Time Management Slides - Without Answers.ppt
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  • 1. Project Time Management Sections of this presentation were adapted from A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge 3 rd Edition, Project Management Institute Inc., © 2004
  • 2. Project Time Management
    • “The processes required to accomplish timely completion of the project”
  • 3. Why Time Management?
    • Part of triple constraint, can’t manage one without the others (scope, time, and quality)
    • Second hardest section on the test behind integration
  • 4. How Do We Manage Time?
    • Six processes
      • Activity Definition
      • Activity Sequencing
      • Activity Resource Estimating
      • Activity Duration Estimating
      • Schedule Development
      • Schedule Control
    Activity Definition Activity Sequencing Activity Resource Estimating Activity Duration Estimating Schedule Development Schedule Control
  • 5. Activity Definition Enterprise Environmental Factors Organizational Process Assets Project Scope Statement
    • Decomposition
    • Templates
    • Rolling wave planning
    • Expert judgment
    • Planning component
    Inputs Outputs Tools & Techniques Work Breakdown Structure WBS Dictionary Project Management Plan Activity List Activity Attributes Milestone List Requested Changes Activity Definition Activity Sequencing Activity Resource Estimating Activity Duration Estimating Schedule Development Schedule Control
  • 6. Activity Definition
    • Rolling Wave Planning – Progressive planning where near term work is broken down in detail and distant work is kept at a higher WBS level
    • Planning Component – WBS items that cannot be broken down into work packages are put in a:
      • Control Account – High level planning dates for the scope to be defined
      • Planning Package – Package includes scope to be completed but no activities.
  • 7. Activity Sequencing Project Scope Statement Activity List Activity Attributes
    • Precedence diagramming method (PDM)
    • Arrow diagramming method (ADM)
    • Schedule network templates
    • Dependency determination
    • Applying leads and lags
    Inputs Outputs Tools & Techniques Milestone List Approved Change Requests Project Schedule Network Diagrams Activity List Updates Activity Attributes Updates Requested Changes Activity Definition Activity Sequencing Activity Resource Estimating Activity Duration Estimating Schedule Development Schedule Control
  • 8. Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM)
    • Commonly called Activity on Node (AON), most commonly used sequencing method
    • Boxes are used to represent tasks with arrows used for dependencies
    • Four types of dependencies
        • Finish to Start – Task must finish before next one can start
        • Finish to Finish – One task must finish before the other can finish
        • Start to Start – One task must start before the other can start
        • Start to Finish – One task must start before the other can finish
    Activity A Activity B Node Dependency
  • 9. Arrow Diagramming Method (ADM)
    • Commonly called Activity on Arrow (AOA)
    • Boxes are used to represent dependencies with arrows used for tasks
      • Only Finish to Start relationships
      • Can use “dummy” activities
    • Used for CPM and PERT estimating methods
    Task Dependency Activity A
  • 10. Method Comparison Start Build Foundation Build Walls Install Grass Build Roof Finish Start Build Foundation Build Walls Build Roof Finish Install Grass PDM (AON) Method ADM (AOA) Method
  • 11. Activity Resource Estimating Enterprise Environmental Factors Organizational Process Assets Activity List
    • Expert judgment
    • Alternatives analysis
    • Published estimating data
    • Project management software
    • Bottom-up estimating
    Inputs Outputs Tools & Techniques Activity Attributes Resource Availability Activity Resource Requirements Activity Attributes Updates Resource Breakdown Structure Resource Calendar Updates Project Management Plan Requested Changes Activity Definition Activity Sequencing Activity Resource Estimating Activity Duration Estimating Schedule Development Schedule Control
  • 12. Activity Duration Estimating Enterprise Environmental Factors Organizational Process Assets Project Scope Statement
    • Expert judgment
    • Analogous estimating
    • Parametric estimating
    • Three-point estimates
    • Reserve Analysis
    Inputs Outputs Tools & Techniques Activity List Activity Resource Requirements Activity Duration Estimates Activity attributes updates Resource Calendar Activity Attributes
    • Project Management Plan
      • Risk Register
      • Activity Cost Estimates
    Activity Definition Activity Sequencing Activity Resource Estimating Activity Duration Estimating Schedule Development Schedule Control
  • 13. Estimating Methods
    • CPM (Critical Path Method)
      • One time estimate per task
      • Controls cost with flexible schedule
      • Only on AOA networks (can have dummies)
      • Not the same thing as schedule critical path
    • PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique)
      • Three estimates per activity (Optimistic, Pessimistic, most likely)
      • Emphasis on meeting schedule with flexible cost
      • Only on AOA networks (can have dummies)
    • Monte Carlo Simulation
      • Gives probabilities of completing project on time, cost, and whether or not project is on critical path
  • 14. Estimating with PERT
    • PERT Formula (Expected Duration)
      • =(P+4M+O)/6
    • Standard Deviation = (P-O)/6
    • Variance = [(P-O)/6] 2
    1 day 1 day 4.3 days 8 days 4 days 2 days A Variance Std Dev PERT (Expected Duration) P Pessimistic M Most Likely O Optimistic Task
  • 15. Schedule Development Enterprise Environmental Factors Organizational Process Assets Project Scope Statement
    • Schedule network analysis
    • Critical path method
    • Schedule compression
    • What-if analysis
    • Resource leveling
    • Critical chain method
    • Project management software
    • Applying calendars
    • Adjustable leads and lags
    • Schedule model
    Inputs Outputs Tools & Techniques Activity List Activity Resource Requirements Schedule baseline Activity attributes updates Resource Calendar Activity Attributes
    • Project Management Plan
      • Risk Register
      • Activity Cost Estimates
    Project schedule Schedule model data Resource requirements updates Requested changes
    • Project management plan updates
      • Schedule management plan updates
    Project calendar updates Activity Definition Activity Sequencing Activity Resource Estimating Activity Duration Estimating Schedule Development Schedule Control
  • 16. Scheduling from Estimates
    • Critical Path
      • Longest time through the network diagram, the shortest time the project is expected to take
    • Slack (or Float)
      • The amount of time a task can be delayed without impacting the project
      • Calculated using:
        • Late Start – Early Start (LS-ES)
            • Or
        • Late Finish – Early Finish (LF-EF)
      • Early Starts computed by making a “forward pass” through the network while late starts are computed using a “backward pass”
  • 17. Critical Path Determination
    • EF=ES+DUR-1
    • LS=LF-DUR+1
    • Slack=LF-EF or LS-ES
    Task Name ES LS EF LF DUR Slack 4 2 2 2 3 1 9 8 6 3 2 10 8 9 0 10 4 3 0 7 8 1 0 2 Task A Task B Task C Task D
  • 18. Schedule Control Schedule Management Plan Schedule Baseline
    • Schedule network analysis
    • Critical path method
    • Schedule compression
    • What-if analysis
    • Resource leveling
    • Critical chain method
    • Project management software
    • Applying calendars
    • Adjustable leads and lags
    • Schedule model
    Inputs Outputs Tools & Techniques Performance reports Schedule baseline updates Requested changes Approved Change Requests Schedule model data updates Performance measurements Organizational process assets updates Activity list updates Recommended corrective actions Activity attribute updates Project Management Plan updates Activity Definition Activity Sequencing Activity Resource Estimating Activity Duration Estimating Schedule Development Schedule Control
  • 19. Other Important Terms
    • Lag – Inserted waiting time between tasks
    • Free Slack – Available delay time without impacting start of successor
    • Total Slack – Amount of time a task can be delayed without delaying project completion date
    • Project Slack – Amount of time a project can be delayed without impacting completion dates imposed by client
    • Crashing – Adding resources to critical path items to shorten schedule
    • Fast Tracking – Performing critical path tasks in parallel rather than series
    • Resource Leveling – Adjusting completion dates of tasks to meet available resources
    • Heuristics – Rules of thumb