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Project Management Methods And Tools 1. Project Management ...

  1. 1. Project Management Methods And Tools 1. Project Management Method For OSS Technical Implementation To manage and control the OSS implementations in the Public Sector, Project Management methodologies and tools are highly recommended. The objective of this section is to provide an indication of key functionalities of a tool for the management, tracking and measurement of OSS project implementation as well as suggested tools which may serve the said purposes. We suggest that the following key functionalities/ components be considered for the OSS project implementation tool(s) for management, tracking and measurement: • Project Definition Report • Project Plan • Project Control Book • Roles And Responsibilities • Progress Tracking And Reporting Process • Deliverable Management And Acceptance Process • Issue Management Process • Action Management Process • Risk Management 1
  2. 2. • Change Management Process • Communications Process • Subcontractor Management Process (Outsourced function) • Financial Estimates / Business Case • Assumptions, Dependencies And Constraints • Success Measurements • Quality And Assurance • Closing The Project • Standards And Conventions Project Definition Report (PDR) The PDR is an overview of the project. It sets the project bounds and establishes what the project will and will not do. It presents a structured view of the project and its supporting processes that can be reviewed and approved by management. It also provides a baseline view of the project against which changes can be identified, planned, agreed to and managed. As changes are made, the PDR document should also be updated. The PDR should be initiated at the start of the project and finalized and approved as quickly as possible. The Components of a PDR are: • Background and summary of the project • Project objectives • Project deliverables • Key Milestones 2
  3. 3. • Key resource requirements • Assumptions • Risks • Constraints • Interrelated projects (dependencies) Project Plan Planning is critical to the success of any project. The purpose of planning is to: • Confirm the objectives are feasible; • Show how the objectives will be achieved; • Confirm the work products and the bounds of the work; • Obtain a detailed understanding of the work to be done; • Define the total effort; • Specify the resources, skills, and people needed; • Identify dependencies within or beyond the project; • Provide a basis for tracking, reporting, and managing progress; and • Provide a basis for commitment to the project. There are many different plans that can be built to represent one part or one aspect of a project. Examples of plans that mostly contribute to and support the overall plan are Risk Mitigation plan, Activity plan or task plan, Resource plan, Test and integration plan, Operations and support plan. 3
  4. 4. In developing the project plan, the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) is key. The Work Breakdown Structure is a product oriented family tree of hardware, software, services, data and work tasks that completely define the project. All aspects of the WBS must be completed for the project to be complete. It is also a deliverable oriented grouping of project elements to organise and define the total scope of the project; work not in the WBS is outside the scope of the project. Why is one created? It is the dominant prerequisite for successfully integrating & controlling the total project by assisting in: • Completing the schedule; • Developing the cost estimate; • Developing the risk management plan; • Focuses attention on project objectives; • Clarifies responsibilities; • Encourages detailed planning and documentation; • Identifies specific work packages for estimating and assigning work and • Helps build the project team. 4
  5. 5. Project Control Book The Project Control Book (PCB) is a notebook, file, or electronic equivalent, containing complete project information. It is the authoritative source for project information including project deliverables. It is managed by the Project Manager or Project Control Office (PCO). The Project Control Book consists of volumes covering the various administrative aspects of the project. These include: • Standards and Procedures; • Organisation and People; • Planning and Estimating; • Work Breakdown Structure; • Progress Tracking; • Progress Reviewing; • Progress Reporting; • Risk Management; • Change Management; • Issue Management; • Action Management; • Quality Management; • Correspondence; • Base Information; • Finance Management; • Contract Management; • Billing and Accounts Payable information and • Supplier Management. 5
  6. 6. The Project Control Book is updated continuously throughout the life of the project. The Project Manager needs to define the standards, conventions and processes for document control. Some of these points related to formatting, version standards and conventions, as well as the rules on who submits documents to the project office and when they should be submitted needs to be defined and communicated. Roles And Responsibilities A clear understanding of roles and responsibilities on a project is critical to the functioning and ultimate success of the project. Key roles and their associated responsibilities found within a project include: Project Sponsor The senior executive who is the principal project stakeholder, and who has made the commitment and has the authority to resolve major project issues, approve project expenditures, plans and organisation, and who is ultimately responsible for delivering the business objective to the enterprise. Project Steering Committee This group should be comprised of senior representatives from the various areas of the client that will be impacted by the project. This group provides overall direction strategic direction to the project. It has the authority to initiate, continue and 6
  7. 7. terminate the project as well as to make decisions and take appropriate actions to resolve project issues. Project Executive The Project Executive has delegated responsibility from the Steering Committee to provide ongoing management direction to and control of the project. The Project Executive is ultimately responsible for the success of the project. Project Manager The Project Manager provides overall management to the project and directs the activities of the project team members on a day to day basis. If the project is large or complex, there may be several project managers each with a specific area of responsibility. Typically, each of these project managers would have their own team and each would report to the Project Executive. Where a project has multiple project managers, one of them will be designated as having Project Management Office or consolidation responsibilities. Prime responsibilities of the Project Manager include: • Establishing project work plans, estimates, and schedule; • Establishing project training and staffing requirements; • Conducting project planning and project status meetings; • Presenting plans and status to executive management; • Make decisions on project related risks, actions and issues; • Tracking and reporting project progress on: Cost; Schedule; Products. 7
  8. 8. Preparing project status reports; • Establishing and administering the change control procedure; • Reviewing and approving project change requests; • Preparing and making presentations at project reviews; • Establishing standards with vendors / contractors, if work product guidelines are not specified in the contract; Manage and Interface with the project office and Reporting hours expended on assigned tasks and making reasonable estimates to complete each week for assigned tasks that have been started. Business Representatives Business representatives have the responsibility to ensure that the relevant interests of their particular business unit are appropriately represented to the project. These responsibilities include: • Provide or validate input to the business case; • Provide or validate business requirements; • Support project activities which require business involvement (e.g. creation or validation of test scripts, supporting user testing) and • Support user acceptance of deliverables. 8
  9. 9. Other Other roles as required, such as that of subcontractors, need to be clearly defined and agreed to. Project Organisation Chart When the project organisation and the roles are defined, they should be communicated both within the project as well as to stakeholders. This would include documentation such as project organisation charts. This information would be considered to be living documents and should be updated as required. Progress Tracking & Reporting Process There are generally multiple levels of staff and management that need to participate in Progress Tracking and Reporting meetings. These would include: - Project teams or sub teams; - Project Managers; - Project Executive; - Project Sponsor and - Steering Committee. • This is the basis by which management has access to the project and by which the project has access to management, so it should be considered as one of the most critical aspects of any project; • Management participation is critical; if attendance or attention is a problem it should be addressed immediately; 9
  10. 10. • The Progress Tracking and Reporting documents and templates should be tailored for the specific audience to ensure the appropriate message is delivered; and • The process should be implemented at the very beginning of the project and continued regularly throughout the project until completion. The objectives of this project management procedure are: • To raise management awareness of the status of the project relative to the plan (including schedule, cost, deliverable); • To raise management awareness of risks, actions, issues and changes impacting the project; • To give management an opportunity to ask questions to better understand the project as well as provide direction to the project team and • To communicate project status, actions, issues, and changes impacting the project to other project members and stakeholders. • During project startup, Progress Tracking and Reporting review requirements should be determined. Criteria would include the project structure (e.g. existence of a Steering Committee, Project Executive; existence of project sub teams, etc.). Report templates should be customised to meet the requirements of the particular reviews. Ongoing reviews should be scheduled. Status reports need to be prepared and distributed, preferably in advance, and minutes of the reviews produced and distributed. 10
  11. 11. Deliverable Management & Acceptance Process • Deliverables are the most important currency of a project; as such, their control and management is critically important to the success of the project; • Ensure that there is agreement and understanding of what the deliverables are, who will approve and the basis for approval as early in the project as possible; • The status of deliverables is one of the key metrics for Progress Tracking and Reporting and • Ideally, vendor deliverables should tie directly back to the contract / SOW. The objectives of this project management procedure are: • To ensure that deliverables and associated approvers are clearly identified in the plan and that deliverable acceptance criteria is clearly defined and communicated in advance of the creation of the deliverable; • To make sure that the deliverable validation is making progress; • To make sure that problems and delays with the review and approval of deliverables per the plan are highlighted and resolved and • To provide a defined process for managing the tracking and acceptance of deliverables. 11
  12. 12. The process starts with the development of the project plan and the identification of all deliverables which will require formal approval. A form identifying the purpose of the deliverable, the approver and the criteria by which the deliverable will be approved is created in advance of the development of the deliverable. A log of all deliverables is created and used to manage the process as deliverables proceed through their cycle. It focuses on monitoring progress of the validation, identifying delays or problems with deliverable approval which may impact the plan. Issues are raised where necessary in order to better understand the causes for concern and activities will be launched with the aim of bringing the deliverable(s) into full compliance with the deliverable acceptance criteria. Issue Management Process • Most issues start as risks; addressing risks is generally easier than resolving issues; • An issue is an event that has already occurred and has a projected impact on the project scope, schedule or budget; • Issues should be addressed as early as possible in the project; generally, the longer an issue is left unresolved, the more difficult it is to resolve; • Each issue will need some action(s) to be taken to effect a resolution (such as further investigation ); • Responsibility for addressing Issues must be assigned along with an estimated resolution date and 12
  13. 13. • Issues must be tracked and reported through to resolution. The objectives of this project management process are: • To identify issues as early as possible; • To ensure that all issues are communicated to the project stakeholders; • To allow the impact of all issues to be understood, documented and managed; • To provide a process to facilitate the tracking and resolution of issues as expediently as possible and • To maintain a log of all open and resolved issues. When issues are identified, they need to be assigned to an individual who will be responsible for: assessing the impact of the issue, engaging the appropriate parties to resolve and, where appropriate, escalate to resolve. Action Management Process • An action is an activity, generally unplanned, which needs to be assigned and tracked through to completion and • Actions arise at any point in the project; they can be incorporated into the project plan or managed outside of it through the Project Management process. The objectives of this project management process are: 13
  14. 14. • To identify actions as they arise and assign them to the appropriate person; • To ensure that all actions are communicated to the relevant stakeholders; • To allow the impact of all actions to be understood, documented and managed; • To provide a process to facilitate the tracking and resolution of actions as expediently as possible and • To maintain a log of all open and resolved actions. When actions are identified, they need to be assigned to an individual who will be responsible for addressing it. Based on the particulars of the action, there may be need to: assess the impact of the action, engage other parties to resolve and, where appropriate, escalate to resolve. Risk Management Risks are predicted events that might happen in the future and may impact the project; Risks should be identified and quantified before they happen, and the consequences mitigated or avoided by preventative actions; Provision can be made in the project plans should this event unavoidably occur and Each risk will need some action to be taken and will need to be continually monitored. The objectives of this project management process are: 14
  15. 15. • To identify risks as they arise and assign them to the appropriate person; • To allow the impact of all risks to be understood, documented and managed including development of risk mitigating actions; • To ensure that all risks are communicated to the relevant stakeholders; • To provide a process to facilitate the tracking, management and, if appropriate, resolution of risks as expediently as possible and • To maintain a log of all open and resolved risks. When risks are identified, they need to be assigned to an individual who will be responsible for: assessing the impact of the risk; developing a risk mitigating plan or action, as appropriate; engage appropriate parties to resolve and, where appropriate, escalate to resolve. Change Management Process • Changes are inevitable in every project, and so it is essential to implement a change control process early in the project to allow changes to be managed; • A critical aspect of managing changes is communication whereby all stakeholders input can be considered in assessing the impact and deciding whether or not to accept the change; • The result of the decision should be communicated to all relevant stakeholders so that the plans of the various parts of the project can be kept in step and 15
  16. 16. • Typically, any changes will impact the scope, schedule and / or resources. The objectives of this project management process are: • To manage each request for change, in order to keep the scope of the project under control with full traceability; • To provide a means for including in the plan any milestones, deliverables and / or activities which are missing; • To allow the impact of all changes to be understood, documented and managed; • To make sure each request for change is assessed by key project stakeholders; • To make sure each assessed Change Request is disposed of (accepted, rejected or deferred) by the appropriate authority; • To maintain a log of all proposed changes; • To enable the orderly implementation of each accepted change and • To enable changes to SOWs or contracts as appropriate. Summary of the process is as follows: • Change control should be introduced early in the project; • Determine how changes are to be introduced and processed as part of the project plan; 16
  17. 17. • Use an appropriate change request (e.g. small or large) to document any proposed changes; • Ensure that changes are assessed and approved in writing by authorised persons and • Update the baseline and all appropriate documentation after the change is approved. Communications Process • Effective, timely, ongoing communications are one of the key criteria for a successful project; • This includes communications about the project, within the Project team itself, throughout the project hierarchy (e.g. including Project Executive, Steering Committee and Sponsor) as well as to the client stakeholder community; • There are a wide variety of communication vehicles which can be used in a project (e.g. meetings, websites, newsletters, etc.), including use of other project management processes (e.g. Progress Tracking & Reporting, Change Management); • A Communications strategy should be developed using those vehicles that are most effective in communicating the appropriate information to the defined target audience; and • Communications are bilateral in nature, so a communication strategy must include vehicles that solicit and provide input from stakeholders to the project team. The objectives of this project management process are: 17
  18. 18. To ensure that a communications strategy and plan which incorporate the total project are developed, approved and implemented; To ensure that project stakeholders have a clear understanding of how communications will work on the project and ensure that they feel their interests will be adequately addressed through these communications; To ensure that information is disseminated to the appropriate audiences at the appropriate times, starting at project inception and continuing through until project completion and Communications should be unambiguous, clearly understood, and provide the opportunity for further dialog. A communication strategy and plan should be developed at the beginning of the project to define what information about the project needs to be communicated to whom and by whom, on what frequency and by what method. The communication plan would identify the particular vehicles to be used (indicating why they are chosen); identify who the particular communication should come from and go to; identify the types of information that need to be communicated (as well as received from the audiences) and the timing or frequency of the communication. This communication plan needs to be communicated to all target audiences so there is a clear, common understanding of what will happen. Subcontractor Management Process (Outsourced Function) If subcontractors play a key role in the project, success of the project will generally depend on how well they perform and that 18
  19. 19. is usually a function of how well the contract is written and how well they are managed to the contract; Ensure that both vendor and the client have a clear understanding of the vendor contract and SOW and measure them to it; If possible, tie compensation to clearly defined contract based deliverables or milestones. Avoid payment for level of effort and Effective, timely communications are critical to success. • The objective of the subcontractor management process is to ensure that all products and deliverables to be supplied under contract for integration into the total solution are delivered on time and according to the Statement of Work. • Effective management of a subcontractor during a project is a critical element in the overall success of any project. To ensure success, it is essential that both parties understand exactly what is being contracted for, and that they agree with any changes that occur during contract negotiations. Financial Estimates / Business Case While not mandatory, development of a business case to support the project is always advisable. The primary dependency on whether to create one, or to what level it should be created (e.g. calculation of TCO and ROI etc) is the corporate environment and / or expectations of management. Projected costs and benefits should be based on information received from the project stakeholders and finance. The final business case must be supported by these groups. 19
  20. 20. Costs to be considered are those costs which will be incurred as part of the project or due to the project. In a business case these would include: - Resource – staff on the project; - External resources (e.g. consultants / vendors); - Overhead costs; - Consumables and other materials (e.g. supplies); - Licenses, maintenance fees (e.g. software); and - Capital expenditures (e.g. hardware). Benefits to be considered in a business case should be clearly related to the project as an expected outcome or result. They can be either quantifiable or non quantifiable in nature. They can also include benefits realized or costs avoided. They would include: - Resource savings or avoidance; - Business opportunities: - Revenue increase or avoidance of decrease; - Market share increase or avoidance of loss and - Cost savings or avoidance, including capital expenditures. - Customer satisfaction. Assumptions, Dependencies And Constraints Assumptions Assumptions made should be clearly identified, described and communicated. A brief description of the effect if the assumption is invalid should be made. There should be a clear 20
  21. 21. statement of who has reviewed and validated these assumptions. Dependencies Project Managers should identify any dependencies that they have with other teams or organisations either within the project or external to the project. This description should include an indication of the impact of the dependency not being met. It should also indicate what commitment has been received from the provider and where the commitment is documented. Dependencies should be clearly identified and tracked in the MS Project Plan. Constraints Project Managers should provide a brief description of constraints which they have and any actions they are taking to address these. This description should include an assessment of the impact to the project of these constraints and the risks which they represent. Success Measurements Success Criteria For various components of the project, criteria by which success, approval or completion can be established will need to be defined. This would include criteria for establishing when testing has been successful as well as when a deliverable can be approved. Such criteria should be established and communicated well in advance of when they will be used for evaluative purposes. 21
  22. 22. Completion Criteria During the project startup, the criteria by which it will be determined that the project is successfully completed should be identified and agreed to. This should include identifying who will make the decision that the project has been successfully completed. Quality and Assurance Quality Reviews The benefits of 'getting it right first time' are well documented. Failure to deliver a product that conforms to requirements results in schedule and cost overruns. Quality reviews for each work product, for example, a product or a set of branch office procedures, should be scheduled as tasks as part of the overall project plan. Quality reviews can take two forms: Walkthroughs or inspections of a work product and Independent reviews where the work product or process is independently examined The reviewers can vary according to the timing and significance of the reviews. They can be peers, more senior members of the project team, end users, or technical specialists outside the project. 22
  23. 23. Assurance Reviews Assurance reviews provide an independent assessment of key project metrics to provide the project sponsor with an objective evaluation of whether there should be concerns that the project will meet its objectives. Such reviews should be scheduled as part of the overall project plan. The Project Manager or the Project Sponsor can also request reviews at any time in response to specific situations. Closing the Project Project closeout is necessary to ensure that: - The business / sponsor formally accepts the project as being complete based on the criteria which was specified in the project startup; - Project records are completed; - All subcontractor commitments are met; - Essential project documentation is retained; - A lessons learned document is prepared and - A project closeout plan should be included in the Project Control Book (PCB). Standards And Conventions There are significant benefits to the organisation if all projects within a program and all components within a project use the same standards and conventions when creating documents. This will help to provide a common “look and feel” within and across projects and will help to ensure that all projects or 23
  24. 24. components address key requirements or activities in a common fashion. The client should assess various models and documents provided to it and customize as appropriate to ensure the optimum fit between the needs of the client and the structure and rigor of the proposed standards. 24
  25. 25. 2. Project Management Tools The following are an indication of suggested tools which may serve the purpose of management, tracking and measurement of OSS project implementation: • MS Project • Project Hub • Other OSS Tools MS Project Tool MS Project is the most commonly used tool for the development of the project schedule. This, in turn, is used to manage and report project status. The MS Project plan is based on a hierarchical work breakdown structure. It supports a number of project aspects including: • Assigning resources to tasks; • Determining resource problems and imbalances; • Identification of the project critical path; • Displaying a project timeline and • Linking project dependencies. When the project plan has been reviewed and approved by the appropriate level of management, typically the Steering Committee, it is formally baselined. It is the baseline plan which is then the basis against which progress status is measured. MS Project provides a number of views into the project plan. The most frequently used one is the GANTT chart which provides a graphical timeline depiction of the selected tasks, deliverables, 25
  26. 26. milestones etc. More specific views can be defined through the use of filters (e.g. click on Project, then Sort or Filtered …) MS Project can be used as a tool to track actual performance. There are a large number of techniques and ways MS Project can support this. These range from application of “earned value” concepts to simpler approaches based on inputted percentages complete. The key is to understand what data and views are appropriate for the size and type of project and what information is required by management to ensure that the project is appropriately controlled. The Project Manager has the responsibility to update the project plan based on approved changes communicated through the Change Management process. ProjectHub Tool ProjectHub is an Internet enabled, web based application for Enterprise Project Planning and Control. ProjectHub can function by itself or it can be used in conjunction with other “market standard” project management tools, such as Primavera and Microsoft Project. Together with its ability to work with Primavera and Microsoft Project, ProjectHub is able to bring project teams together with its Project Collaboration features, for up to the minute cross-project analysis and issue management. ProjectHub’s extensive web based integration transforms decision-making into a rich and interactive collaborative and conducive environment. 26
  27. 27. Overview of ProjectHub: • Plan and schedule projects • Update and keep track of progress of projects • Track the action items from start to resolution • Secure all your information within the ProjectHub system • Access all your information from virtually any PC with an Internet connection • Store and manage all documents • Track accesses and changes to documents through an audit trail • Add comments and changes to your documents while collaborating with partners over the Internet/Intranet • Route documents for action through the document routing system • Schedule for meetings and other events through the online calendaring system • Receive e-mail alerts for all system related events such as appointments and document updates • Automatically capture and record minutes of meetings and action items • Receive customised and up to date reports on project health • Manage project exceptions such as issues, risks and change requests through the Management Log • Monitor each contract’s deliveries through the Contracts Log ProjectHub’s Homepage and Main Dashboard provide customised project information, as well as Project shortcuts, action item alerts and other system information. In a glance, 27
  28. 28. project managers may instantly view progress information in graphical formats. This feature assists upper management in the identification and resolution of problem areas within their project structure. Multiple groups could be created for managing the users’ access ability for various information inside Project Hub. Provides a platform for the project initiator or project manager to create new projects, enter the project related information and invites teammates to the project. Project Manager is allowed to create unlimited security groups to manage the teammate’s access. The various modules that enable project management are listed below: Work Break Down Structures – WBS Allows the project manager to define the project’s work in terms of deliverables & the process phases relevant to the project/organisation The WBS is fully compliant with the Project Management Institute (PMI) Standards. The WBS can be synchronized to import from Microsoft Project and Primavera Enterprise Project Planner or export to Primavera Enterprise. Activities The individual activities are managed through an Activity Form that allows project participants to create, edit, delete and update progress and resource usage add comments and relevant information. The individual activity tabs allow project 28
  29. 29. managers to drill down to details about individual activities. ProjectHub provides two ways to view and update the activities, either via the Gantt/Bar chart or in a spreadsheet format. Project Information Project Information allows all information pertaining to a project to be kept at a central location, which eases the process of review by top management. Information such as contractors, consultant, project owner, and some project description and scope are stored within this module. Document Management System Projects generate large amounts of time sensitive and dynamic data. ProjectHub’s repository, DMS, allows the entire project team to deposit all documents in a central location for easy access and archival. ProjectHub’s DMS features include audit trails, version/change management, quota and role based privileges. In addition, all actions such as uploading new files, deleting files and so on will be logged in the document history for auditing purposes. This provides another layer of security to the DMS. WorkFlow Today's organisational environments are characterized by uncertain requirements and rapid and continuous change. In order to effectively support activities in such contexts, workflow 29
  30. 30. systems must be able to respond effectively when deviations from the "ideal" process occur during process execution. The workflow engine provides the solution to fulfill these requirements. The workflow engine can be configured to handle various business rules such as an approving system in an organisation. Exception Management ProjectHub allows project members to record project issues and track corrective actions. Discussion boards Discussion Boards may be used as web based support Centres to allow people to document and track issues from discovery through resolution. Filters/Search Capability by Forum/Topic, Author and Date. This allows users to filter information based on specific requirements such as dates and subject. Organisers The Project Organiser tool allows users to manage time driven information such as meetings, deadlines, alerts and milestones. The Calendar integrates with the ProjectHub Scheduler to filter important ‘date driven’ information. The Company Organiser allows project team members to check the availability of other team members prior to arranging a meeting. It also allows immediate bookings of conference room and the relevant equipment through the provided link. The system is also able to send e-mails to project team members as reminders of project meetings or other deadlines. 30
  31. 31. Conference Room Booking Conference Room Booking can be accessed by clicking My CompanyConference Room on the navigation bar. Conference Room Booking is deisgned to allow users to make conference room reservation. This could reduce the time spent in hunting for conference room. Reports ProjectHub provides the option to integrate with most of the mainstream report generator tools such as Crystal Report and Elixir Report to provide the ultimate flexibility to the users in maintaining and modifying reports as requirements changes in the business environment. Project publisher provides a place to publish a project status by pictorial representation. Personal Workspace The Personal Organiser tool allows users to manage time driven information such as meetings, deadlines, alerts and Milestones. The Calendar integrates with the ProjectHub Scheduler to filter important ‘date driven’ information. Personal Document acts as a personal file server that allows user to deposit and easily access documents. 31
  32. 32. Other PM OSS Tools Some of the other available tools are as listed below: • A specific PM tool under OSS of which details are available at • MrProject is a project planning, scheduling and tracking tool for the GNOME Desktop aiming to act as a better replacement than available proprietary tools. MrProject is part of GNOME Office, a productivity suite composed of entirely free software, integrated with the GNOME Desktop. The main features are Gantt chart for tracking of tasks, Task view for managing tasks and all related properties, Resource view for managing the resources, Custom properties for adding more information than MrProject supports natively, GNOME 2 enabled and others. • Other Potential OSS Project Management Tools are: DotProject NetOffice PhpCollab Work Project Memoranda ZenTrack Phpaga PMTool Java Enterprise Teamwork WebCollab Xoopstage Groupware PHProjekt 32
  33. 33. It is recommended that the above OSS tools be evaluated, in order to ascertain the completeness of functionality required, as detailed in the above sections, as per the best practices and guidelines stipulated above. 33