Quality Assurance in Data Processing for Census

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Quality Assurance in Data Processing for Census

  1. 1. Quality Management in Data Processing for Census Presented by : Mr. Dominic K T LEUNG Deputy Commissioner Census and Statistics Department 20 th September 2006 Hong Kong, China
  2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>Quality Management: Steer from Top </li></ul><ul><li>Quality Assurance in System Development </li></ul><ul><li>Data Quality Assurance in Data Processing </li></ul><ul><li>End-user Participation – an Important Ingredient </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware, Software and Service Acquisition – an Important Area </li></ul>
  3. 3. Quality Management: Steer from Top (Overview of Section A) <ul><li>What is Quality Management? </li></ul><ul><li>Why Need a Project Management Methodology? </li></ul><ul><li>PRINCE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is PRINCE? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Components of PRINCE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Planning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Quality Management: Steer from Top <ul><li>What is Quality Management? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The philosophy: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>mistake should be prevented rather than detected </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>fulfill the stakeholders’ expectations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>proper project management structure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>clear definitions of roles and responsibilities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>determine what quality standards should be adopted </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>need to be set right at the beginning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>end result is a Quality Plan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality Assurance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>planned and systematic quality activities to monitor the project </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>provide the confidence that the project will meet the standards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality Check </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>measure specific project results to determine that the results match the standards </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Quality Management: Steer from Top <ul><li>Why Need a Project Management Methodology? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To define the project organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To reach consensus among all relevant parties about </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Why the project is needed? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What the project is intended to achieve? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How, where and when the parties are going to participate? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To provide a framework for Quality Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To overcome some common mistakes like </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inadequate planning and co-ordination of resources, activities, and scheduling </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poor communication among interested parties </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Under-estimation of project costs and duration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of control over progress </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of quality control </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Quality Management: Steer from Top <ul><li>What is PRINCE? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>short for PRojects IN Controlled Environments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>established in 1989 by CCTA (the Central Computer and Telecommunications Agency) in UK, later renamed as the OGC (the Office of Government Commerce) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>structured method for effective project management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>widely used in both public and private sectors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>define the activities to be carried out for project organization, planning, risk management and control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>balance and optimize among Function, Time, Resource, Quality, and Risk </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Quality Management: Steer from Top <ul><li>Components of PRINCE: Organization </li></ul>Project Team <ul><ul><li>The organization usually composes of three parts, namely the Project Steering Committee (PSC), the Project Assurance (PA) Group and the Project Manager (PM). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PSC usually consists of Executive, Senior User and Senior Technical </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PA Group usually consists of Business Assurance Coordinator, User Assurance Coordinator and Technical Assurance Coordinator </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The PM, to whom all other team members report, is responsible for the timely production of all end-products to the agreed quality standards within the tolerances of time and cost set by the PSC </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The role and responsibilities of each member in the organization should be clearly defined in the Project Initiation Document </li></ul></ul>Project Assurance (PA) Group Team Leader Project Manager (PM) Project Steering Committee (PSC) Senior User Executive Senior Technical
  8. 8. Quality Management: Steer from Top <ul><li>Components of PRINCE: Planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The concept of 'Staging' is recommended. A project should be divided into stages to facilitate project management and control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It provides senior management the opportunities to assess the project progress and business case at the stage boundaries. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It also enables more realistic estimates for each stage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product-based Planning is introduced. It encourages planning the products first and then the activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It ensures that the derived activities will directly contribute to the development of the products </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The project manager should plan on project level for Project Steering Committee to oversee the project and he / she should plan on detailed stage level for his / her day-to-day control </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Quality Management: Steer from Top <ul><li>Components of PRINCE: Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Management by Exception – the principle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>During a project stage, the Project Steering Committee delegates the day-to-day project management responsibilities to the Project Manager with 'Tolerance' </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Project Steering Committee exercises control on project only when there is Exception (has exceeded or is anticipated to exceed the tolerance) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality Management: the elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inclusion of Quality Plan (detailing related guidelines/ standards, quality criteria and quality checking method) devised at the project initiation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conduct of Quality Assurance Review at different stages to look for positive evidence that the product meets its specifications and quality criteria </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Quality Management: Steer from Top <ul><li>Components of PRINCE: Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control Meetings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Project Steering Committee Meeting held by Project Steering Committee (event driven or time driven at project initiation, end-stages, project closure) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Checkpoint Review held by Project Manager (regular and time driven) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Management of Risk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Management of Configuration/Change </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Agenda <ul><li>Quality Management: Steer from Top </li></ul><ul><li>Quality Assurance in System Development </li></ul><ul><li>Data Quality Assurance in Data Processing </li></ul><ul><li>End-user Participation – an Important Ingredient </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware, Software and Service Acquisition – an Important Area </li></ul>
  12. 12. Quality Assurance in System Development (Overview of Section B) <ul><li>Adoption of Standard Methodologies </li></ul><ul><li>SSADM in Practice </li></ul><ul><li>Major Quality Assurance Related Activities in SSADM </li></ul><ul><li>Formal Quality Review </li></ul>
  13. 13. Quality Assurance in System Development <ul><li>Adoption of Standard Methodologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>give clear specification of what is to be produced and how it is to be managed and reviewed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>visualize users' business objectives/activities and needs by continuously involving users with standard modeling techniques </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>promote better quality management by detecting errors early in the lifecycle, especially by involving users as well as skilled practitioners in checking for errors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>separate logical system specification and physical design to enable portability and re-use of application </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>leverage useful automation tools for productivity gain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>transfer expertise to practitioners including business and IT managements and users </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Quality Assurance in System Development <ul><li>SSADM in Practice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structured Systems Analysis and Design Methodology (SSADM) is established in 1981 by CCTA (Central Computing and Telecommunications Agency) in UK </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>covering the Feasibility Study Phase, System Analysis and Design Phase, Implementation Phase of the System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>an integrated set of standards and guides for the analysis and design of computer systems consisting of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Structural standards, which define tasks explicitly, with clearly defined interfaces between them, and clearly defined tangible products </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technique guides, which provide a set of proven techniques and tools, and detailed rules and guidelines on when and how to use them </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Documentation standards, which provide the means of recording the products of development activity at a detailed level </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Quality Assurance in System Development <ul><li>Major Quality Assurance Related Activities in SSADM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Define existing environment, business system option, functional and non-functional requirements (such as response time, capacity, security, contingency measures, etc), technical system option, logical design, and physical design, in both feasibility study and system analysis & design stages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The deliverables will be produced and accepted through series of discussions between developers and end-users so as to ensure the end-product is what the business requires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specify various acceptance tests in implementation stage such as Unit Test, System Test, Integration Test, Load Test, User Acceptance Test, etc </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Quality Assurance in System Development <ul><li>Formal Quality Assurance Review </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In accordance with PRINCE, a quality plan will be prepared which incorporates the quality checking mechanism, acceptance criteria, relevant guidelines & standards, and frequency of review </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure that the deliverables are complete, accurate, adhering to specified guidelines & standards, properly documented, fully tested; and that all user requirements are fully satisfied </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Agenda <ul><li>Quality Management: Steer from Top </li></ul><ul><li>Quality Assurance in System Development </li></ul><ul><li>Data Quality Assurance in Data Processing </li></ul><ul><li>End-user Participation – an Important Ingredient </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware, Software and Service Acquisition – an Important Area </li></ul>
  18. 18. Data Quality Assurance in Data Processing (Overview of Section C) <ul><li>Objectives of Data Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Data Quality Control in various Operation Stages </li></ul>
  19. 19. Data Quality Assurance in Data Processing <ul><li>Objectives of Data Quality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Utility via extensive user consultation (defining data topics) to ensure that the information disseminated to the public shall be useful to its intended users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Objectivity via both systematic and disproportionate sampling techniques, validation & imputation rules, suite of quality check mechanisms employed in data collection, capturing & processing steps, thorough system tests to ensure that the information is accurate, clear, complete, and unbiased manner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrity via printed publication, softcopy media and well-protected dissemination system safeguarded from improper access, modification, or destruction </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Data Quality Assurance in Data Processing <ul><li>Data Quality Control in various Operation Stages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer sub-systems are built with quality check features to monitor and control the operation in the following stages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data Collection Stage (enumerators) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data Capturing Stage (Intelligent Character Recognition/Optical Mark Recognition capturing service contractors) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data Coding Stage (computer-aided coding temporary staff) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data Editing Stage (data editing temporary staff) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Agenda <ul><li>Quality Management: Steer from Top </li></ul><ul><li>Quality Assurance in System Development </li></ul><ul><li>Data Quality Assurance in Data Processing </li></ul><ul><li>End-user Participation – an Important Ingredient </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware, Software and Service Acquisition – an Important Area </li></ul>
  22. 22. End-user Participation – an Important Ingredient (Overview of Section D) <ul><li>Management Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Feasibility Study and System Analysis & Design </li></ul><ul><li>System Implementation </li></ul>
  23. 23. End-user Participation – an Important Ingredient <ul><li>Management Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear understanding of roles and responsibilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delegation of authorities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Represent the user community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Committed to the project and own the project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Team building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Close communication among concerned parties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive to change arising from project implementation </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. End-user Participation – an Important Ingredient <ul><li>Feasibility Study and System Analysis & Design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Define realistic project schedule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assist system developers to identify and understand current environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explore business re-engineering possibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare user requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide feedback on the system design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extensive discussions/workshops between users and developers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Build prototype where necessary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Review deliverables to ascertain the final product is what the business needs </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. End-user Participation – an Important Ingredient <ul><li>System Implementation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare system test plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare system test cases and data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conduct various system acceptance tests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare various documentation and guidelines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrange training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perform data migration </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Agenda <ul><li>Quality Management: Steer from Top </li></ul><ul><li>Quality Assurance in System Development </li></ul><ul><li>Data Quality Assurance in Data Processing </li></ul><ul><li>End-user Participation – an Important Ingredient </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware, Software and Service Acquisition – an Important Area </li></ul>
  27. 27. Hardware, Software and Service Acquisition – an Important Area (Overview of Section E) <ul><li>Alternatives in Product/Service Acquisition </li></ul><ul><li>Considerations in Specifying User Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges in Managing Outsourcing </li></ul>
  28. 28. Hardware, Software and Service Acquisition – an Important Area <ul><li>Alternatives in Product/Service Acquisition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outsourcing, Package Solution or Custom-built Application </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allow focus on core services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increase the flexibility in service delivery </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Improve service quality and output </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cost consideration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make up for staff shortage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Risk diversification </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unavailability of required services in-house </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Access to information, technology, skills & expertise </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Challenges in managing outsourcing </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Hardware, Software and Service Acquisition – an Important Area <ul><li>Considerations in Specifying User Requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>User-friendliness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data migration effort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inter-operability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open standard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occupation Safety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environment friendly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infrastructure constraint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maturity of product </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product life cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local technical support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Re-usability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scalability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capacity limit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Financial implication </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Hardware, Software and Service Acquisition – an Important Area <ul><li>Challenges in Managing Outsourcing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Project Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expectation/ Service Level Agreements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project Ownership and Accountability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skill Transfer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In-house Pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selection of Right Service Provider </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Thank you

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