software planning


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software planning

  1. 1. Software Planning CSEM01 SE Evolution & Management Anne Comer Helen Edwards
  2. 2. <ul><li>Concerned with activities involved in ensuring that software is delivered on time and on schedule and in accordance with the requirements of the organisations developing and procuring the software </li></ul><ul><li>Project management is needed because software development is always subject to budget and schedule constraints that are set by the organisation developing the software </li></ul>Software project management
  3. 3. <ul><li>Proposal writing </li></ul><ul><li>Project planning and scheduling </li></ul><ul><li>Project costing </li></ul><ul><li>Project monitoring and reviews </li></ul><ul><li>Personnel selection and evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Report writing and presentations </li></ul>Management activities
  4. 4. <ul><li>These activities are not peculiar to software management </li></ul><ul><li>Many techniques of engineering project management are equally applicable to software project management </li></ul><ul><li>Technically complex engineering systems tend to suffer from the same problems as software systems </li></ul>Management commonalities
  5. 5. Project staffing <ul><li>May not be possible to appoint the ideal people to work on a project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Project budget may not allow for the use of highly-paid staff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staff with the appropriate experience may not be available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An organisation may wish to develop employee skills on a software project </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Managers have to work within these constraints, especially when there are shortages of skilled IT staff </li></ul>
  6. 6. Project planning <ul><li>Probably the most time-consuming project management activity </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous activity from initial concept through to system delivery. Plans must be regularly revised as new information becomes available </li></ul><ul><li>Various different types of plan may be developed to support the main software project plan (mainly concerned with schedule and budget) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Project plan structure <ul><li>Scope the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Decompose the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Estimate function and effort </li></ul><ul><li>Risk analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Work breakdown </li></ul><ul><li>Project schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring and reporting mechanisms </li></ul>
  8. 8. Activity organization <ul><li>Activities in a project should be organised to produce tangible outputs for management to judge progress </li></ul><ul><li>Milestones are the end-point of a process activity </li></ul><ul><li>Deliverables are project results delivered to customers </li></ul><ul><li>The waterfall process allows for the straightforward definition of progress milestones </li></ul>
  9. 9. Milestones in the RE process
  10. 10. Project scheduling <ul><li>Split project into tasks and estimate time and resources required to complete each task </li></ul><ul><li>Organise tasks concurrently to make optimal use of workforce </li></ul><ul><li>Minimise task dependencies to avoid delays caused by one task waiting for another to complete </li></ul><ul><li>Dependent on project managers intuition and experience </li></ul>
  11. 11. The project scheduling process
  12. 12. Scheduling problems <ul><li>Estimating the difficulty of problems and hence the cost of developing a solution is hard </li></ul><ul><li>Productivity is not proportional to the number of people working on a task </li></ul><ul><li>Adding people to a late project makes it later because of communication overheads </li></ul><ul><li>The unexpected always happens. Always allow contingency in planning </li></ul>
  13. 13. Bar charts and activity networks <ul><li>Graphical notations used to illustrate the project schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Show project breakdown into tasks. Tasks should not be too small. They should take about a week or two </li></ul><ul><li>Activity charts show task dependencies and the the critical path </li></ul><ul><li>Bar charts show schedule against calendar time </li></ul>
  14. 14. Task durations and dependencies
  15. 15. Activity network
  16. 16. Activity timeline
  17. 17. Staff allocation
  18. 18. The risk management process <ul><li>Risk identification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify project, product and business risks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Risk analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assess the likelihood and consequences of these risks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Risk planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Draw up plans to avoid or minimise the effects of the risk </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Risk monitoring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor the risks throughout the project </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Risk identification <ul><li>Technology risks </li></ul><ul><li>People risks </li></ul><ul><li>Organisational risks </li></ul><ul><li>Requirements risks </li></ul><ul><li>Estimation risks </li></ul>
  20. 20. Risk analysis <ul><li>Assess probability and seriousness of each risk </li></ul><ul><li>Probability may be very low, low, moderate, high or very high </li></ul><ul><li>Risk effects might be catastrophic, serious, tolerable or insignificant </li></ul>
  21. 21. Risk Analysis & Planning See above Tolerable Moderate Rate of fault finding and fix is underestimated See above Tolerable High Size of s/w is underestimated Reorganise work schedule and discuss the range of alternatives with the client Serious High Time required to develop the s/w is underestimated Prepare briefing document to show the importance of the work being done and the negative impact of any further change Serious High Organisation restructured Derive traceability information to assess change impact Serious Low Changes to requirements that need major rework Reorganise team so that there is more overlap of work Serious Moderate Key staff are ill at critical times STRATEGY EFFECTS PROB- ABILITY RISK
  22. 22. Risk monitoring <ul><li>Assess each identified risks regularly to decide whether or not it is becoming less or more probable </li></ul><ul><li>Also assess whether the effects of the risk have changed </li></ul><ul><li>Each key risk should be discussed at management progress meetings </li></ul>
  23. 23. Key points <ul><li>Good project management is essential for project success </li></ul><ul><li>Managers have diverse roles but their most significant activities are planning, estimating and scheduling </li></ul><ul><li>Planning and estimating are iterative processes which continue throughout the course of a project </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>A project milestone is a predictable state where some formal report of progress is presented to management. </li></ul><ul><li>Risk management is concerned with identifying risks which may affect the project and planning to ensure that these risks do not develop into major threats </li></ul>Key points