Sylnovie Merchant, Ph.D MIS 210
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  • Important information system project components

Sylnovie Merchant, Ph.D MIS 210 Sylnovie Merchant, Ph.D MIS 210 Presentation Transcript

  • Lecture 1: The Systems Analyst Project Management MIS 210 Information Systems I
  • The Systems Analyst
  • What is MIS?
    • M anagement I nformation S ystems
    • Management
      • Focus on decision making
      • Blunting the technical edge
      • People-oriented
      • Output-oriented
  • What is MIS?
    • Information
      • Processed data
      • Computer or otherwise
    • Systems
      • Not just hardware / software
      • People and procedures
  • Overview
    • Information systems are crucial to modern business
    • Key to success is thorough systems analysis and design
    • Systems analyst is a key individual in these activities
  • Required Skills of the Systems Analyst
    • Technical knowledge and skills
      • Computer hardware, software, databases, and related devices
      • Tools to help develop analysis or design specifications
      • Techniques for completing specific development activities
    • Business knowledge and skills
      • Organizational structure
      • Functional work processes
  • Required Skills of the Systems Analyst
    • People knowledge and skills
      • Communication
      • Teams
    • Ethics and integrity
  • Environment Surrounding the Analyst
    • Information system configurations encountered will range from PC to large mainframe systems
    • Job titles of the systems analyst vary greatly
    • Places of employment vary from small businesses to large corporations
  • Analyst’s Role in Strategic Planning
    • Special projects that might affect executives
    • Members of the strategic plan development process
    • Input to the information systems strategic planning effort
      • Application architecture plan
      • Technology architecture plan
  • Project Management
  • A Project Is…
    • a temporary endeavor undertaken
    • to accomplish a unique purpose
  • A Project …
      • has definable purpose
      • cuts across organizational lines
      • is unique
      • is ad hoc
      • INVOLVES GETTING A COMPLEX ACTIVITY DONE
  • Project Characteristics
    • Because projects are new (not at the repetitive operations stage), they typically involve
      • high levels of uncertainty and risk
      • difficult to estimate resources required
      • difficult to estimate time required
    • Temporary activities by ad hoc organizations
  • Dimensions of Complexity
    • magnitude of effort
    • number of groups and organizations to be coordinated
    • diversity in skills or expertise needed
    • usually the MORE COMPLEX, the more time and resources required
  • Project Phases and the Project Life Cycle
    • A project life cycle is a collection of project phases
    • Project phases vary by project or industry, but some general phases include
      • concept
      • development
      • implementation
      • support
  • Project Entities
    • Project Manager
      • coordinates efforts across functional areas;
      • integrates planning & controls costs;
      • schedules, assigns tasks
    • Project Team
      • group of people doing what needs to be done
      • often from different functions, organizations
    • Project Management System
      • organizational structure, information processing, procedures permitting integration of tasks and those who accomplish them
  • The Project Team
    • Each member performs specialized task
    • Skills and abilities
    • Size and make-up
  • INPUT Environment-level factors (Nature of task and technology, rewards, policies, and organization structure) Group-level factors (Size and structure) Individual-level factors (Abilities, motives, and other characteristics of members) PROCESS Group dynamics (Patterns of interaction, activity, and sentiment including informal cliques, norms, unofficial practices, etc.) OUTPUT Task performance (Quality and quantity of work done and speed with which it is done) Member satisfaction (Satisfaction of survival, affiliation, power, achievement, and self- actualization needs) The IS Project Team
  • What is Project Management?
    • Project management is “the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities in order to meet or exceed stakeholder needs and expectations from a project” (PMI*, Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide), 1996, pg. 6)
    *The Project Management Institute (PMI) is an international professional society. Their web site is www.pmi.org.
  • Projects and Project Management
    • recognize that organizations are made up of interrelated units
    • need coordinated goals
    • integration benefits global objective attainment
      • all pull towards same goal
    • PROJECTS are systems of interrelated tasks and work units
    • PROJECT MANAGEMENT unifies planning and work efforts to accomplish multiple goals
  • Project Management Features
    • differs from repetitive operations
      • market and technology much less predictable
      • greater uncertainty of outcomes
      • more parties or organizations involved
      • DYNAMIC environment
  • IS Project Management
    • identify what needs to be accomplished
    • determine feasibility
    • get required resources
    • accurately estimate time required
    • balance time, cost, and performance requirements
    • control operation to make efficient
  • A Systems View of Project Management
    • A systems approach emerged in the 1950s to describe a more analytical approach to management and problem solving
    • Three parts include:
      • Systems philosophy: View things as systems; interacting components working within an environment to fulfill some purpose
      • Systems analysis: problem-solving approach
      • Systems management: Address business, technological, and organizational issues before making changes to systems
  • Project Management Tools and Techniques
    • Project management tools and techniques assist project managers and their teams in various aspects of project management
    • Some specific ones include
      • Project Charter
      • Gantt charts, PERT charts, critical path analysis (time)
      • Cost estimates and Earned Value Analysis (cost)
    • IT Projects have a poor track record
      • A 1995 Standish Group study found that only 16.2% of IT projects were successful
      • Over 31% of IT projects were canceled before completion, costing over $81 B in the U.S. alone
    • A 1999 ComputerWorld article listed “project manager” as the #1 position IT managers say they need most for contract help
    • The demand for IT projects is increasing
    Why Is Information Technology (IT) Project Management Important?
  • Advantages of Project Management
    • Bosses, customers, and other stakeholders do not like surprises
    • Good project management (PM) provides assurance and reduces risk
    • PM provides the tools and environment to plan, monitor, track, and manage schedules, resources, costs, and quality
    • PM provides a history or metrics base for future planning as well as good documentation
    • Project members learn and grow by working in a cross-functional team environment
    • Source: Knutson, Joan, PM Network , December 1997, p. 13
  • Project Management Resources
    • Check out the Project Management Institute’s (PMI) website at www.pmi.org
      • Review the role of PMI and the services offered
    • Go to www.pmi.org/pmief/
      • View the presentation “An Introduction to A Framework for Project Management”
      • Read “About Project Management”