Toolkit #3


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Toolkit #3

  1. 1. The Systems Analysis Toolkit Project Management Tools
  2. 2. Systems Analyst’s Toolkit <ul><li>Part 3 Project Management Tools </li></ul>
  3. 3. Objectives <ul><li>Describe project management tools and how they are used </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the steps used in project planning </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the project estimating process </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the different scheduling tools, including Gantt charts and PERT/CPM charts </li></ul>
  4. 4. Objectives <ul><li>Calculate completion times, start dates, and end dates for a project </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the tasks of project monitoring, control, and reporting </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the steps involved in software change control </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the reasons why projects sometimes fail </li></ul>
  5. 5. Introduction <ul><li>The Systems Analyst’s Toolkit explains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Project management tools and techniques including planning, estimating, scheduling, monitoring, control, reporting, and the use of project management software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gantt charts and PERT/CPM that can be used to schedule and monitor projects and changes </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Project Management <ul><li>Project management is the process of defining, planning, organizing, leading, and controlling the development of an information system </li></ul><ul><li>Project management is important throughout the SDLC, and especially during the systems implementation phase </li></ul>
  7. 7. Project Management <ul><li>Project management overview </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal is to deliver a system that is acceptable to users, on time, and within budget </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Every project must have a project manager, or project leader </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most large projects also have a project coordinator who handles administrative matters and relationships with users </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Project Management <ul><li>Management functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning: identifying and planning project tasks and estimating completion times and costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizing: staffing, including selecting the project team and assigning responsibilities to team members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leading or directing: guiding, supervising, and coordinating the team’s workload </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlling: monitoring progress, evaluating results, and taking necessary corrective action </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Project Management <ul><li>Project planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A project plan is an overall framework for managing costs and schedules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The planning process involves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Activities (tasks) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Events (milestones) </li></ul></ul></ul>Click to see Figure 3-1
  10. 10. Project Estimating <ul><li>Factors that project managers must consider </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Size of the project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A project that is twice as large as another will require considerably more than twice the resources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As the size of the project grows, the number of interfaces grows even faster </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capabilities of team members </li></ul></ul>Click to see Figure 3-3 Click to see Figure 3-2
  11. 11. Project Estimating <ul><li>Developing time and cost estimates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Project size and scope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IT resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prior experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constraints </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Project Scheduling <ul><li>The project manager must know </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The duration of each task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The order in which the tasks will be performed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The start and end times for each activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who will be assigned to each task </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assignments should not overload or under-utilize team members </li></ul><ul><li>A level workload is desirable </li></ul>
  13. 13. Scheduling Tools <ul><li>A project manager can use several graphical planning tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gantt charts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PERT/CPM charts </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Scheduling Tools <ul><li>Gantt charts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A Gantt chart is a horizontal bar chart that illustrates a schedule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time is shown on the horizontal axis and activities are arranged vertically </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The position of a bar shows the start and end of a task, and the length of the bar shows the task’s duration </li></ul></ul>Click to see Figure 3-5
  15. 15. Scheduling Tools <ul><li>Gantt charts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tasks can be combined into activity groups to simplify the chart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Various methods exist for tracking progress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shade the completed portion of a bar </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use a triangle or arrowhead as an indicator </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use a second bar to show the completed work </li></ul></ul></ul>Click to see Figure 3-6
  16. 16. Scheduling Tools <ul><li>PERT/CPM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Program Evaluation Review Technique (PERT) and the Critical Path Method (CPM) were developed separately but now are referred to as PERT/CPM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A PERT/CPM chart displays a project as a network diagram, with activities shown as vectors, and events represented by nodes </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Scheduling Tools <ul><li>PERT/CPM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The vectors representing tasks connect the nodes, which indicate milestones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The activity’s estimated duration is shown below the vector </li></ul></ul>Click to see Figure 3-7b Click to see Figure 3-7a
  18. 18. Scheduling Tools <ul><li>PERT/CPM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The vectors representing tasks connect the nodes, which indicate milestones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The activity’s estimated duration is shown below the vector </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tasks that must be completed in a specific sequence are called dependent, or serial, tasks </li></ul></ul>Click to see Figure 3-8
  19. 19. Scheduling Tools <ul><li>PERT/CPM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The vectors representing tasks connect the nodes, which indicate milestones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The activity’s estimated duration is shown below the vector </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tasks that must be completed in a specific sequence are called dependent, or serial, tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dummy activities can be used to show task dependencies </li></ul></ul>Click to see Figure 3-9
  20. 20. Scheduling Tools <ul><li>PERT/CPM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A project can be represented with a Gantt chart and a PERT/CPM chart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Significant differences exist between the two methods, and each method has strengths and weaknesses </li></ul></ul>Click to see Figure 3-10
  21. 21. Scheduling Tools <ul><li>PERT/CPM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Activity duration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A weighted formula can be used to estimate activity duration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The formula calculates a weighted result based on three separate estimates (optimistic (O), pessimistic (P), and most likely (M)) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Scheduling Tools <ul><li>PERT/CPM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Earliest completion times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The earliest completion time for an activity is called the ECT </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The ECT is the minimum amount of time needed to complete all the activities that precede the event </li></ul></ul></ul>Click to see Figure 3-10
  23. 23. Scheduling Tools <ul><li>PERT/CPM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Earliest completion times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Working from left to right on the chart, the ECT is calculated by taking the ECT of the preceding event and adding the duration of the immediately preceding task </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If the event has more than one preceding task, use the largest ECT of the preceding tasks, including any dummy tasks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The ECT is shown as a number in the upper-right section of the event node symbol </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Scheduling Tools <ul><li>PERT/CPM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Latest completion times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The latest completion time for an activity is called the LCT </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The LCT is the latest time at which the event can occur without delaying the overall project </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Scheduling Tools <ul><li>PERT/CPM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Latest completion times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To determine an LCT, you reverse the procedure for an ECT </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Work from right to left , and subtract the LCT of the following task </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If the event has more than one following task, use the smallest LCT of the following tasks, including any dummy tasks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The LCT is shown as a number in the lower-right section of the event node symbol </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Scheduling Tools <ul><li>PERT/CPM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Latest completion times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The slack time for an event is the amount of time by which an event can be late without delaying the project </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The slack time is the difference between the LCT and the ECT, if any </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Scheduling Tools <ul><li>PERT/CPM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical path </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A critical path is a series of events and activities with no slack time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>At least one complete path will exist where every node has equal ECTs and LCTs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If any task on the critical path is delayed beyond its LCT, the entire project falls behind by that amount of time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Project managers focus on the critical path in order to keep the project on track </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Project Monitoring, Controlling, and Reporting <ul><li>Project monitoring and control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Project managers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Set standards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure that they are followed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Keep track of the progress of team members </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compare actual progress to the plan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Verify the completion of project milestones </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Project Monitoring, Controlling, and Reporting <ul><li>Project scheduling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spend adequate time planning up front </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anticipate problems, identify potential solutions, and select best way to solve problem </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Project Reporting <ul><li>The project manager must </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collect the information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verify the information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organize the information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate the information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare a summary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Submit a report to management </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Project Reporting <ul><li>Project status meetings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Project managers schedule regular status meetings with the systems development team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Share information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Update the group </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identify problems or delays </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Explain new techniques </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Offer comments to team members </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conduct brainstorming sessions </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Project Reporting <ul><li>Project status reports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A project manager must report regularly to a supervisor, upper managers, and users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When to inform others of potential problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Too soon, and the manager might lose credibility by reporting on minor problems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Too late, and there might not be time for a solution to a serious problem </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Best course of action is somewhere between the two extremes </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Project Management Software <ul><li>A software package, such as Microsoft Project, offers many features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PERT/CPM and Gantt charts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource scheduling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project calendars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost tracking and cost-benefit analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Printed reports and screen displays </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Computer-generated screens show activities as nodes, with vectors connecting the tasks and indicating task dependencies </li></ul>Click to see Figure 3-12
  34. 34. Software Change Control <ul><li>Software change control is the process of managing and controlling changes requested after the system requirements document has been approved </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes are inevitable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A typical control procedure has four steps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Complete a change request form </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Take initial action on the request </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. Analyze the impact of the requested change </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4. Determine the disposition of the requested change </li></ul></ul></ul>Click to see Figure 3-13
  35. 35. Keys to Project Success <ul><li>Successful systems must satisfy business requirements, meet users’ needs, stay within budget, and be completed on time </li></ul><ul><li>The essential objective is to provide a solution to a business problem </li></ul>
  36. 36. Keys to Project Success <ul><li>Some reasons for failure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unclear requirements, targets, or scope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shortcuts or sloppy work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor design choices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insufficient testing or test procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of software change control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in culture, funding, or objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unrealistic cost estimates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor monitoring and control of progress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inadequate reaction to early signs of problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Failure to recognize activity dependencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personality conflicts and employee turnover </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Keys to Project Success <ul><li>When the project manager recognizes a problem, what options are available? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trim the project requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Add to the project resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delay the project deadline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve the quality of project management </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Whatever the reason, the project manager must try to get the project back under control and keep it under control </li></ul>
  38. 38. End Tookit Part 3