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  • 1. R&D System Development Management 1 Theo Schouten 2009
  • 2. Lectures
    • 8 lectures of 2 hour
      • some by guest speakers
    • 2 hour written examination
      • no books or documentation
    • based on:
      • Software Engineering – A practitioner’s Approach: European Adaptation, sixth edition , Roger S. Pressman
      • sheets of the presentations
      • extra treated concepts and theories
  • 3. GiPHouse
    • practical work of R&D SDM1 (4 ec)
      • management of the software house and its projects
    • serious participation needed
      • pass or fail
      • more differentiation
      • prerequisite for written examination
  • 4. Aim
    • SDM1 has the aim that the student obtains all the professional skills of an IT project leader .
    • SDM1 resembles the phase in an IT career in which the project leader takes responsibility for the management of a software development project .
    • and/or responsibility for the management of the company
    • Within GiPHouse students aim at two goals:
      • realizing their own personal development goals, and
      • delivering a high quality system.
      • focus on teamwork
  • 5. Role
    • Role differentiation, typical for knowledge workers
    • control by reviewing against quality criteria
      • judged by other students and customers
    • teachers are more at a “distance”
      • more for the managers
      • design and follow the process
  • 6. Scope
    • Within SDM1 we address the project management aspects of the whole life cycle of a system development project:
    • from definition study through system design, system development and system implementation all the way to the maintenance of a system in an operational environment.
  • 7. New: more managers
    • Improving the company
      • handbooks, activity templates, intra-net, etc
      • PR, customers, HBO-VWO students
      • collaboration server facilities
      • differentiated final rating
    • Preparing the future
      • projects for the next spring semester
      • reduction 9 tot 6ec next spring
      • GiP International
  • 8. Course Subjects
    • Project management
    • Project planning
      • Business Planning, Technical Planning
    • Rolls of
      • Project manager, Quality manager, Contract Owner, Public Relations Manager, Director
    • Planning methods
      • PERT, CPM, Work Breakdown structure, Gantt-charts
    • Quality Management
    • Risk Management
    • Metrics
    • Component Based Development
  • 9. Project management
    • What is project management?
    • What makes management of software development so special?
    • Which roles are there?
    • Which steps do you have to take?
    • What is a project?
    • Chapter 1 and 21 of book
  • 10. What is project management
    • ‘ ..it involves the planning , monitoring and control of the people , process and events that occur as software evolves from a preliminary concept to an operational implementation. ’ (Dilbert)
    • ‘ .. The role of the ‘manager’ is to plan , organize , staff , direct and control . He or she deals with ideas , things and people .’ (Tomayko and Hallman, 1989)
    • Care that every stakeholder stays happy
  • 11. North Sea Project Cost History North Sea Project Cost History 0,5 0,6 0,8 1,0 2,0 4,0 8,0 10,0 ‘ 71 ‘72 ‘73 ‘74 ‘75 ‘76 ‘77 ‘78 ‘79 ‘80 ‘81 ‘82 ‘83 ‘84 ‘85 ‘86 ‘87 ‘89 ‘90 Year of appropriation estimate Final or forecast cost/estimate
    • Brent B
    • Brent C
    • Dunlin
    • Statfjord A
    • Frigg IV
    • Valhall
    • Leman
    • Fulmar Gas
    • Inde M&N
    • Brent C
    • Frigg I&II
    • Brent D
    • Ekofisk IV
    • Murchison
    • Statfjord B
    • Odin
    • Fulmar
    • Ekofisk II
    • Ekofisk III
    • N. Cormorant
    • Clyde
    • Tern
    • Eider
  • 12. Challenges (Van Genuchten 1991) Reasons ?
  • 13. Reasons for cost/delay overrun
    • Human capacity:
      • Not available due to: overruns in previous or other projects, needed for unplanned activities
    • Human related:
      • too little experience with e.g. development environment
      • more inexperienced then experienced people, wrong mix
    • Input-requirements related:
      • requirements too late, too little quality
      • specifications for COTS or other hardware too late, too little quality
      • changing requirements during the project
  • 14. further
    • Product (technology) related
      • changing interfaces with environment
      • software complexity underestimated
      • more problems with performance of memory limitations
      • more software failures (bugs) than planned
      • product wrongly designed, redesign is needed
    • Organization related
      • less continuity in project team members
      • more interruptions than planned
      • more influence/interruption of quality assurance activities
      • bureaucracy
    • Tools related
      • Development or test tools too late or not adequate
      • Needed releases too late or with too many errors
  • 15. % of reasons of overruns
  • 16. Implementation benchmarks Reporting Application Portfolio Management Enhancements/Upgrades Software Functionality Process Reengineering Business Performance Stage/Transition Ongoing Support Ownership(of Benefits and Other) Discipline Project Team Prioritization/Resource Alllocation Internal Staff Adequancy Training Change Management 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 % of Mentions People 51% Process 19% Technology 19% Obstacles until “go-live” Obstacles after “go-live” Reporting Data Enhancements/Upgrades Application Portfolio Management Software Functionality Benefit Realization Stage/Transition Process Reenigineering Program Management Discipline Ownership (of Benefits and Other) Consultants Top Management Support Prioritization/Resource Allocation Training Project Team Internal Staff Adequancy Change Management % of Mentions 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 People 62% Process 16% Technology 12%
  • 17. Cost overrun in real project 106,4 K€ 140,1 K€ Applicatie- consultancy Ontwerp en bouw M / I / C Onvoorzien PM 246,5 K€ Original estimation 231,9 K€ 141,0 K€ Applicatie- consultancy Ontwerp en bouw M / I / C Wijzigingen / Aanvullingen M / I / C 143,4 K€ -15,7 K€ Creditering Onvoorzien 104,0 K€ Realisation 604,6 K€ 125,5 K€ 0,9 K€ 143,4 K€ 104,0 K€ -15,7 K€ More 358,1 K€ 44,9 K€ - unittesten + verfijnen setup 51,7 K€ - integratie- en acceptatietest 22,2 K€ - overgangsactiviteiten 6,7 K€ - overigen 54,9 K€ - rapporten 18,0 K€ - interfaces 70,5 K€ - conversies 72,0 K€ - conversietest 32,0 K€ - nazorg na livegang
  • 18. specific to software management?
    • Software is a creative product based on human ideas, concepts and models; it has no natural limits
    • Software develops during the process
    • Software engineering is relative young; measuring is difficult
    • Developed software needs acceptance by users in their environments
    • User requirements change during the development
    • Fixing the design is a balancing act between user acceptance and project control possibilities
    • Design is based on concepts and ideas, not on fixed or well known building blocks
    • It is difficult to detect bugs during the development process
    • Communication and interaction with legacy systems and COTS increases
  • 19. People, Process & Technology People need to know how to manage the system Technology requires skills and new roles in organisations The ideal process requires a skilled organisation Processes based on the skills of people People Technology Process Processes require a well fitting and performing system Systems limit but also challenge processes
  • 20. Which roles
    • (depending on phase and size/complexity of a project)
    • Sponsor
    • Project manager
    • Technical project leader
    • Integration manager
    • Quality assurance manager (intern vs extern)
    • Risk manager
    • Test coordinator
    • Team leader
    • Software engineer
    • Business analyst
    • Technical specialists
    • Communication/PR manager
  • 21. Project roles Steering Committee Project Steering Committee Project Sponsor Project Manager(s) Functional/Process Groups (User Focal Points) Technical Project Leader User Group 1 User Group 2 User Group n … .. Analysts Designers Programmers
  • 22. Example, people, phases, time Implementation Definition Design Construction
  • 23. Which plans ?
    • Business planning
      • Goals and vision
      • Requirements Analysis
      • Project plan
    • Technical Planning
      • Program Master plan
      • Management plan
      • Development plan
      • Configuration Management plan
      • Quality Assurance plan
      • Maintenance plan
      • Test plan
      • Integration plan
      • Documentation plan
      • Transition plan
      • Firmware development plan
  • 24. End remarks
    • Project management has to do with human factors
    • People, process en technology influence the success
    • Project tracking & tracing is important
    • Project management is not a science, it is based on experience
    • There are different
      • methods to plan and manage
      • ways to organize projects
      • ways to guard the quality of projects
    • These are topics treated in SDM1