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Project Planning
 

Project Planning

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  • For 3911, resources are pretty set (3-5 people) Schedule is set very firm (end of semester) Quality is somewhat set (grading criteria) The flexibility you have is feature set. (Scope)

Project Planning Project Planning Presentation Transcript

  • Software Project Management Project Management Project Planning
  • Agenda
    • Deliverables
      • Friday, May 21 @ 5 PM - Status Report #2
      • Friday, May 28 @ 5 PM - Status Report #3
      • Friday, May 28 @ 5 PM
        • Requirements Document
        • Project Plan
    • Faculty Advisors
      • Final Assignments Next Week
      • Contact ASAP if already assigned
    • Lecture: Project Management
  • Project Management
    • Goals
      • Software delivered within budget
      • Software delivered within schedule
      • Software is built according to requirements
    • Why?
      • Well-managed projects sometimes fail
      • Badly managed projects inevitably fail
      • Software development process is not standardized
  • Project Manager’s Dilemma YOU CAN ONLY HAVE TWO!!!! GOOD CHEAP FAST
  • Project Managers Rectangle FEASIBLE ZONE Resources Quality Schedule Features
  • Project Manager Responsibilities
    • Proposal Writing
    • Project Costing
    • Project Planning & Scheduling
    • Project Monitoring & Reviews
    • Personnel Selection & Evaluation
    • Report Writing & Presentations
    Sommerville, 1995
  • Project Planning Process
      • Establish the project constraints
      • Make initial assessments of the project parameters
      • Define project milestones and deliverables
      • while project has not been completed or cancelled loop
      • Draw up project schedule
      • Initiate activities according to schedule
      • Wait ( Execute project for a while )
      • Review project progress
      • Revise estimates of project parameters
      • Update the project schedule
      • Re-negotiate project constraints and deliverables
      • if ( problems arise ) then
      • Initiate technical review and possible revision
      • end if
      • end loop
    Sommerville, 1995
  • So how do we do this?
    • Spend time understanding the problem
    • Estimate amount of effort required (This is hard!!)
      • Number of major functions
      • Difficulty of each function
    • Develop schedule with built in safety nets
      • Increase estimates by some factor
      • Have a backup plan for worst case
      • Make sure schedule is realistic
    • Revise schedule as project understanding increases
  • Estimation Overview
    • Difficult & error prone
    • Gradual refinement
      • At beginning of project, have a “fuzzy” idea of problem, therefore estimate of time and effort will be “fuzzy” too
      • Only as the project develops and the problem and solution become clearer, will the estimates increase in accuracy
    • Estimation Process
      • Estimate the size of the product
        • Lines of code (LOC)
        • Function Points
        • Number of functions
      • Estimate the effort
        • Person-months
        • 50-60 Hours/Credit/Person
      • Estimate the schedule
        • Calendar time
  • From Estimation to Scheduling
    • Refinement
      • Initial problem (x4) statement
      • Requirements(x1.5) Specification
      • High Level Design (x1.25)
      • Detailed Design (x1.1) Specification
      • Implementation (x1)
    • Top-Down vs. Bottom-Up
    • Cases
      • Best Case
      • Most Likely Case
      • Current Case
      • Worst Case
  • Scheduling
    • Activities
      • Split project into tasks
        • Estimate time & resources required
      • Organize tasks concurrently to make optimal use of workforce
      • Minimize task dependencies to avoid delays
      • Exit Criteria
    • Problems
      • Estimating is difficult
      • Productivity is not proportional to the number of people
      • Adding people to a late project makes it later
      • The unexpected always happens - allow contingency
  • Scheduling
    • Milestones
    • Need about 1 per week
    • Don’t use status report submission
    • Choose to govern project execution
  • Some Historical Figures (Small Projects)
    • Architecture/Design 10%
    • Detailed Design 20%
    • Code/Debug 25%
    • Unit Testing 20%
    • Integration 15%
    • System Test 10%
  • Scheduling
    • Dependencies
    • What has to be done before I can start this activity?
    • Governs sequencing
  • Scheduling
    • Derived from estimated level of effort required
    • Don’t forget testing & integration take time too
    • Be realistic
      • Other classes
      • Outside work/activities
      • Eat & sleep
    • Build in safety nets & backup plans
    • Find Critical Path
    • Work Leveling
  • Project Schedules (Gantt) Sommerville, 1995 4/7 1 1/7 18/7 25/7 1/8 8/8 15/8 22/8 29/8 5/9 12/9 19/9 T4 T1 T2 M1 T7 T3 M5 T8 M3 M2 T6 T5 M4 T9 M7 T10 M6 T1 1 M8 T12 Start Finish
  • Risk Analysis
    • Risk
      • Something that can go wrong
      • Often a result of inadequate information
    • Assessment (Identify, Analyze, Prioritize)
    • Control (Planning, Resolution, Monitoring)
  • Levels of Risk Management
    • Crisis Management (Fire Fighting)
    • Fix on Failure
    • Risk Mitigation
    • Risk Prevention
    • Elimination of root causes
  • Risk Resolution Alternatives
    • Acceptance
    • Avoidance (Eliminate)
    • Protection (Redundancy)
    • Reduction (Mitigation, Prevention, Anticipation)
    • Research (Need more info)
    • Reserves (Slush fund, bank, pad)
    • Transfer (shift to someone else)
  • Project Plan
    • Format on class web page
    • Sample risks on web page
    • Grading criteria off web page
  • In Summary...
    • Good project management is essential for project success
    • Managers have diverse roles, but focus on
      • Planning
      • Estimating
      • Scheduling
    • Planning and estimating are iterative processes
    • Beware the “Fuzzy Front End” (McConnell)
    Sommerville, 1995