Schedule Issues (after 14th July '05)
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Schedule Issues (after 14th July '05)






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Schedule Issues (after 14th July '05) Schedule Issues (after 14th July '05) Presentation Transcript

  • Project Management
    • Final student lecture in RAL series
        • ‘ Port & cigars after the meal?’
    • What is project management
        • Text book definition
        • Relevance to big science
    • Examples of projects
        • PhD thesis
        • Detector R&D
          • e.g. Calorimetry RD
        • Detector construction
          • e.g. ATLAS SCT
    • Project management concepts & tools
        • Scope, Cost, Time
        • Risk
    Aim: – introduce the concepts and the language Disclaimer – I have no PM qualifications (apart from some experience)
  • Who needs project management - Eurotunnel?
  • Who needs project management - Eurofighter? 85. MoD's memorandum stated:[ 129 ] Typhoon (formerly Eurofighter) is an agile fighter aircraft that will serve as the cornerstone of the RAF's future fighting capability….. The in-service date for Typhoon (defined as the date of delivery of the first aircraft to the RAF ) was achieved in 2003—some 54 months late. The current forecast cost of Typhoon is £19,018 million, compared to £16,670 million approved at Main Gate.
  • Who needs project management - ATLAS?
        • There are scientific & technical uncertainties with scientific projects.
        • Large projects with many partners or stakeholders are difficult to control
        • It is “not acceptable” to screw up large projects involving public money
  • What is project management? ..if you have no idea start with
      • Project management is the discipline of organizing and managing resources in such a way that these resources deliver all the work required to complete a project within defined scope, time, and cost constraints . A project is a temporary and one-time endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service. This property of being a temporary and a one-time undertaking contrasts with processes, or operations, which are permanent or semi-permanent ongoing functional work to create the same product or service over and over again. The management of these two systems is often very different and requires varying technical skills and philosophy, hence requiring the development of project management.
      • The first challenge of project management is ensuring that a project is delivered within the defined constraints. The second, more ambitious, challenge is the optimized allocation and integration of the inputs needed to meet those pre-defined objectives. The project, therefore, is a carefully selected set of activities chosen to use resources (time, money, people, materials, energy, space, provisions, communication, quality, risk, etc.) to meet the pre-defined objectives.
  • What is project management? Time Scope Cost Risk
  • Risk
    • Consider what the risks are & document
        • A “risk register”
    • Analyse the impact
        • Documented in risk register
    • Mitigate
        • Have an escape route
    • Control
        • Regular reviews & reporting
    • Note – Auditors like to ‘quantify risk’
        • Definition = probability x impact
  • Example 1 – PhD thesis
    • Scope
        • Gain PhD - become qualified as a researcher
          • Further ones education through post-graduate courses
          • Undertake original research and publish results
          • Pass final exam (“viva”) to gain PhD
    • Time
        • Externally imposed constraints
          • Total time = 3 ( or 4 years)
          • Course work for 1 year in first year
          • Research time ~ 18months can depend on several factors
            • Others providing equipment, data ….
            • Having the required knowledge and expertise etc
    • Cost
        • Well defined for this example with
          • Salary agreed in advance for the 3 years
          • Research tools (computing, lab space, travel…) provided by the University
    • Risks
        • Having an “inadequate supervisor” or an “inappropriate” project
        • Not knowing how much work is needed to complete research
        • Personal issues – illness
  • PhD example - Gantt
    • Gantt – A tool to list tasks, show dependencies & make resources explicit
        • Tool = Microsoft Project
  • PhD example – Gantt/Critical path
    • Critical path analysis – shows in red the tasks which determine the end date
  • PhD example Gantt/Resource summary
  • PhD example - summary
    • This project is relatively “simple” because of the small number of independent tasks and people involved.
    • In “project management speak”
      • Analysed the project and split it into work-packages (WP)
      • Estimated the time needed for each WP and the overall time
      • Documented the project to enable the stakeholders to agree to the plan
        • Stakeholders are – the student, the supervisor/university and the funding agency/PPARC
      • Estimated the resources needed
        • ~5 fte years of student effort (3 years available!)
          • The full economic cost would = salary, equipment, computing, travel (typically 2-3 x salary)
      • Introduced contingency by planning to complete the work early
  • PhD example - summary
    • Risks:
      • Analysed the risks (examples)
        • An “inadequate supervisor” or an “inappropriate” project
          • Probability low; impact high
            • Action: Review at end of first year
        • Research can be open-ended i.e. difficult to estimate how much work is needed
          • Probability high; impact medium
            • Actions:
            • 2 research topics for thesis (1 technical; 1 analysis)
            • Agree to restrict scope of research to time available
            • Avoid “mission creep” i.e. stop investigating at appropriate time
            • Factor in a time contingency
        • Personal issues – illness
          • Probability low; impact medium
            • Action: None planed – escape route would be to apply for more funding
  • return to Wikipedia Project Management Activities
    • Project Management is composed of several different types of activities such as:
        • Planning the work or objectives
        • Analysis & Design of objectives
        • Assessing and controlling risk (or Risk management)
        • Estimating resources
        • Allocation of resources
        • Organizing the work
        • Acquiring human and material resources
        • Assigning tasks
        • Directing activities
        • Controlling project execution
        • Tracking and Reporting progress
        • Analyzing the results based on the facts achieved
        • Defining the products of the project
        • Forecasting future trends in the project
        • Quality Management
        • Issues Management
        • Issues solving
        • Defect prevention
        • Project Closure meet
  • Wikipedia Project management artefacts
    • Most projects, to be successful, must adequately document objectives and deliverables. These documents are a mechanism to align sponsors, clients, and project team's expectations.
      • Project Charter
      • Business case / Feasibility study
      • Scope statement / Terms of reference
      • Project Management plan / Project Initiation Document
      • Work Breakdown structure
      • Change Control Plan
      • Risk management plan
      • Communications Plan
      • Governance Model
      • Risk Register
      • Issue Log
      • Action Item List
      • Resource Management Plan
      • Project schedule
      • Status Report
      • Responsibility assignment matrix
      • Database of risks
      • Database of lessons learned
      • Stakeholder Analysis
    • These documents are normally hosted on a shared resource (i.e., Intranet web page) and are available for review by the project's stakeholders. Changes or updates to these documents are explicitly outlined in the project's configuration management (or change control plan).
  • Project control variables Wikipedia
    • Project Management tries to gain control over variables such as risk:
      • Risk is defined as potential points of failure . Most negative risks (or potential failures) can be overcome or resolved, given enough planning capabilities, time, and resources. According to some definitions (including PMBOK Third Edition) risk can also be categorized as "positive--" meaning that there is a potential opportunity, e.g., complete the project faster than expected.
      • Customers (either internal or external project sponsors), external organizations (such as government agencies and regulators) can dictate the extent of three variables: time, cost, and scope . The remaining variable (risk) is managed by the project team, ideally based on solid estimation and response planning techniques. Through a negotiation process among project stakeholders, an agreement defines the final objectives, in terms of time, cost, scope, and risk, usually in the form of a charter or contract.
      • To properly control these variables a good project manager has a depth of knowledge and experience in these four areas (time, cost, scope, and risk), and in six other areas as well: integration, communication, human resources, quality assurance, schedule development, and procurement.
  • Example 2 – Calorimetry R&D for Linear collider
    • Scope
        • Develop ‘active pixel sensors’ as a tool for a ‘particle flow’ approach to calorimetry
        • Break down the project into work-packages
          • Physics requirement and specification
          • Active pixel design
          • Active pixel evaluation
          • Evaluate prototype calorimeter module in test-beam
    • Time
        • Defined by requirement for concept to be proven for LC TDR in 2010
          • Limits scope of R&D
    • Cost
        • Cost = procurement, manpower (measured in fte) and travel
    • Risks
        • Failure or delay in any one work-package causes the project to fail
          • Procurement costs exceed estimates
            • Management contingency (held by PPARC)
          • Insufficient or loss of expert manpower
            • Regular progress reviews
  • Particle Flow Algorithm for calorimetry ECAL HCAL Tracker
  • Active Pixel Sensors for Calorimetry
    • CMOS active pixel sensors are fully integrated sensors and electronics
    • RD project is to develop a device which is sensitive to tracks and has very fine granularity:
        • Provide calorimetry in the usual way by counting tracks
        • and all single tracks to be identified and measured precisely
  • Example 2 RD for silicon sensors for CALICE
  • Example 2 – CALICE example
    • Project Management activities: PPARC requirements
      • Planning the work or objectives Project description and plan
      • Analysis & Design of objectives
      • Assessing and controlling risk Risk register
      • Estimating resources Grant resource request with FEC
      • Allocation of resources Defined resource sharing between WPs & institutes
      • Organizing the work Set up both a WP & an institute organisation
      • Acquiring human and material resources
      • Assigning tasks
      • Directing activities Some combination of - PI, Spokesman, PM
      • Controlling project execution
      • Tracking and Reporting progress Regular reporting to Over-sight committee
      • Analyzing the results based on the facts achieved
      • Defining the products of the project
      • Forecasting future trends in the project
      • Quality Management ISO 9000 for engineering
      • Issues Management
      • Issues solving
      • Defect prevention
      • Project Closure meet
  • CALICE example - summary
    • Differences from Example-1 (PhD)
        • Scope of project is initially defined from within project
          • Scope can be modified by funding body
        • Project is explicitly broken into sub-projects or work-packages
          • Different people in the individual work-packages
          • Understand interfaces between work-packages
          • Introduce reviews to monitor and control work-packages
        • Several institutes/groups involved
          • Needs an organisational structure
          • Needs a decision taking mechanism
        • Project resources are controlled externally (but managed internally)
  • Example 3 – The ATLAS Silicon Tracker (SCT)
    • Scope
        • Design and build tracker for a general purpose detector for LHC
          • Again scope was initially defined from within the ATLAS project
            • Scope evolved and was modified on the basis of R&D
            • Scope modified in the context of overall detector optimisation
            • Scope modified by resources and expertise available.
    • Time
        • Schedule evolved over the first few years
          • Bottom-up: Time needed to develop technical solutions specifically for SCT
          • Top-down: Constraints from the LHC framework
    • Cost
        • Total funding & resources available were a complicated constraint
          • Funding from 11 separate funding agencies
            • Individual profiles and procedures to be followed
    • Risks
        • Technical e.g. at start-up no radiation sensors or readout available
        • Organisational – many work-packages and funding agencies
        • Financial – no margin for cost over-runs
        • People : Maintaining coherence with a large team over a long time
  • SCT tracker projects – difference from above examples
    • Scale of the projects
        • Physically large
          • ~ 10 5 separate components
        • Technically complex
          • Many R&D programs – sensors, ASICs, Readout, Materials….
            • But with strong interfaces
        • Resources required
          • £20M of purchases
          • ~2,000 fte of in-house effort from 40 institutes
    • Management complex
        • Reporting to 11 funding agencies and to the overall ATLAS project
        • Taking technical decisions between 40 institutes (200 physicists)
        • Sub-dividing and organising work
        • People!
  • Example 3 – The ATLAS Silicon Tracker
    • Design choices are fixed by physics requirements.
      • Sounds simple but, in general, an increase in performance improves the physics and an increase in performance costs….
    • Performance variables include:
      • Number , size & position of the detecting elements
      • Measurement precision
      • Transparency of the tracker (%X0)
    • Cost & constraints include:
      • Resources – finite and fixed
      • Time available - fixed
      • Technology available (or likely to be available) - constraint
    Tracker Design Choices Resource constraint 9. “The best is the enemy of the good” – Voltaire
    • System optimisation
      • 1. No. of measurements fixed = 4
      • 2. Layout to get evenly spaced points with barrel/endcap split at 45 0
      • 3. Opted for 4 perfect, hermetic layers.
      • 4. Detailed design was “Bottom-up” starting from sensors/ASICs
      • Advantages:
        • Minimised silicon area
        • Provided overlaps for alignment
      • Cost:
        • Complexity of the design & assembly
        • High cost of perfect components (>99%)
        • High cost of building ‘perfect (i.e. 99% good channels)’ modules
        • Complexity of services
    Example-1 System choices : Layout & material “ Let no one ignorant of geometry enter” – Plato
    • In 1990s no sensors had the required performance:
      • GaAs investigated because of anticipated radiation tolerance
      • MSGCs investigated because of anticipated lower cost
      • Silicon strip options considered
        • n-in-p (inversion)
        • double-sided (material, cost)
        • p-in-n
          • DC coupled
          • AC coupled
        • 6” wafers or 4” wafers
        • Oxygenated
    • Close collaboration with industry was the key to success.
      • Sensors with strip yield close to 100% & delivered to agreed schedule
    Example-2 Technical choices : Sensors
    • In 1990s no proven radiation hard technology available with the required performance.
      • Analogue
        • de-convolution to get speed
      • Digital
        • 2 chip-set
      • Binary
        • 2 chip set
        • Bi-CMOS ABCD
          • ABCD3-T
    • During 1990s may radiation hard foundries closed and there was the great discovery that deep sub-micron processes were radiation hard.
      • Production of ASICs on specialised process was ‘tough’ and yield ~ 26%
    Example-3 Technical choices : ASICs
  • ATLAS SCT tracker
  • ATLAS SCT Schedule “ The success of most things depends on knowing how long it will take to succeed” – Montesquieu 1997: resources fixed Evolution of schedule end-date complicated decision making
  • CMS tracker assembly organisation
  • The Race People
  • FINISH The Green team won by 1 mile!
  • Currently the Red team management is having a new boat designed; and to demostrate fiscal and HR dexterity for stockholders they also outsourced the rowing to India.
  • Summary - Project Management
    • ‘ Port and Cigars’ analogy
        • PM lecture concludes the main meal of a series of lectures on experimental techniques.
        • An opportunity to hear the words and to reflect on what is needed to achieve project.
          • “… and now you’ve heard it before”
        • I hope that
          • it gives you confidence to learn by trying
            • or
          • It encourages you to take a real course
          • e.g.
  • ..but it is more fun to look at Wikiquotes
    • "The more you plan the luckier you get. "
    • "If it can go wrong it will - Murphy's law. “
    • "Anything that can be changed will be changed until there is no time left to change anything.“
    • "Work expands to fill the time available for its completion - Parkinson's law.“
    • "A minute saved at the start is just as effective as one saved at the end."
    • "A little risk management saves a lot of fan cleaning."
    • "Activity is not achievement."
    • "The sooner you get behind schedule, the more time you have to make it up.“
    • "Any project can be estimated accurately (once it's completed)."
    • "There's never enough time to do it right first time but there's always enough time to go back and do it again."