: • http://oht, • KS/bdr/O144 1/4/06 6/3/2010 76