by Bopaya Bidanda David I. Cleland Project Management for Product Development
Project Management Process Planning Organizing Motivating Directing Control
Planning <ul><li>Strategic context </li></ul><ul><li>Planning process </li></ul><ul><li>Project planning elements </li></u...
Planning
Planning Process <ul><li>Develop project objectives, goals, and strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Develop project “work breakdo...
Project Planning Elements <ul><li>Statement of work </li></ul><ul><li>Project specification </li></ul><ul><li>Milestone sc...
Project Life Cycle <ul><li>4 Phases </li></ul>Phase I Conceptual Phase II Planning Phase III Execution Phase IV Terminatio...
Phase I---Conceptual <ul><li>Identify need </li></ul><ul><li>Establish feasibility </li></ul><ul><li>Identify alternatives...
Phase II---Planning <ul><li>Implement schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct studies and analyses </li></ul><ul><li>Design sys...
Phase III---Execution <ul><li>Procure materials </li></ul><ul><li>Build and test tooling </li></ul><ul><li>Develop support...
Phase IV---Termination <ul><li>Train functional personnel </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer materials </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer ...
Work Breakdown Structure <ul><li>Divides the overall project into work elements </li></ul><ul><li>Each project must be sub...
Work Breakdown Structure (Example) Antenna Rotating System Control Box Wiring Interface Antenna Assembly Chassis Electrica...
Project Planning Work Packages <ul><li>Establish the strategic fit of the project </li></ul><ul><li>Develop the project te...
Project Planning Work Packages (cont.) <ul><li>Identify project work packages that will be subcontracted </li></ul><ul><li...
Project Planning Work Packages (cont.) <ul><li>Estimate the project costs </li></ul><ul><li>Perform risk analysis </li></u...
Project Planning Work Packages (cont.) <ul><li>Provide for the project management information systems </li></ul><ul><li>As...
Project Planning Work Packages (cont.) <ul><li>Design project administrative policies, procedures, and methodologies </li>...
Implementation of New Technology & New Concepts <ul><li>Success Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishment of clear proje...
Success Factors (contd.) <ul><li>Selection and training of employees </li></ul><ul><li>Organization directs efforts toward...
Techniques in Project Scheduling <ul><li>Gantt Chart </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Part Method (CPM) </li></ul><ul><li>Projec...
Critical Path Method (CPM) <ul><li>Each activity is known with certainty </li></ul><ul><li>Used to determine the length of...
Project Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) <ul><li>The duration of the activities is not known with certainty </li></u...
Developing Time Estimates <ul><li>A probabilistic model </li></ul><ul><li>The time for an activity is a random variable ha...
PERT <ul><li>Expected Time =  a + 4m + b  =   </li></ul><ul><li>Variance or   2  = (b-a) 2  / 36 </li></ul><ul><li>Base...
Project Organizational Design
Managers vs. Leaders <ul><li>Leaders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop foresight and vision for the future opportunity </li></...
Managers vs. Leaders <ul><li>Managers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop and maintain oversight of current operation </li></ul>...
Good Characteristics for Leaders <ul><li>Coach </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitator </li></ul><ul><li>Counselor </li></ul><ul><li...
Good Characteristics for Managers <ul><li>Self reliance </li></ul><ul><li>Generalist </li></ul><ul><li>Specialist </li></u...
Organizing <ul><li>Organizing process </li></ul><ul><li>Matrix organization </li></ul>
Organization Charts <ul><li>Traditional Chart </li></ul><ul><li>Linear Responsibility Chart (LRC) </li></ul>
Matrix Organization <ul><li>A network of interfaces between a project team and the functional element of an organization <...
A Basic Project Management Matrix Project Functional Interfaces
The Project-Functional Interface <ul><li>Project is to be done? </li></ul><ul><li>When will the task be done? </li></ul><u...
Project Functional Interface <ul><li>Describes how project manager accomplishes project </li></ul><ul><li>Managing of orga...
Organizing Process <ul><li>Establish organizational structure for the team </li></ul><ul><li>Identify and assign project r...
Organizing Process (cont.) <ul><li>Prepare project management charter and other delegation instruments </li></ul><ul><li>E...
 
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  • Project management involves the design &amp; execution of management functions of planning, organizing, motivating, directing, and control.
  • Planning---What are we aiming for? &amp; Why? (These are the questions to be answered clearly before proceeding on anything) Planning process is preceded by organizational strategic planning---Strategic Context
  • Precedence diagram is developed to establish logical relationship of project activities and milestones. Time-based schedule is developed based on the precedence diagram.
  • The statement of work includes general scope of work, contractor’s tasks, contracts, &amp; items, reference to related studies, documentation and specification, data requirement, support equipment for contracts &amp; items, customer furnished property, facility, equipment and services, customer furnished documentation, schedule performance, exhibit attachment, appendices Project specification included written description of the project, a clear definition of project requirement for the project items, material or services, a description of project elements to be delivered &amp; related to WBS, describe sub-system characteristics Milestone schedule includes project start date, project end date, other major milestone, data items The WBS project is subdivided into tasks that can be assigned and accomplish by some organizational units Financial planning involves obtaining and managing organizational fund to support the PM through the use of work authorization process.
  • Project life cycle is a key consideration in project planning!!
  • Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) ---the most basic consideration in project planning WBS divides the overall project into work elements that represent singular work units, assigned either with the organization or to an outside agency such as vendor. Each project must be subdivided into tasks that can be assigned and accomplished by some organizational unit or individual. These tasks are then performed by specialized functional organizational components. The underlying philosophy of the work breakdown structure is to break down the project into work packages that are assignable and for which accountability can be expected. The process of developing the WBS is to establish a scheme for dividing the project into major groups, then divide the major groups into tasks, subdivide the tasks into subtasks, and so forth.
  • Establishment of clear Project Objectives Use of a human centered philosophy that encompasses the concept of the computer aided craftsmen, who is both supported by and in control of the technology Early and significant worker participation in the planning and implementation of cells Initial introduction of the technology by utilizing pilot projects. The presence of a high level technology implementation champion.
  • Employees are selected and trained to be more capable in terms of knowledge skills and attitudes The organizations specifically directs effort toward overcoming resistance to new technology. Performance evaluation and reward systems must be changed to meet the requirements of the new operating environment. Organizational design is changed with technology implementation (e.g. cross functional teams) Empowerment by placing decision making authority at the lowest level that has access to the necessary information.
  • Key concepts: Leadership and managing are two distinctive, yet interdependent system of organizational strategy. Many organization are over manage and under led. Leadership is coping with change through the development of a vision and communicating that vision to the followers. Management is coping with complexity through the design and development of managerial function. Strong leadership and strong management are an extra ordinary combination Leader looks for pattern relationship emergin fources, probable trend to satisfy the need of constituency Leader are broad based-thinker to look for synergy and opportunity Managers look for order system discipline result and reward A leader ship centered culture is the ultimate act of leadership Leader copes with probable change. Manager copes with complexity of responding to that change.
  • Question to be answered…What is involved and Why? Project organization denotes an inter-organizational team pulled together for a specific purpose. Personals are drawn from the organization’s functional unit to perform on specific tasks. Organization is temporary, built around the purpose to be accomplished. When such team is formed on the existing structure , a matrix organization is formed. The matrix organization encompasses the complementary functions and project units.
  • A key part of organization design is determination of individual and corrective role of the people in organization as well as development of understanding of these role by the people as they carry out their responsibilities. Two organization charts are needed Traditional Chart --- portrays the general framework of the organization Linear responsibility chart (LRC) --- reviews the work package position coupling in the organization.
  • Matrix organization is a network of interfaces between a project team and the functional element of an organization. The interfaces of these elements centers on the project work packages.
  • The underlying concept of the work package is simply that of management by objective and the decentralization of authority, responsibility, and accountability . Implementation of the project requires that the total job be broken down into components (hardware, software, and services) and then that these components be further broken down into assignable work packages. Each work package is basically a “bundle of skills” that an individual or individuals have to perform in the organization. Work package is negotiated with, and assigned to, a specific manager or professional. This work package is then held fully responsible for the work package meeting its objective on time and within budget .
  • The project functional interface describes how project managers accomplish project which ends by the managing of relationship within total organization. This managing of organization relationship is 3 dimensional upward , project manager must relate to their boss (GM or manager of project); horizontally, they related to members of their project team; diagonally, they related to functional managers and to representative of other organizations.
  • An example of LRC Linear responsibility chart (LRC) shows who participate and to what degree and when an activity is performed or a decision made also shows the extent or type of authority exercised by each position in performing an activity in which two or more positions have overlapping involvement.
  • Project Planning Presentation

    1. 1. by Bopaya Bidanda David I. Cleland Project Management for Product Development
    2. 2. Project Management Process Planning Organizing Motivating Directing Control
    3. 3. Planning <ul><li>Strategic context </li></ul><ul><li>Planning process </li></ul><ul><li>Project planning elements </li></ul><ul><li>Project planning work packages </li></ul><ul><li>Project life cycle </li></ul>
    4. 4. Planning
    5. 5. Planning Process <ul><li>Develop project objectives, goals, and strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Develop project “work breakdown structure” (WBS) </li></ul><ul><li>Develop precedence diagram </li></ul><ul><li>Develop time-based schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Plan on the resource support </li></ul>
    6. 6. Project Planning Elements <ul><li>Statement of work </li></ul><ul><li>Project specification </li></ul><ul><li>Milestone schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Work Breakdown Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Financial planning </li></ul>
    7. 7. Project Life Cycle <ul><li>4 Phases </li></ul>Phase I Conceptual Phase II Planning Phase III Execution Phase IV Termination Dollars of worker-hours (level of effort)
    8. 8. Phase I---Conceptual <ul><li>Identify need </li></ul><ul><li>Establish feasibility </li></ul><ul><li>Identify alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare proposal </li></ul><ul><li>Develop basic budget and schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Identify project team </li></ul>
    9. 9. Phase II---Planning <ul><li>Implement schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct studies and analyses </li></ul><ul><li>Design system </li></ul><ul><li>Build and test prototypes </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze results </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain approval for production </li></ul>
    10. 10. Phase III---Execution <ul><li>Procure materials </li></ul><ul><li>Build and test tooling </li></ul><ul><li>Develop support requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Produce system </li></ul><ul><li>Verify performance </li></ul><ul><li>Modify as required </li></ul>
    11. 11. Phase IV---Termination <ul><li>Train functional personnel </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer materials </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Release resources </li></ul><ul><li>Reassign project team members </li></ul>
    12. 12. Work Breakdown Structure <ul><li>Divides the overall project into work elements </li></ul><ul><li>Each project must be subdivided into tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Projects are planned, organized, and controlled around the lowest level of the WBS </li></ul>
    13. 13. Work Breakdown Structure (Example) Antenna Rotating System Control Box Wiring Interface Antenna Assembly Chassis Electrical Subassembly Antenna Mast Antenna Rotating Motor Interconnect Wiring Switch Assembly Capacitator Motor Assembly Transformer Switch Housing Terminal Board
    14. 14. Project Planning Work Packages <ul><li>Establish the strategic fit of the project </li></ul><ul><li>Develop the project technical performance objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the project through the development of the project </li></ul><ul><li>Identify and make provisions for the assignment of the functional work packages </li></ul>
    15. 15. Project Planning Work Packages (cont.) <ul><li>Identify project work packages that will be subcontracted </li></ul><ul><li>Develop the master and work package schedules </li></ul><ul><li>Develop the logic networks and relationships of the project work packages </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the strategic issues that the project is likely to face </li></ul>
    16. 16. Project Planning Work Packages (cont.) <ul><li>Estimate the project costs </li></ul><ul><li>Perform risk analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Develop the project budgets, funding plans, and other resource plans </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure the development of organizational cost accounting system interfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Select the organizational design </li></ul>
    17. 17. Project Planning Work Packages (cont.) <ul><li>Provide for the project management information systems </li></ul><ul><li>Assess the organizational cultural ambience </li></ul><ul><li>Develop project control concepts, process, and technique </li></ul><ul><li>Develop project team </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate contemporaneous state-of-the-art project management philosophies, concepts, and techniques </li></ul>
    18. 18. Project Planning Work Packages (cont.) <ul><li>Design project administrative policies, procedures, and methodologies </li></ul><ul><li>Plan for the nature and timing of the project audits </li></ul><ul><li>Determine who the project stakeholders are and plan for the management of these stakeholders </li></ul>
    19. 19. Implementation of New Technology & New Concepts <ul><li>Success Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishment of clear project objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of a Human Centered philosophy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early team member participation in planning and implementation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction of technology through pilot projects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presence of a technology implementation champion </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Success Factors (contd.) <ul><li>Selection and training of employees </li></ul><ul><li>Organization directs efforts towards overcoming resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Performance evaluation and rewards system changes </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational design changes </li></ul><ul><li>Empowerment of project team </li></ul>
    21. 21. Techniques in Project Scheduling <ul><li>Gantt Chart </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Part Method (CPM) </li></ul><ul><li>Project Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) </li></ul>
    22. 22. Critical Path Method (CPM) <ul><li>Each activity is known with certainty </li></ul><ul><li>Used to determine the length of time required to complete a project </li></ul><ul><li>Used to determine how long each activity in the project can be delayed with out delaying the completion of the project </li></ul>
    23. 23. Project Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) <ul><li>The duration of the activities is not known with certainty </li></ul><ul><li>Used to estimate the probability that the project will be completed by a given deadline </li></ul>
    24. 24. Developing Time Estimates <ul><li>A probabilistic model </li></ul><ul><li>The time for an activity is a random variable having the same distribution </li></ul><ul><li>3 estimates for each activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>m = most likely time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a = optimistic time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b = pessimistic time </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. PERT <ul><li>Expected Time = a + 4m + b =  </li></ul><ul><li>Variance or  2 = (b-a) 2 / 36 </li></ul><ul><li>Based on the Beta distribution which weights the most likely time 4 times more than the optimistic or pessimistic time </li></ul>6
    26. 26. Project Organizational Design
    27. 27. Managers vs. Leaders <ul><li>Leaders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop foresight and vision for the future opportunity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximize effectiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop and execute creative future strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain strategic awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seek and see the big pictures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seek new purpose </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Managers vs. Leaders <ul><li>Managers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop and maintain oversight of current operation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximize efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop and execute management system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Watch the detail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seek constancy of purpose </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Good Characteristics for Leaders <ul><li>Coach </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitator </li></ul><ul><li>Counselor </li></ul><ul><li>Networker </li></ul><ul><li>Resource provider </li></ul><ul><li>Leader </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinator </li></ul>
    30. 30. Good Characteristics for Managers <ul><li>Self reliance </li></ul><ul><li>Generalist </li></ul><ul><li>Specialist </li></ul><ul><li>Connected </li></ul>
    31. 31. Organizing <ul><li>Organizing process </li></ul><ul><li>Matrix organization </li></ul>
    32. 32. Organization Charts <ul><li>Traditional Chart </li></ul><ul><li>Linear Responsibility Chart (LRC) </li></ul>
    33. 33. Matrix Organization <ul><li>A network of interfaces between a project team and the functional element of an organization </li></ul><ul><li>The interfaces center on work packages </li></ul>
    34. 34. A Basic Project Management Matrix Project Functional Interfaces
    35. 35. The Project-Functional Interface <ul><li>Project is to be done? </li></ul><ul><li>When will the task be done? </li></ul><ul><li>How much money is available to do the task? </li></ul><ul><li>How well has the total project been done? </li></ul><ul><li>How will the task be done? </li></ul><ul><li>Where will the task be done? </li></ul><ul><li>Who do the task? </li></ul><ul><li>How well has the functional input been integrated into the project? </li></ul>Project Manager Functional Manager
    36. 36. Project Functional Interface <ul><li>Describes how project manager accomplishes project </li></ul><ul><li>Managing of organization relationship is primarily 2 dimensions </li></ul>
    37. 37. Organizing Process <ul><li>Establish organizational structure for the team </li></ul><ul><li>Identify and assign project roles to members of the project team </li></ul><ul><li>Define management project policies, procedures, and techniques </li></ul>
    38. 38. Organizing Process (cont.) <ul><li>Prepare project management charter and other delegation instruments </li></ul><ul><li>Establish standard for the authority, responsibility, and accountability of the project team </li></ul>

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