Software Project Management
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Software Project Management

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Software Project Management Software Project Management Presentation Transcript

  • Software Project Management Session 9: Project Control
  • Today
    • Session 8 Review
    • Project Control
    • Status Reporting
    • Earned Value Analysis
    • MS Project
  • Session 8 Review
    • Project roles and team structure
    • CMM
    • Requirements
  • Project Control
    • Ongoing effort to keep your project on track
    • 4 primary activities:
      • 1. Planning performance
        • A SDP, schedule, and a control process
      • 2. Measuring status of work performed
        • Actuals
      • 3. Comparing to baseline
        • Variances
      • 4. Taking corrective action as needed
        • Response
    • Prerequisite to good control is a good plan
  • Project Control
    • “ Control”
        • Power, authority, domination. No.
        • Guiding a course of action to meet an objective. Yes.
    • Principles
        • Work is controlled, not workers
          • Control helps workers be more effective & efficient
        • Control based on work completed
          • Use concrete deliverables
        • Balance
          • Appropriate level between too much and too little
          • Includes:
            • Micro-managing vs. neglect
            • Too much tracking detail vs. too little
  • Progress Monitoring
    • The 3 key Progress Monitoring Questions
      • What is the actual status?
      • If there’s a variance, what is cause?
      • What to do about it?
    • Possible responses
        • 1. Ignore
        • 2. Take corrective action
        • 3. Review the plan
  • Progress Monitoring
    • Monitoring rates
      • Daily, weekly, monthly
      • If problems occur – then adjust
        • You may have to monitor problem areas more closely
        • For some period of time
        • Almost always there’s one or more areas under closer scrutiny
    • Status Reporting
      • Part of the communications management plan
          • Which is usually just a section of SDP
  • Status Reports
    • From team to PM, from PM to stakeholders
    • Typical format for latter
      • Summary
      • Accomplishments for this period (done)
        • Tasks, milestones, metrics
      • Plans for next period (to-do)
      • Risk analysis and review
      • Issues & Actions
    • Shoot for weekly updates
      • Email notes, then hold brief meeting
      • More frequently during crises
  • Programming Status Reporting
    • A programmer reports that he’s 90% done.
      • What does this mean?
    • A programmer reports completing 4,000 LOC on estimated 5,000 LOC effort.
        • Is this 80% complete?
        • Quality?
        • Ratio, estimated to completed?
          • Your estimates could have been wrong
        • If you can’t measure scope or quality you don’t know “reality”
        • You really only know cost (hours spent)
        • How can you improve this?
  • Binary Reporting
    • Work packages (tasks) can only be in one of 2 states: complete or incomplete
      • No partial credit
    • Preferred to anything subjective!
    • “ 90% Complete Syndrome”
      • Software is 90% complete 90% of the time
    • Use lower-level task decomposition
    • Tangible exit criteria
    • Plan for 4-80 staff hours of effort per task
  • Earned Value Analysis (EVA)
    • a.k.a. Earned Value Management (EVM)
    • a.k.a. Variance Analysis
    • Metric of project tracking
    • “ What you got for what you paid”
      • Physical progress
    • Pre-EVA ‘traditional’ approach
        • 1. Planned time and costs
        • 2. Actual time and costs
        • Progress: compare planned vs. actual
    • EVA adds third dimension: value
        • Planned, actual, earned
  • Earned Value Analysis
    • Forecasting
      • Old models include cost & expenditure
      • EVA adds schedule estimation
    • Measured in dollars or hours
      • Often time used in software projects
    • Performance Measurement Baseline (PMB)
        • Time-phased budget plan against which contract performance is measured
        • Cost & schedule variances go against this
        • Best via a bottom-up plan
  • Earned Value Analysis
    • Different methods are available
      • Binary Reporting
      • Others include
        • Based on % complete
        • Weights applied to milestones
    • EVA can signal errors as early as 15% into project
    • Alphabet Soup
  • Earned Value Analysis
      • 3 major components
        • BCWS: Budgeted Cost of Work Scheduled
          • Now called “Planned Value” (PV)
          • “ Yearned”
          • How much work should be done?
        • BCWP: Budgeted Cost of Work Performed
          • Now called “earned value” (EV)
          • “ Earned”
          • How much work is done?
          • BCWS * % complete
        • ACWP: Actual Cost of Work Performed
          • Now called “Actual Cost” (AC)
          • “ Burned”
          • How much did the work done cost?
  • Derived EVA Variances
        • SV: Schedule Variance
          • BCWP – BCWS
          • Planned work vs. work completed
        • CV: Cost Variance
          • BCWP – ACWP
          • Budgeted costs vs. actual costs
        • Negatives are termed ‘unfavorable’
        • Can be plotted on ‘spending curves’
          • Cumulative cost (Y axis) vs. Time (X axis)
          • Typically in an ‘S’ shape
        • “ What is the project status”?
          • You can use variances to answer this
  • Earned Value Analysis
  • Derived EVA Ratios
      • SPI: Schedule Performance Index
          • BCWP / BCWS
      • CPI: Cost Performance Index
          • BCWP / ACWP
      • Problems in project if either of these less than 1 (or 100%)
  • Earned Value Analysis
    • Other Derived Values
        • BAC: Budget At Completion
          • Sum of all budges (BCWS). Your original budget.
        • EAC: Estimate At Completion
          • Forecast total cost at completion
          • EAC = ((BAC – BCWP)/CPI) + ACWP
          • Unfinished work divided by CPI added to sunk cost
          • If CPI < 1, EAC will be > BAC
        • CR: Critical Ratio
          • SPI x CPI
          • 1: everything on track
          • > .9 and < 1.2 ok
          • Can be charted
  • EVA Example
    • As of 1-July where are we?
    • BCWS
    • BCWP
    • ACWP
  • EVA Example
    • CV
    • SV
    • CPI
    • SPI
    • CR
  • Earned Value Analysis
    • BCWS
      • Use ‘loaded labor’ rates if possible
        • Direct pay + overhead
    • Remember it’s an aggregate figure
      • May hide where the problem lies
      • Beware of counterbalancing issues
        • Over in one area vs. under in another
  • Earned Value Analysis
    • Benefits
      • Consistent unit of measure for total progress
      • Consistent methodology
        • Across cost and completed activity
        • Apples and apples comparisons
      • Ability to forecast cost & schedule
      • Can provide warnings early
    • Success factors
      • A full WBS is required (all scope)
      • Beware of GIGO: Garbage-in, garbage-out
  • The MS-Project Process
    • Move WBS into a Project outline (in Task Sheet)
    • Add resources (team members or roles)
    • Add costs for resources
    • Assign resources to tasks
    • Establish dependencies
    • Refine and optimize
    • Create baseline
    • Track progress (enter actuals, etc.)
  • Project Overview
    • This is a ‘quickie’ overview
    • We will return to all of these steps individually over the next few weeks
    • Sample project from McConnell
  • Project UI
    • Views
      • Default is Gant Chart View
        • 2 panes
        • Task Sheet on left (a table)
        • Gantt Chart on right
      • View Bar on far left
  • Project UI
  • Create Your Project
    • File/New
    • Setup start date
    • Setup calendar
      • Menu: Project/Project Information
      • Often left with default settings
      • Hours, holidays
  • Enter WBS
    • Outlining
    • Sub-tasks and summary tasks
    • Do not enter start/end dates for each
    • Just start with Task Name and Duration for each
    • Use Indent/Outdent buttons to define summary tasks and subtasks
    • You can enter specific Start/End dates but don’t most of the time
  • Establish Durations
    • Know the abbreviations
      • h/d/w/m
      • D is default
    • Can use partial
      • .5d is a half-day task
    • Elapsed durations
    • Estimated durations
      • Put a ‘?’ after duration
  • Add Resources
    • Work Resources
      • People
    • Material Resources
      • Things
      • Can be used to track costs
        • Ex: amount of equipment purshased
      • Not used as often in typical software project
  • Resource Sheet
    • Can add new resources here
      • Or directly in the task entry sheet
        • Beware of mis-spellings (Project will create near-duplicates)
    • Setup costs
      • Such as annual salary (put ‘yr’ after ‘Std. Rate’)
  • Effort-Driven Scheduling
    • MS-Project default
    • Duration * Units = Work
        • Duration = Work / Units (D = W/U)
        • Work = Duration * Units (W = D*U)
        • Units = Work / Duration (U = W/D)
    • Adding more resources to a task shortens duration
    • Can be changed on a per-task basis
        • In the advanced tab of Task Information dialog box
        • Task Type setting
    • Beware the Mythical Man-month
        • Good for laying bricks, not always so for software development
  • Link Tasks
    • On toolbar: Link & Unlink buttons
      • Good for many at once
    • Or via Gantt chart
      • Drag from one task to another
  • Milestones
    • Zero duration tasks
    • Insert task ‘normally’ but put 0 in duration
  • Make Assignments
    • Approach 1. Using Task Sheet
      • Using Resource Names column
      • You can create new ones by just typing-in here
    • 2. Using Assign Resources dialog box
      • Good for multiple resources
      • Highlight task, Tools/Resources or toolbar button
    • 3. Using Task Information dialog
      • Resources tab
    • 4. Task Entry view
      • View/More Views/Task Entry
      • Or Task Entry view on Resource Mgmt. toolbar
  • Save Baseline
    • Saves all current information about your project
      • Dates, resource assignments, durations, costs
  • Fine Tune
    • Then is used later as basis for comparing against “actuals”
    • Menu: Tools/Tracking/Save Baseline
  • Project 2002
    • 3 Editions: Standard, Professional, Server
    • MS Project Server 2002
        • Upgrade of old “Project Central”
        • Includes “Project Web Access”, web-based UI (partial)
        • Workgroup and resource notification features
        • Requires SQL-Server and IIS
        • “ Portfolio Analyzer”
          • Drill-down into projects via pivot tables & charts
        • “ Portfolio Modeler”
          • Create models and “what-if” scenarios
        • SharePoint Team Services integration
  • Project 2002
    • MS-Project Professional
      • “ Build Team” feature
        • Skills-based resource matching
      • Resource Pools: with skill set tracking
      • Resource Substitution Wizard
    • “ Project Guide” feature
      • Customizable “process component”
  • MS-Project Q&A
    • Your WBS in Project
    • How did it go?
    • Any questions?
  • Homework
    • Schwalbe: 7 “Project Quality Management”
    • URLs
      • “ Introduction to Software Testing”
        • http://www.iplbath.com/pdf/p0820.pdf
      • “ Introduction to Software Testing Principles”
        • http://www.qestest.com/principl.htm
    • Project plan:
      • Develop and submit an initial copy of the project plan (limited to tasks & milestones) for your individual project
  • Questions?