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Introduction to  Project Planning   Monica Farrow  EM G30 [email_address] www.vision.hw.ac.uk F29SO1 Software Engineering
Topics today <ul><li>Work Breakdown Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Gantt Charts </li></ul><ul><li>Network Techniques </li></u...
Why Plan? <ul><li>To predict the start or end point of the project </li></ul><ul><li>To enable communication </li></ul><ul...
Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) <ul><li>It is normal to get overwhelmed and confused when beginning to graps the details of...
Simplistic WBS <ul><li>No concept of time here. </li></ul><ul><li>WBS will often reflect the chosen SDLC/methodology </li>...
Plans Need Tasks & Tasks Need Durations <ul><li>Brainstorm tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Subdivide tasks ‘til each is about 1 or...
Milestones <ul><li>Periodic stages in the project where something measurable should have been achieved. </li></ul><ul><li>...
Gantt Charts <ul><li>Named after Henry Gantt. </li></ul><ul><li>Around since 1st World War </li></ul>
Gantt Charts <ul><li>Each activity is an element in the WBS </li></ul><ul><li>Can show critical path </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
Dependency/Precedence Relationships <ul><li>Describe what activities must be done before another activity can take place <...
Dependency/Precedence Relationships in Gantt chart
Critical Path <ul><li>The chain of sequential activities that determines the minimum time required for the project. </li><...
Network Techniques <ul><li>Easier to construct than Gantt charts. </li></ul><ul><li>More difficult for novices to interpre...
Network Techniques <ul><li>PERT - Project Evaluation and Review Technique </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Network based aid for plan...
Network Techniques <ul><li>Activity-on-Arrow (AoA) </li></ul>1 3 2 4 Find Pencil Make Drawing Find Paper 1 mins 10 mins 2 ...
<ul><li>Activity-on-Node (AoN) </li></ul><ul><li>B depends on A </li></ul><ul><li>A takes 21 days </li></ul><ul><li>B star...
Example AoA- Build the network T1 T3 T4 10 4 8 T2 5 T7 T8 2 finish F T5 7 start T6 5 15 C D E A 5 T5 T6 5 T2,T4 T7 2 T7,T6...
Calculate Critical Path – longest path  T1 T3 T4 10 A 4 8 T2 5 T7 T8 2 finish F T5 7 start T6 5 <ul><li>For each possible ...
The equivalent AoN diagram  T1 10 T3 15 T4 4 T7 5 T2 8 T5 7 T6 5 T8 2 ACTIVITY DURATION
Finding the slack (float)  <ul><li>The next slides show how this diagram can be useful in more complex networks to show cl...
Forward Pass E = early  L = late S = start  F = finish ACTIVITY DURATION ES EF FLOAT T1 10 0 10 T3 15 10 25 T4 4 25 29 T7 ...
Backward Pass <ul><li>Next, calculate the latest start and finish times for each activity, by following each path  backwar...
Backward Pass E = early  L = late S = start  F = finish ACTIVITY DURATION ES EF FLOAT LS LF T1 0 10 10 0 10 T3 10 25 15 10...
Calculate the Slack (Float) <ul><li>The  slack  or  float  is the spare time available for an activity </li></ul><ul><li>I...
Calculate the Slack (Float) E = early  L = late  S = start  F = finish ACTIVITY DURATION ES EF FLOAT LS LF T1 0 0 10 10 0 ...
Finding the critical path <ul><li>The critical path is the one where </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Float is always 0 </li></ul></u...
Finding the free float <ul><li>Free float  is  the amount of time a task can be delayed before affecting the timing of the...
Finding the total float <ul><li>Total float  is  the spare time available when all preceding activities occur at the  earl...
Another example start E = early L = late S = start F = finish ? Critical Path ? Float C 3 0 3 A 1 0 1 B 2 0 2 E 5 2 7 H 6 ...
MS-Project <ul><li>A widely used tool from Microsoft to help plan projects. </li></ul><ul><li>Available in most XP labs. <...
MS Project – data entry You create  the links And  add  resources Enter start date, tasks and duration –  start and finish...
MS Project Gantt chart Shows hierarchy, precedence,  Resources, Milestones
MS Project Network chart
MS Project - schedule Right click in this box and choose Schedule Slack and late times are calculated automatically
Final thoughts on MS Project <ul><li>All sorts of reports exist – experiment with them </li></ul><ul><li>Use ZoomIn, ZoomO...
Resource Management <ul><li>Examples of resources: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>technicians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>designers ...
Problems with Resources <ul><li>usually limited (finite) </li></ul><ul><li>can’t work on everything at the same time </li>...
Resource Management <ul><li>The quotation here will also apply to other resources, such as hardware, software, etc. </li><...
Scheduling & Resources <ul><li>Previously we assumed that we had enough (infinite) resources to complete tasks. </li></ul>...
Resource  Limited Scheduling <ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only 2 people available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each...
Time  Limited Scheduling <ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The time for a Project can only last 10 days </li></ul></ul...
Time & Resource  Limited Scheduling <ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A needs 2 staff, B & C need 1. </li></ul></ul><u...
Pragmatic Realities <ul><li>All projects are unique </li></ul><ul><li>None will run exactly to plan </li></ul><ul><li>All ...
Group Project Scheduling <ul><li>You are time and resource limited. </li></ul><ul><li>Resource effort is diluted. </li></u...
Answers <ul><li>Time limited scheduling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Project will take 15 days, can improve by adding in more sta...
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Project Planning

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Transcript of "Project Planning"

  1. 1. Introduction to Project Planning Monica Farrow EM G30 [email_address] www.vision.hw.ac.uk F29SO1 Software Engineering
  2. 2. Topics today <ul><li>Work Breakdown Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Gantt Charts </li></ul><ul><li>Network Techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Path </li></ul><ul><li>Spare time </li></ul><ul><li>MS Project </li></ul><ul><li>Resource planning </li></ul><ul><li>Words of wisdom </li></ul>
  3. 3. Why Plan? <ul><li>To predict the start or end point of the project </li></ul><ul><li>To enable communication </li></ul><ul><li>To highlight problems early </li></ul><ul><li>To help manage risk </li></ul>“ If you don't plan to succeed, then plan to fail” anon.
  4. 4. Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) <ul><li>It is normal to get overwhelmed and confused when beginning to graps the details of even a modest sized project </li></ul><ul><li>WBS - A results-organised family tree, the work is split into manageable, logical packages </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure packages can be tested for completeness </li></ul><ul><li>Moving post-its around on white/black boards can be useful in early discussions. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Simplistic WBS <ul><li>No concept of time here. </li></ul><ul><li>WBS will often reflect the chosen SDLC/methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Should show ALL tasks (including management ones) </li></ul><ul><li>Tasks should not overlap </li></ul>Stock Control System Requirements Design Implement Integrate Maintain ... Build GUI Build Logic Build Database ... ...
  6. 6. Plans Need Tasks & Tasks Need Durations <ul><li>Brainstorm tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Subdivide tasks ‘til each is about 1 or 2 weeks in duration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you can get down to days then great, but beware of the need for contingencies (what’s a contingency?) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tasks (Do not copy these! You are all different): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hand in deliverable 1 (0 days) - A MILESTONE! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop GUI (10 days) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have ridiculously long Xmas holiday (1 day) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Milestones <ul><li>Periodic stages in the project where something measurable should have been achieved. </li></ul><ul><li>Highlight these in the plan. </li></ul><ul><li>The achievement is usually a deliverable, such as a report or prototype </li></ul><ul><li>Too often -> they become millstones. </li></ul><ul><li>Too seldom -> they become worthless. </li></ul><ul><li>Temper both optimism and pessimism. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Gantt Charts <ul><li>Named after Henry Gantt. </li></ul><ul><li>Around since 1st World War </li></ul>
  9. 9. Gantt Charts <ul><li>Each activity is an element in the WBS </li></ul><ul><li>Can show critical path </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explained on later slides </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But not great at showing task precedence </li></ul><ul><li>Easy for novices to construct and interpret </li></ul>
  10. 10. Dependency/Precedence Relationships <ul><li>Describe what activities must be done before another activity can take place </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boil kettle before adding water to cup </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pick up hand set before dialling number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buy computer system before installing it. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Dependency/Precedence Relationships in Gantt chart
  12. 12. Critical Path <ul><li>The chain of sequential activities that determines the minimum time required for the project. </li></ul><ul><li>Passes through activities with least float (spare time) </li></ul><ul><li>To examine critical paths and float, we’ll look at network techniques </li></ul>
  13. 13. Network Techniques <ul><li>Easier to construct than Gantt charts. </li></ul><ul><li>More difficult for novices to interpret. </li></ul><ul><li>Often paper based during early planning activities - easily follows from WBS. </li></ul><ul><li>Does not rely on your knowledge about task duration. </li></ul><ul><li>Does rely on your logical understanding of the order in which tasks are carried out. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Network Techniques <ul><li>PERT - Project Evaluation and Review Technique </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Network based aid for planning and scheduling related tasks in a large and complex project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>US Polaris 1958 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Captures precedence (walls before roof) and parallel tasks (painting inside and outside – can be done together) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activity-on-Arrow (AoA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Easier to construct on paper </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activity-on-Node (AoN) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used in many software packages (eg PERT diagrams in MS-Project) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can be drawn manually in MS Visio </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Network Techniques <ul><li>Activity-on-Arrow (AoA) </li></ul>1 3 2 4 Find Pencil Make Drawing Find Paper 1 mins 10 mins 2 mins <ul><li>Event 3 dependent on 1 & 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Takes 1 minute to find pencil </li></ul><ul><li>Where is the slack here? </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Activity-on-Node (AoN) </li></ul><ul><li>B depends on A </li></ul><ul><li>A takes 21 days </li></ul><ul><li>B starts 5 days after A is complete </li></ul><ul><li>(-5 would indicate overlap) </li></ul>Network Techniques A 21 B 9 5
  17. 17. Example AoA- Build the network T1 T3 T4 10 4 8 T2 5 T7 T8 2 finish F T5 7 start T6 5 15 C D E A 5 T5 T6 5 T2,T4 T7 2 T7,T6 T8 7 T1 T5 4 T3 T4 15 T1 T3 8 T1 T2 10 T1
  18. 18. Calculate Critical Path – longest path T1 T3 T4 10 A 4 8 T2 5 T7 T8 2 finish F T5 7 start T6 5 <ul><li>For each possible path through the network, calculate the time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Start – A – C – D – E – Finish = 10 + 15 + 4 + 5 2 = 36 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Start – A – D – E – finish = 10 + 8 + 5 + 2 = 25 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Start – A – F – E – finish = 10 + 7 + 5 + 2 = 24 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Longest time required is 36 -> this path is the critical path </li></ul>15 C D E
  19. 19. The equivalent AoN diagram T1 10 T3 15 T4 4 T7 5 T2 8 T5 7 T6 5 T8 2 ACTIVITY DURATION
  20. 20. Finding the slack (float) <ul><li>The next slides show how this diagram can be useful in more complex networks to show clearly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where the slack (free time) is </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which is the critical path </li></ul></ul><ul><li>First calculate the earliest possible start and finish times for each activity, by taking a Forwards Pass through each path, following the arrows: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The earliest start (top left) is previous ES plus current Duration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The earliest finish (top right) is current ES + Duration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The previous EF = the next ES, unless there is a junction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At a junction, choose largest previous EF - the next activity cannot start until all the pre-requisite activities have finished </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Forward Pass E = early L = late S = start F = finish ACTIVITY DURATION ES EF FLOAT T1 10 0 10 T3 15 10 25 T4 4 25 29 T7 5 29 34 T2 8 10 18 T5 7 10 17 T6 5 17 22 T8 2 34 36
  22. 22. Backward Pass <ul><li>Next, calculate the latest start and finish times for each activity, by following each path backwards along the arrows </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At the final activity only, set the Latest Finish (LF) = EF , then follow the arrows backwards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The earliest start (ES) = current EF - Duration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other LFs = previous LS, unless there is a division of paths </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At a division, choose smallest previous ES </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Backward Pass E = early L = late S = start F = finish ACTIVITY DURATION ES EF FLOAT LS LF T1 0 10 10 0 10 T3 10 25 15 10 25 T4 25 29 4 25 29 T7 29 34 5 29 34 T2 21 29 8 10 18 T5 22 29 7 10 17 T6 29 34 5 17 22 T8 34 36 2 34 36
  24. 24. Calculate the Slack (Float) <ul><li>The slack or float is the spare time available for an activity </li></ul><ul><li>It is shown in the centre bottom panel </li></ul><ul><li>It is the difference between the latest possible finish and the earliest possible finish (LF – EF) </li></ul>ACTIVITY DURATION ES EF FLOAT LS LF
  25. 25. Calculate the Slack (Float) E = early L = late S = start F = finish ACTIVITY DURATION ES EF FLOAT LS LF T1 0 0 10 10 0 10 T3 0 10 25 15 10 25 T4 0 25 29 4 25 29 T7 0 29 34 5 29 34 T2 11 21 29 8 10 18 T5 12 22 29 7 10 17 T6 12 29 34 5 17 22 T8 0 34 36 2 34 36
  26. 26. Finding the critical path <ul><li>The critical path is the one where </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Float is always 0 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ES = LS and EF = LF </li></ul></ul>E = early L = late S = start F = finish ACTIVITY DURATION ES EF FLOAT LS LF T1 0 0 10 10 0 10 T3 0 10 25 15 10 25 T4 0 25 29 4 25 29 T7 0 29 34 5 29 34 T2 11 21 29 8 10 18 T5 12 22 29 7 10 17 T6 12 29 34 5 17 22 T8 0 34 36 2 34 36
  27. 27. Finding the free float <ul><li>Free float is the amount of time a task can be delayed before affecting the timing of the next task . </li></ul><ul><li>It’s only applicable to those tasks immediately preceding a junction </li></ul>E = early L = late S = start F = finish ACTIVITY DURATION ES EF FLOAT LS LF T1 0 0 10 10 0 10 T3 0 10 25 15 10 25 T4 0 25 29 4 25 29 T7 0 29 34 5 29 34 T2 11 21 29 8 10 18 T5 12 22 29 7 10 17 T6 12 29 34 5 17 22 T8 0 34 36 2 34 36
  28. 28. Finding the total float <ul><li>Total float is the spare time available when all preceding activities occur at the earliest possible times and all succeeding activities occur at the latest possible times. </li></ul><ul><li>Same for all activities on an arc – could be split amongst them </li></ul>E = early L = late S = start F = finish ACTIVITY DURATION ES EF FLOAT LS LF T1 0 0 10 10 0 10 T3 0 10 25 15 10 25 T4 0 25 29 4 25 29 T7 0 29 34 5 29 34 T2 11 21 29 8 10 18 T5 12 22 29 7 10 17 T6 12 29 34 5 17 22 T8 0 34 36 2 34 36
  29. 29. Another example start E = early L = late S = start F = finish ? Critical Path ? Float C 3 0 3 A 1 0 1 B 2 0 2 E 5 2 7 H 6 7 13 J 2 I 5 D 4 1 5 F 4 G 6 ACTIVITY DURATION ES EF FLOAT LS LF
  30. 30. MS-Project <ul><li>A widely used tool from Microsoft to help plan projects. </li></ul><ul><li>Available in most XP labs. </li></ul><ul><li>Far more functionality than you’ll need for your project. </li></ul><ul><li>Open a new, blank project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The column on the LHS provides excellent guidance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To see it, click on Tasks </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. MS Project – data entry You create the links And add resources Enter start date, tasks and duration – start and finish times calculated
  32. 32. MS Project Gantt chart Shows hierarchy, precedence, Resources, Milestones
  33. 33. MS Project Network chart
  34. 34. MS Project - schedule Right click in this box and choose Schedule Slack and late times are calculated automatically
  35. 35. Final thoughts on MS Project <ul><li>All sorts of reports exist – experiment with them </li></ul><ul><li>Use ZoomIn, ZoomOut buttons to change scale of chart </li></ul><ul><li>Use Gantt chart wizard to change appearance </li></ul><ul><li>When printing, think very hard about what is actually useful e.g. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A one-page overview and then more detailed pages is useful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For Gantt charts going over 1 page, use Print Preview : View tab and tick to print some columns on each page </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Resource Management <ul><li>Examples of resources: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>technicians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>designers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>computer time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cash </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tradesmen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>vehicles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>machines </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Problems with Resources <ul><li>usually limited (finite) </li></ul><ul><li>can’t work on everything at the same time </li></ul><ul><li>are only available at certain times </li></ul><ul><li>have other commitments </li></ul><ul><li>have an associated cost </li></ul><ul><li>can get sick, go on strike, break down, etc </li></ul>
  38. 38. Resource Management <ul><li>The quotation here will also apply to other resources, such as hardware, software, etc. </li></ul>In most cases, managers will have to settle for a less-than-ideal project team – due to budget, availability, and training issues. Sommerville, SE8
  39. 39. Scheduling & Resources <ul><li>Previously we assumed that we had enough (infinite) resources to complete tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>Two extreme cases: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed project time scale and infinite resources (time limited scheduling) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed resources, but project duration is flexible (resource limited scheduling) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most projects are somewhere in-between. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Resource Limited Scheduling <ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only 2 people available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each activity lasts 5 days </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A needs 2 staff, B & C need 1. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No dependencies. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How best to organise this? </li></ul>
  41. 41. Time Limited Scheduling <ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The time for a Project can only last 10 days </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each activity (A,B,C) lasts 5 days </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A needs 2 staff @ 5 days each , B & C need 1. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C depends on A & B, B depends on A. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How best to organise this? </li></ul>
  42. 42. Time & Resource Limited Scheduling <ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A needs 2 staff, B & C need 1. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only 2 people available. Project can only last 10 days. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each activity lasts 5 days </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C depends on A. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How best to organise this? </li></ul>
  43. 43. Pragmatic Realities <ul><li>All projects are unique </li></ul><ul><li>None will run exactly to plan </li></ul><ul><li>All involve people </li></ul><ul><li>Project Management involves change and decision making - people like neither! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dilbert said “Change is good. You go first!” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A structured approach & tools make things easier </li></ul><ul><li>Do not be a slave to your plans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They should be living artefacts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change them as necessary </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Group Project Scheduling <ul><li>You are time and resource limited. </li></ul><ul><li>Resource effort is diluted. </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to predict task durations in software development – estimating needed. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make reasonable guesses and refine these constantly as project progresses. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Build in contingencies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be prepared for late night heroics! </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Answers <ul><li>Time limited scheduling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Project will take 15 days, can improve by adding in more staff if available / will make a difference </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Resource limited scheduling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>do B & C together before or after A. Shortest possible time is 10 days </li></ul></ul><ul><li>T & R limited </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do A first, then 1 each on B & C simultaneously </li></ul></ul>
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