Software Project Management Session 12: Project Success
Today <ul><li>Finish: testing, migration, rollout (lect’s 10 & 11) </li></ul><ul><li>Defining project success </li></ul><u...
Session 11 Review <ul><li>We’ll cover this later in class: Exam review </li></ul>
Concluding Software Projects <ul><li>Seems simple, often isn’t </li></ul><ul><li>Potential Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>La...
Maintenance Phase <ul><li>The “No respect” phase </li></ul><ul><li>Less “glamorous” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of enthusia...
Maintenance Phase <ul><li>Compare to hardware maintenance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not to keep state same; but changes to sta...
Maintenance Phase <ul><li>Contracts, remember those? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Always consider the maintenance phase here </li...
Success Metrics <ul><li>1. On schedule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires good: plan; estimation; control </li></ul></ul><ul><...
You are not Santa Claus <ul><li>Learn to say “No” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be polite but firm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Valu...
Think Small <ul><li>Keep requirements tight & focused </li></ul><ul><li>One milestone at a time </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller,...
Process Spectrum <ul><li>Too much medicine can kill the patient </li></ul><ul><li>Balance is crucial </li></ul>
Paralysis <ul><li>Analysis Paralysis  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Over-process </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nothing g...
Miscellaneous <ul><li>MBWA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Management by Walk About </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shows your actual...
Delegate <ul><li>Don’t be a “Control Freak” </li></ul><ul><li>You need to be the “hub” but not everything </li></ul>
Success Rates <ul><li>By Industry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Best: Retail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tight cost controls in...
Project Home Page <ul><li>Give your project an intranet page </li></ul><ul><li>Central repository for project status, docu...
Continuous Process Improvement <ul><li>Herbsleb, 1994, “Benefits of CMM-Based Software Process Improvement” </li></ul>
Tools <ul><li>Project Control  Panel </li></ul>
Final Exam Review <ul><li>Format: Similar to last one </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open questions and multiple choice </li></ul><...
Risk Management <ul><li>Risk Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Types of risk: schedule, cost, requirements </li></ul></ul><...
Risk Management <ul><li>Risk Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Risk Resolution (5 Types) </li></ul...
Requirements <ul><li>Functional vs. Non-functional (technical) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul...
Requirements <ul><li>Requirements gathering techniques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Documen...
Teams <ul><li>Start with objective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem resolution, creativity, tactical execution </li></ul></ul...
Team Models <ul><ul><li>Business team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technical lead + team; most common </li></ul></ul></u...
Resource Allocation <ul><li>Responsibility Assignment Matrix </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who does What  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>S...
Feature Set Control <ul><li>Minimal Specification </li></ul><ul><li>Requirements Scrubbing </li></ul><ul><li>Versioned Dev...
Change Control <ul><li>Average project has 25% requirements change </li></ul><ul><li>Sources of change </li></ul><ul><li>C...
Configuration Control <ul><li>Items: code, documents </li></ul><ul><li>Change & Version control </li></ul><ul><li>SCM </li...
Exam Review <ul><li>Project Roles </li></ul><ul><li>Project Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
Earned Value Analysis <ul><li>BCWS </li></ul><ul><li>BCWP </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Earned value </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><...
CMM <ul><li>Capability Maturity Model </li></ul><ul><li>Five levels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initial  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
Tools & Languages <ul><li>Impact of platform and language choice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Staffing requirements </li></ul></u...
QA & Testing <ul><li>Testing “Phases” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integration </li></ul></ul><ul...
QA & Testing <ul><li>Static vs. Dynamic Testing </li></ul><ul><li>Automated Testing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pros and cons </...
Defect Metrics <ul><li>Open Bugs (outstanding defects) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ranked by severity </li></ul></ul></u...
Migration and Rollout <ul><li>Migration Strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Flash Cut </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A. Im...
Exam Review – MS-Project <ul><li>Effort-driven scheduling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Duration = Work / Units (D = W/U) </li></u...
Resource Leveling <ul><li>5 Leveling techniques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Activity shifting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activit...
Migration <ul><li>Migration Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of 2-way communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Find-out custom...
Migration <ul><li>Flash-Cut Migration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immediate Replacement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parallel Oper...
Other Final Steps <ul><li>Roll-Out </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Release Check-List </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul><ul>...
Project Recovery <ul><li>3 Approaches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Cut the size of the software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. ...
Post Project Reviews <ul><li>Focused on process not people </li></ul><ul><li>Steps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare survey fo...
Homework <ul><li>Next week: Final Exam </li></ul>
Questions?
 
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  • Software Project Management

    1. 1. Software Project Management Session 12: Project Success
    2. 2. Today <ul><li>Finish: testing, migration, rollout (lect’s 10 & 11) </li></ul><ul><li>Defining project success </li></ul><ul><ul><li>And failure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Success tips </li></ul><ul><li>Final exam review </li></ul>
    3. 3. Session 11 Review <ul><li>We’ll cover this later in class: Exam review </li></ul>
    4. 4. Concluding Software Projects <ul><li>Seems simple, often isn’t </li></ul><ul><li>Potential Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Last-minute change requests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ One more feature” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disputes of fulfillment of all requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Often “interpretation” issues </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keeping the team motivated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult transition to maintenance </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Maintenance Phase <ul><li>The “No respect” phase </li></ul><ul><li>Less “glamorous” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of enthusiasm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pressure to make fixes quickly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For “production” problems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Software can become “hacked” “patchwork” over time </li></ul><ul><li>Finding a support & test platform can be difficult </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often the forgotten child until fixes are needed </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Maintenance Phase <ul><li>Compare to hardware maintenance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not to keep state same; but changes to state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixes and enhancements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Configuration control is very important </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixing the “right” version; tracking branches </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Project management not always carried over </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller team </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often not a ‘dedicated team’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drawn from developer with other main tasks </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Maintenance Phase <ul><li>Contracts, remember those? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Always consider the maintenance phase here </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often via a “labor hours” contract </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Time & materials in a “direct” scenario </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Otherwise via “maintenance contract” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Percentage of software license fee </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: 20% of original cost per year </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Corp. budget if internal/IS projects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often annual/monthly “maintenance” allocations </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Success Metrics <ul><li>1. On schedule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires good: plan; estimation; control </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Within budget </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Again: planning, estimation & control </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3. According to requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Importance of good requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perception & negotiation critical </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. You are not Santa Claus <ul><li>Learn to say “No” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be polite but firm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Value of Versions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ We will put that in phase 2” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>An Ounce of Prevention </li></ul>
    10. 10. Think Small <ul><li>Keep requirements tight & focused </li></ul><ul><li>One milestone at a time </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller, incremental chunks </li></ul><ul><li>As simple as possible but no simpler </li></ul>
    11. 11. Process Spectrum <ul><li>Too much medicine can kill the patient </li></ul><ul><li>Balance is crucial </li></ul>
    12. 12. Paralysis <ul><li>Analysis Paralysis </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Over-process </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nothing gets finished </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>65% of software professionals have experienced this </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Paralysis Paranoia </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fear of over-process = process avoidance </li></ul></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Miscellaneous <ul><li>MBWA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Management by Walk About </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shows your actually involved day-to-day </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recognizes individuals may say more 1-on-1 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allows spontaneity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Finds personnel problems sooner </li></ul></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Delegate <ul><li>Don’t be a “Control Freak” </li></ul><ul><li>You need to be the “hub” but not everything </li></ul>
    15. 15. Success Rates <ul><li>By Industry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Best: Retail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tight cost controls in general </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Worst: Government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Least cost controls </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>By Size </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smaller is better: cost, duration, team </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stats </li></ul>
    16. 16. Project Home Page <ul><li>Give your project an intranet page </li></ul><ul><li>Central repository for project status, documents and other resources </li></ul><ul><li>McConnell’s example </li></ul>
    17. 17. Continuous Process Improvement <ul><li>Herbsleb, 1994, “Benefits of CMM-Based Software Process Improvement” </li></ul>
    18. 18. Tools <ul><li>Project Control Panel </li></ul>
    19. 19. Final Exam Review <ul><li>Format: Similar to last one </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open questions and multiple choice </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Risk Management <ul><li>Risk Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Types of risk: schedule, cost, requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Risk Identification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involve the team </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Risk Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk Exposure (RE = Prob. * Size) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Probability is 15%, size is 10 weeks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>.15 * 10w = 1.5w </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Risk Prioritization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>80-20 rule; large size or prob. 1 st ; grouping; ignoring </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Risk Management <ul><li>Risk Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Risk Resolution (5 Types) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoidance (ex: scrub) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assumption (just monitor) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control (contingency) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge Acquisition (learn/buy/prototype) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transfer (off project, team, critical path) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Risk Monitoring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Top 10 Risk List ( McConnell’s example ) </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Requirements <ul><li>Functional vs. Non-functional (technical) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Features </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-functional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Usability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Operations: systems management, installation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other: legal, packaging, hardware </li></ul></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Requirements <ul><li>Requirements gathering techniques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Document Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brainstorming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requirements Workshops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prototyping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use Cases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storyboards </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Teams <ul><li>Start with objective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem resolution, creativity, tactical execution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Decentralized vs. Centralized </li></ul><ul><li>Large teams </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decompose via hierarchy, into optimal sizes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Optimal size? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4-6 developers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hiring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hire for trait – train for skill </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Team Models <ul><ul><li>Business team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technical lead + team; most common </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can be strong or loose hierarchy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chief-programmer team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Surgical team; star at top; ego issues </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skunkworks team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Off-site; pro: buy-in; con: minimal visibility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feature team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interdisciplinary; balanced </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SWAT team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Highly skilled/specialized; Ex: security team </li></ul></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Resource Allocation <ul><li>Responsibility Assignment Matrix </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who does What </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Skills Matrix </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who has what skills </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hiring Guidelines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hire for trait, train for skill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smart, gets things done </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Balance </li></ul>
    27. 27. Feature Set Control <ul><li>Minimal Specification </li></ul><ul><li>Requirements Scrubbing </li></ul><ul><li>Versioned Development </li></ul><ul><li>Effective Change Control </li></ul><ul><li>Feature Cuts </li></ul>
    28. 28. Change Control <ul><li>Average project has 25% requirements change </li></ul><ul><li>Sources of change </li></ul><ul><li>Change control is a process </li></ul><ul><li>Overly detailed specs. or prolonged requirements phase are not the answer </li></ul><ul><li>Change Control Board ( CCB ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure, process, triage </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Configuration Control <ul><li>Items: code, documents </li></ul><ul><li>Change & Version control </li></ul><ul><li>SCM </li></ul><ul><li>Configuration Management Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance </li></ul>
    30. 30. Exam Review <ul><li>Project Roles </li></ul><ul><li>Project Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measuring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Binary Reporting </li></ul>
    31. 31. Earned Value Analysis <ul><li>BCWS </li></ul><ul><li>BCWP </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Earned value </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>ACWP </li></ul><ul><li>Variances </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CV (BCWP – BCWS), SV (BCWP – ACWP) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Ratios </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SPI (BCWP / BCWS), CPI (BCWP / ACWP) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CR (SPI x CPI) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consistency, forecasting, early warning </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. CMM <ul><li>Capability Maturity Model </li></ul><ul><li>Five levels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeatable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defined </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimizing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Links: Diagram , Levels </li></ul>
    33. 33. Tools & Languages <ul><li>Impact of platform and language choice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Staffing requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Methodology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cobol != Java </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tools and infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Software, hardware </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Classic Mistake: silver bullet syndrome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over-reliance/expectation on tool benefits </li></ul></ul>
    34. 34. QA & Testing <ul><li>Testing “Phases” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User Acceptance Testing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Testing Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Black-box </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>White-box </li></ul></ul>
    35. 35. QA & Testing <ul><li>Static vs. Dynamic Testing </li></ul><ul><li>Automated Testing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pros and cons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Defect tracking </li></ul><ul><li>Integration: 2 types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Top down </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bottom up </li></ul></ul>
    36. 36. Defect Metrics <ul><li>Open Bugs (outstanding defects) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ranked by severity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Open Rates </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How many new bugs over a period of time </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Close Rates </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How many closed over that same period </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: 10 bugs/day </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Change Rate </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Number of times the same issue updated </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Fix Failed Counts </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fixes that didn’t really fix (still open) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One measure of “vibration” in project </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    37. 37. Migration and Rollout <ul><li>Migration Strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Flash Cut </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A. Immediate Replacement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>B. Parallel Operation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Staged </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One part at a time </li></ul></ul></ul>
    38. 38. Exam Review – MS-Project <ul><li>Effort-driven scheduling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Duration = Work / Units (D = W/U) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work = Duration * Units (W = D*U) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Units = Work / Duration (U = W/D) </li></ul></ul>
    39. 39. Resource Leveling <ul><li>5 Leveling techniques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Activity shifting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activity splitting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activity stretching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource substitution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allocating overtime </li></ul></ul>
    40. 40. Migration <ul><li>Migration Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of 2-way communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Find-out customer’s key dates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Minimize intrusiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Back-out Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Data Conversion </li></ul>
    41. 41. Migration <ul><li>Flash-Cut Migration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immediate Replacement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parallel Operation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Staged Migration </li></ul>
    42. 42. Other Final Steps <ul><li>Roll-Out </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Release Check-List </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More than just end-users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Users, systems ops, maintenance developers, sales </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Documentation </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many types: End-user, sales & marketing, operations, design </li></ul></ul></ul>
    43. 43. Project Recovery <ul><li>3 Approaches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Cut the size of the software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Increase process productivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Slip the schedule, proceed with damage control </li></ul></ul><ul><li>People Steps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Morale; focus; re-assign </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Process Steps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fix classic mistakes; mini-milestones </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Product Steps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stabilize; trim features; take out the garbage </li></ul></ul>
    44. 44. Post Project Reviews <ul><li>Focused on process not people </li></ul><ul><li>Steps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare survey form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Email team with survey and schedule meeting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gather data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conduct meeting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare PPR report </li></ul></ul>
    45. 45. Homework <ul><li>Next week: Final Exam </li></ul>
    46. 46. Questions?
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