Project Management: Scope and Work Breakdown


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Project Management: Scope and Work Breakdown

  1. 1. Project Management: Scope and Work Breakdown Thomas L. Warren Technical Writing Program Oklahoma State University Stillwater, OK 74078-4069
  2. 2. Overview of Talk <ul><li>Definition and uses of project management </li></ul><ul><li>Project Scope </li></ul><ul><li>Work Breakdown Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Questions/Discussion </li></ul>
  3. 3. Definition <ul><li>Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Applying knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to meet or exceed stake holder's needs and expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“A temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Definite beginning and ending ( temporary ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Different from all other products or services in some way ( unique ) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Key Issues and Topics <ul><li>  ntegration (project plan development and execution, change management) </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative project management and development (team dynamics) </li></ul><ul><li>Scope—limitations (planning, defining, verifying, change control) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Topics, cont. <ul><ul><li>Time (activity definition, sequencing, duration, scheduling, controlling) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost (resources planning, estimating, budgeting, controlling) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality (quality planning and assurance, quality control) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Topics, cont. <ul><ul><li>Human Resources (organizational planning [job descriptions, roles, responsibilities], hiring/firing, team development) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C ommunications (planning, information distribution, performance reporting, closure) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Topics, cont. <ul><li>Risk (identification, quantification, response development and control) </li></ul><ul><li>Management of legal issues and proprietary information (intellectual property) </li></ul><ul><li>Procurement (planning, solicitation, source, contract administration, contract close-out) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Sample Projects <ul><li>Develop new product or service </li></ul><ul><li>Change structure, style, or staffing of an organization </li></ul><ul><li>Develop/acquire new or modified information system </li></ul><ul><li>Develop appropriate format for conveying needed information </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a five-year plan </li></ul>
  9. 9. Parts of Plan <ul><li>What will be done and for whom? </li></ul><ul><li>Who will do what? </li></ul><ul><li>When must it all be done? </li></ul><ul><li>When must the pieces be done? </li></ul><ul><li>How much will it cost? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the deliverables? </li></ul><ul><li>What happens if . . . ? </li></ul>
  10. 10. Focus of Talk <ul><li>Project Scope </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Listing of all deliverables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tells what the project will and will not cover </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Work Breakdown Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify specific tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Estimate time required </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Scope: Inputs Scope Statement: Written statement that is basis for future project decisions Constraints Assumptions Expert Input
  12. 12. Scope: Constraints <ul><li>Project limits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Money/budget? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staff? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer requirements (contractual provisions)? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environment? </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Scope: Assumptions <ul><li>Organization goals and objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Product goals and objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Customer needs </li></ul><ul><li>Product complexity </li></ul><ul><li>Project authorization (charter) </li></ul><ul><li>Key personnel availability </li></ul>
  14. 14. Scope: Expert Input <ul><li>Managers from similar projects </li></ul><ul><li>Other organizational personnel (purchasing, human resources, e.g.) </li></ul><ul><li>Consultants </li></ul><ul><li>Stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Professional and technical associations </li></ul><ul><li>Industry groups </li></ul>
  15. 15. Scope Control <ul><li>Key element to prevent Scope creep </li></ul><ul><li>Establish specific procedure for changing scope </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes submitted by whom? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes approved by whom? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Areas that cannot be changed? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scope change notification </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) <ul><li>Could use previous, similar WBS as template (MIL-HDBK-881 military WBS template for defense materials items) </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-divide project deliverables into smaller and smaller activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify major deliverables (from Scope statement) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use as criteria for subdividing adequate cost and duration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify how work will be defined, organized, and accomplished </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Activity list is deliverable </li></ul>
  17. 18. Sample Activities List for FORUM 2003 <ul><li>Call for papers </li></ul><ul><li>Poster </li></ul><ul><li>Delegate folder </li></ul><ul><li>Preliminary Programme </li></ul><ul><li>PreSeedings </li></ul><ul><li>Supplemental PreSeedings </li></ul><ul><li>Final Programme </li></ul><ul><li>Planning Guide for delegates </li></ul><ul><li>Supplemental Final Programme </li></ul><ul><li>PostHarvest </li></ul>
  18. 19. Call for papers Activities List <ul><li>Logo and art </li></ul><ul><li>Author Instructions </li></ul><ul><li>Produce copy </li></ul><ul><li>Design and layout cover and pages </li></ul><ul><li>Format files </li></ul><ul><li>Send for proofing </li></ul><ul><li>Proof files </li></ul><ul><li>Return for correcting </li></ul><ul><li>Correct files </li></ul><ul><li>Send to vendor </li></ul><ul><li>Print </li></ul><ul><li>Distribute </li></ul>
  19. 20. Screen shot of Word WBS for three publications.
  20. 21. Network Precedence Diagrams <ul><li>Each small step could be dependent on another small step and in tern be the prerequisite for yet another one </li></ul><ul><li>Types of diagrams </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM)—Used by project management software such as MS Project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrow Diagramming Method (ADM) </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. START A C B D E F FINISH Precedence Diagramming Method
  22. 23. Screen shot of MS Project for one part of Final Programme Note Precedence
  23. 24. Finish B O O O O O O Start A D E C F Arrow Diagramming Method
  24. 25. What you get when you click on Network Diagram
  25. 26. Types of Dependencies <ul><li>4 kinds of dependencies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Finish-to-start: Complete previous before beginning new. Most common. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finish-to-finish: Complete new depends on completing previous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Start-to-start: Start new depends on start of previous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Start-to-finish: Complete new depends on start previous. Rarely used </li></ul></ul>
  26. 27. Estimating Time <ul><li>Past experience </li></ul><ul><li>Should include a range </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 weeks  2 days </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time = 8-12 working days </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Could indicate probability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>15% probability finish in 3 weeks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>85% probability finish within 3 weeks </li></ul></ul>
  27. 28. Estimating Time, cont. <ul><li>Calendars </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Periods when work is allowed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different types of calendars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Normal business hours (1 shift/day) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2-3 shifts per day </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider when planning calendars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vacations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>National, state, etc. holidays </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 29. Estimating Time, cont. <ul><li>Reserve Time (contingency) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extra time frame—types </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reserve </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contingency </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Buffer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acknowledge schedule risk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could be </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Percent of estimated duration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed number of work period </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can reduce/eliminate as get more precise data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Document reserve time as done for other data/assumptions </li></ul></ul>
  29. 30. Sample: Paper Due <ul><li>Select topic </li></ul><ul><li>Narrow topic </li></ul><ul><li>Determine research plan </li></ul><ul><li>Collect data </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze data </li></ul><ul><li>Organize data </li></ul><ul><li>Write draft </li></ul><ul><li>Edit/Proofread </li></ul><ul><li>Revise </li></ul><ul><li>Proofread </li></ul><ul><li>Hand-in </li></ul>How long has it taken you to do each activity in the past?
  30. 31. Conclusion <ul><li>Project management is an important part of any technical communicator’s job </li></ul><ul><li>Project management allows you to control your project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Projects have beginnings and endings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Management means handling the middle part </li></ul></ul><ul><li>You don’t need to be a manager to need to know project management (you manage your own projects in school and on-the-job </li></ul><ul><li>Good scheduling the key to successful management) </li></ul>
  31. 32. Questions
  32. 33. Thank You <ul><li>Please feel free to contact me at </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Or see our web page </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  33. 34.