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  1. 1. The Role of Colleges and Universities in Disaster Reduction Kocaeli ’99 Emergency Management Conference Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul Turkey 16-17 January 2003 B.Wayne Blanchard, Ph.D., CEM Emergency Management Higher Education Project Manager Federal Emergency Management Agency National Emergency Training Center, Emergency Management Institute Emmitsburg, Maryland 21727 w ayne [email_address]
  2. 2. Disasters And The U.S. <ul><li>Large and Growing Range of Hazards </li></ul><ul><li>Disaster Losses Are Enormous </li></ul><ul><li>Significantly Escalating Last Four Decades </li></ul><ul><li>Projected to Become Worse </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Becoming More Vulnerable </li></ul><ul><li>No Light At The End Of The Tunnel </li></ul>
  3. 3. “ The Time Has Come For A New National Approach To Natural Hazards” (Congressional Natural Hazards Caucus, Jan 2001)
  4. 4. Implications <ul><li>Hazards Produce Disaster Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Disaster Experience = Lessons Learned </li></ul><ul><li>Lessons Learned = Prescriptions </li></ul><ul><li>We Basically Know What To Do </li></ul><ul><li>Losses Nonetheless Escalating </li></ul><ul><li>Current Hazard Approaches Inadequate </li></ul><ul><li>Need Redesigned Approach </li></ul>
  5. 5. Framework For Role of Colleges and Universities In Disaster Reduction <ul><li>Generate New Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Advocacy </li></ul><ul><li>Community Service </li></ul><ul><li>Setting Positive Example </li></ul>
  6. 6. Generate Knowledge <ul><li>Conduct Research </li></ul><ul><li>Organize and Systematize Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Provide Critique, Evaluation, Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Reach Out to Broad Range of Disciplines, i.e., Break Out of Disciplinary Straightjackets </li></ul><ul><li>Redefine Scholarship to Include Both Basic and Applied Research and Professional Service </li></ul>
  7. 7. Conduct Research <ul><li>Hazard/Disaster Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Risk Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Risk Management </li></ul><ul><li>Cost-Effective Mitigation Measures </li></ul><ul><li>Communication of Disaster Risk </li></ul><ul><li>Hazards Public Policy Implementation </li></ul>
  8. 8. Transfer Knowledge (Audiences) <ul><li>Emergency/Disaster Managers </li></ul><ul><li>Hazard/Disaster Communities </li></ul><ul><li>Key Professions and Disciplines </li></ul><ul><li>Policy and Decision-Makers </li></ul><ul><li>The Public </li></ul><ul><li>K-12 </li></ul><ul><li>College Students (Grad and Undergrad) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Emergency Management College Programs by Year Wisc------- TESC------- RIT------- UNT------- Project Begins-------- UC-Berk------
  10. 10. EM Degree Programs 2003 <ul><li>83 College Emergency Mgmt. Programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>35 Certificates, Minors or Diplomas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>11 Associate Degrees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8 Bachelor Degrees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>22 Masters Programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7 Doctoral-Level Programs </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Projected Collegiate Program Growth <ul><li>~100 Programs Under Investigation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>36 at Associate Degree Level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>38 at Bachelor Level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>22 at Graduate Level </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Transfer Knowledge (Tools) <ul><li>Educational Courses and Programs </li></ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul><ul><li>Workshops </li></ul><ul><li>Conferences </li></ul><ul><li>Presentations </li></ul><ul><li>Consulting </li></ul><ul><li>Publications (Other Than Academic/Technical) </li></ul><ul><li>Internet </li></ul><ul><li>I.e., Become a Hazards Knowledge Hub – Venue for Reliable and Accessible Scientific Information </li></ul>
  13. 13. Advocacy <ul><li>Leader in Disaster Prevention Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Foster Change -- Create Infrastructure/Culture Necessary for Engagement </li></ul><ul><li>Develop Courses that Promote Engagement </li></ul><ul><li>Lend Credibility to Hazard Reduction Measures </li></ul><ul><li>Bring Practitioners and Researchers Together </li></ul><ul><li>Find Effective Ways to Phrase the Message </li></ul><ul><li>New Ways to Reach Policy/Decision Makers </li></ul><ul><li>Cultivate “Savvy” Media </li></ul>
  14. 14. Community Service <ul><li>Be Proactive Local, Regional, National, International Citizen </li></ul><ul><li>Partner and Network with Stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Engage With Local Community </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan, Train and Exercise Together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Citizen Emergency Response Teams </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Create Student Service Learning Opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Develop Systems of Accountability for Engagement Activities </li></ul>
  15. 15. Set Positive Example <ul><li>Walk The Talk – Do What Is Advocated </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinate, Partner, Collaborate, Network, Share </li></ul><ul><li>Become a Disaster Resistant University </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conduct University Risk Assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop Hazards Risk Management Program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network, Coordinate and Communicate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disaster Resistant New Construction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retrofit of Existing Structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soft (Non-Structural) Mitigation </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Results? <ul><li>Enhanced Understanding of Hazards and Relationship to Political, Social, Cultural, Economic Environments </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanced Disaster Response and Management </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition that Disaster Reduction is Feasible </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanced Ability to Communicate Risk Effectively </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanced Commitment to Disaster Reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforced Political Will </li></ul><ul><li>Disaster Reduction Integrated and Mainstreamed </li></ul><ul><li>Movement from Reactive Response to Proactive Prevention </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of Culture of Disaster Prevention </li></ul>
  17. 17. Education is Key <ul><li>“…although knowledge does not guarantee power over natural catastrophe, it is a prime requisite of disaster prevention.” (Alexander 2000, 249) </li></ul><ul><li>“Human history becomes more and more a race between education and catastrophe.” (H.G. Wells) </li></ul>