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Project Management: Scope and Work Breakdown

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  • 1. Project Management: Scope and Work Breakdown Thomas L. Warren Technical Writing Program Oklahoma State University Stillwater, OK 74078-4069 http://www.okstate.edu/artsci/techwr
  • 2. Overview of Talk
    • Definition and uses of project management
    • Project Scope
    • Work Breakdown Structure
    • Conclusion
    • Questions/Discussion
  • 3. Definition
    • Management
      • Applying knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to meet or exceed stake holder's needs and expectations
    • Project
      • “A temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service”
        • Definite beginning and ending ( temporary )
        • Different from all other products or services in some way ( unique )
  • 4. Key Issues and Topics
    •   ntegration (project plan development and execution, change management)
    • Collaborative project management and development (team dynamics)
    • Scope—limitations (planning, defining, verifying, change control)
  • 5. Topics, cont.
      • Time (activity definition, sequencing, duration, scheduling, controlling)
      • Cost (resources planning, estimating, budgeting, controlling)
      • Quality (quality planning and assurance, quality control)
  • 6. Topics, cont.
      • Human Resources (organizational planning [job descriptions, roles, responsibilities], hiring/firing, team development)
      • C ommunications (planning, information distribution, performance reporting, closure)
  • 7. Topics, cont.
    • Risk (identification, quantification, response development and control)
    • Management of legal issues and proprietary information (intellectual property)
    • Procurement (planning, solicitation, source, contract administration, contract close-out)
  • 8. Sample Projects
    • Develop new product or service
    • Change structure, style, or staffing of an organization
    • Develop/acquire new or modified information system
    • Develop appropriate format for conveying needed information
    • Develop a five-year plan
  • 9. Parts of Plan
    • What will be done and for whom?
    • Who will do what?
    • When must it all be done?
    • When must the pieces be done?
    • How much will it cost?
    • What are the deliverables?
    • What happens if . . . ?
  • 10. Focus of Talk
    • Project Scope
      • Listing of all deliverables
      • Tells what the project will and will not cover
    • Work Breakdown Structure
      • Identify specific tasks
      • Estimate time required
  • 11. Scope: Inputs Scope Statement: Written statement that is basis for future project decisions Constraints Assumptions Expert Input
  • 12. Scope: Constraints
    • Project limits
      • Time?
      • Money/budget?
      • Staff?
      • Customer requirements (contractual provisions)?
      • Environment?
  • 13. Scope: Assumptions
    • Organization goals and objectives
    • Product goals and objectives
    • Customer needs
    • Product complexity
    • Project authorization (charter)
    • Key personnel availability
  • 14. Scope: Expert Input
    • Managers from similar projects
    • Other organizational personnel (purchasing, human resources, e.g.)
    • Consultants
    • Stakeholders
    • Professional and technical associations
    • Industry groups
  • 15. Scope Control
    • Key element to prevent Scope creep
    • Establish specific procedure for changing scope
      • Changes submitted by whom?
      • Changes approved by whom?
      • Areas that cannot be changed?
      • Scope change notification
  • 16. Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
    • Could use previous, similar WBS as template (MIL-HDBK-881 military WBS template for defense materials items)
    • Sub-divide project deliverables into smaller and smaller activities
      • Identify major deliverables (from Scope statement)
      • Use as criteria for subdividing adequate cost and duration
      • Identify how work will be defined, organized, and accomplished
    • Activity list is deliverable
  • 17.  
  • 18. Sample Activities List for FORUM 2003
    • Call for papers
    • Poster
    • Delegate folder
    • Preliminary Programme
    • PreSeedings
    • Supplemental PreSeedings
    • Final Programme
    • Planning Guide for delegates
    • Supplemental Final Programme
    • PostHarvest
  • 19. Call for papers Activities List
    • Logo and art
    • Author Instructions
    • Produce copy
    • Design and layout cover and pages
    • Format files
    • Send for proofing
    • Proof files
    • Return for correcting
    • Correct files
    • Send to vendor
    • Print
    • Distribute
  • 20. Screen shot of Word WBS for three publications.
  • 21. Network Precedence Diagrams
    • Each small step could be dependent on another small step and in tern be the prerequisite for yet another one
    • Types of diagrams
      • Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM)—Used by project management software such as MS Project
      • Arrow Diagramming Method (ADM)
  • 22. START A C B D E F FINISH Precedence Diagramming Method
  • 23. Screen shot of MS Project for one part of Final Programme Note Precedence
  • 24. Finish B O O O O O O Start A D E C F Arrow Diagramming Method
  • 25. What you get when you click on Network Diagram
  • 26. Types of Dependencies
    • 4 kinds of dependencies
      • Finish-to-start: Complete previous before beginning new. Most common.
      • Finish-to-finish: Complete new depends on completing previous
      • Start-to-start: Start new depends on start of previous
      • Start-to-finish: Complete new depends on start previous. Rarely used
  • 27. Estimating Time
    • Past experience
    • Should include a range
      • 2 weeks  2 days
      • Time = 8-12 working days
    • Could indicate probability
      • 15% probability finish in 3 weeks
      • 85% probability finish within 3 weeks
  • 28. Estimating Time, cont.
    • Calendars
      • Periods when work is allowed
      • Different types of calendars
        • Normal business hours (1 shift/day)
        • 2-3 shifts per day
      • Consider when planning calendars
        • Vacations
        • National, state, etc. holidays
  • 29. Estimating Time, cont.
    • Reserve Time (contingency)
      • Extra time frame—types
        • Reserve
        • Contingency
        • Buffer
      • Acknowledge schedule risk
      • Could be
        • Percent of estimated duration
        • Fixed number of work period
      • Can reduce/eliminate as get more precise data
      • Document reserve time as done for other data/assumptions
  • 30. Sample: Paper Due
    • Select topic
    • Narrow topic
    • Determine research plan
    • Collect data
    • Analyze data
    • Organize data
    • Write draft
    • Edit/Proofread
    • Revise
    • Proofread
    • Hand-in
    How long has it taken you to do each activity in the past?
  • 31. Conclusion
    • Project management is an important part of any technical communicator’s job
    • Project management allows you to control your project
      • Projects have beginnings and endings
      • Management means handling the middle part
    • You don’t need to be a manager to need to know project management (you manage your own projects in school and on-the-job
    • Good scheduling the key to successful management)
  • 32. Questions
  • 33. Thank You
    • Please feel free to contact me at
    • [email_address]
    • Or see our web page
    • www.okstate.edu/artsci/techwr
  • 34. www.okstate.edu/artsci/techwr