Project Management for Postgraduate StudentsPresentation Transcript
Project Management for Postgraduate Students Michael Kimlin 27th July 2007
Overview of Today
Introduction, overview of day, overview of ‘Project Management’
Workshop – “Personality profiling and it’s impact on project management”
Close and summary by Susan Gasson.
Who am I?
Faculty of Health, IHBI
Research into skin cancer and Vitamin D
Worked on many large scale projects in Australia and in the USA
My perspectives on “PG Project Management”
Basic Project Management Thomas Tenkate QUT School of Public Health
What is a Project?
‘ A project is a temporary endeavour undertaken to create a unique product or service’. (PMBOK Guide, 2000)
Examples of projects:
Developing a new product or service
Effecting change in structure, staff or style of an organisation.
Developing or acquiring a new or modified information system
Implementing a new business procedure or process
Characteristics of a Project
Temporary : every project has a definite beginning and end.
The end is reached when the project’s objectives have been achieved, or when it is clear that the project’s objectives will not or can not be met, or the need for the project no longer exists and the project is terminated.
Unique product or service: involves doing something that has not been done before.
Uniqueness of a project will be determined by the way in which it is distinguished from all the products or services.
Three fundamental variables : time, cost, quality.
(Source: PMBOK Guide, 2000)
Principles about Projects
Projects do not occur in a vacuum.
A project should develop from the identification of a specific need that is consistent with the strategic directions and priorities of the organisation.
Projects represent an investment of limited and valuable resources (human and financial) and thus need to be justified in terms of relative priority, opportunity cost (ie. what else could have been done with the resources) and the benefits to be realised for the investment.
They also need to be seen in the context of other work being done (process work and other projects) and the total investment of resources by the organisation.
(Source: Qld Health)
Queensland Health View on Projects – PM Plus
What is Project Management?
‘ Project management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements’ (PMBOK Guide, 2000).
Project management is accomplished through the use of processes such as: initiating, planning, executing, controlling, and closing.
When an organisation uses project management to managing its ongoing operations, this is called ‘Managing by Projects’.
Why Manage Projects?
Using a moderately rigorous project management methodology improved productivity by 20 to 30%.
85 - 90% of projects fail to deliver on time, on budget and to the quality of performance expected. The causes include:
Lack of a valid business case justifying the project
Objectives not properly defined and agreed
Lack of communication and stakeholder management
Outcomes/benefits not properly defined in measurable terms
Lack of quality control
Poor estimation of duration and cost
Inadequate definition and acceptance of roles (governance)
Insufficient planning and coordination of resources
All of these causes could be addressed by the application of project management tools and techniques.
(Source: Tasmanian Government, 2005)
Project Management Methodology
Organisations adopt methodologies to encourage consistent and quality project management practice across their organisation.
Current best practice in project management involves thinking about projects in terms of both:
A project lifecycle ; and
A set of management functions that need to be addressed throughout the life of the project.
(Source: Qld Health)
Project Management Lifecycle
Although each project is unique, regardless of whether they are large or small, all can be thought of in terms of a series of phases that make up the project lifecycle:
Planning and definition
Or: Initiate, Manage, Finalise (Tasmanian Govt)
(Source: Qld Health)
Project Management Functions
Across the lifecycle, effective project management requires attention to nine key management functions.
Scope management - processes required to ensure that the project includes all of the work required, and only the work required, to complete the project successfully. It is primarily concerned with defining and controlling what is and is not in the project.
Time management - processes required to ensure timely completion of the project including activity definition, sequencing, duration estimating and schedule development.
Cost management – processes required to ensure that a project is completed within the approved budget.
Human resource management – processes required to ensure the most effective use of people involved with the project, including project stakeholders.
(Source: Qld Health)
Project Management Functions (2)
Quality management – processes required to ensure the project will satisfy the need/s for which it was undertaken.
Communication management – processes required to ensure the effective and timely collection, dissemination, exchange and storage of project information.
Risk management – processes required to ensure project risks are identified, analysed and managed effectively.
Procurement management – processes required to acquire and manage the quality provision of essential goods and services from outside the organisation (ie. purchase, lease, hire, sponsorship, etc.).
Integration management – processes to ensure that all the various elements of the project are properly coordinated.
The purpose of this phase is to determine, with minimal outlay of effort, if a project proposal is viable and worthy of further investment.
Concept development – involves initial scoping of a project proposal, in response to an identified need.
Options analysis – If, as a result of concept development, more than one way to meet the need has been identified and the preferred option is not immediately obvious, an options analysis may be undertaken to identify the most appropriate approach. The analysis explores the benefits, assumptions, constraints, risks and costs of each option, including a do nothing (status quo) option .
Preliminary project planning – builds upon the information gathered as a result of concept development and the options analysis (if undertaken) and provides an initial outline of:
Project implementation/logistics .
The nature of the project will determine which of the above elements are needed.
Key deliverable is a ‘Concept Brief’.
As a minimum, at the end of this phase, information on the following should be available:
Potential contribution to achieving organisational priorities, ie. alignment with business planning
Ability of the project to address the identified need, including evidence for the approach
Potential overlap, synergy or conflict with other projects in progress or existing capacity
Indicative resource requirements
Broad assessment of costs versus benefits
Planning and Definition Phase
Purpose: to progress initial planning activities conducted in the concept phase to:
Develop a detailed and accurate understanding of the project (benefits, costs and risks) and how it will be implemented and managed.
Provide the higher authority with sufficient information to enable them to decide if the project is viable and investment should be made in its implementation.
Planning and Definition Phase – Key Elements
Establishing or confirming project infrastructure and governance arrangements.
Project planning: ‘project plan’.
Pre-implementation review: to confirm accuracy and relevance of project need, resources, governance arrangements, and the environment in which the project has been developed still exists.
Planning and Definition Phase
By the end of this phase, detailed information on the following should be available:
Anticipated contribution to achieving organisational priorities
Ability of the project to address the identified need
Project scope, in particular: strategies to be implemented; and benefits and outputs to be delivered (and associated KPIs)
Risks, and risk management strategies
Resource requirements (financial, human and material) for the project’s implementation and implications for the ongoing operation of the organisation
Analysis of costs versus benefits
Governance arrangements & accountabilities
Communication management strategies
The purpose of this phase is to achieve the project objectives by managing the implementation of the project strategies as defined in the project plan and undertaking associated project management functions.
The key challenge during implementation is change control – watching for, identifying, responding to, anticipating the need for, and actioning change.
The project plan is the key management tool used to coordinate, monitor and review, and report on implementation.
Implementation Phase – Key Elements
Establishing project governance and infrastructure:
Setting up a project team, steering committee
Clarifying roles, etc
Managing implementation against the plan :
Coordinating the implementation of project strategies and component activities
Monitoring & review
Undertaking project status reporting
By the end of the implementation phase, information on the following should be available:
Extent to which the project objectives have been achieved (responsibility of project manager and project team).
Extent to which the project is on track to address the project purpose (responsibility of project sponsor).
Effectiveness of the strategies used.
Actual costs, time and resources required to implement strategies.
Lessons learnt to inform future practice.
This phase ends when either:
a) The project objectives have been achieved and the benefits arising from achievement of these are on track to be realised
b) There have been problems with implementation or circumstances have changed, to the extent that the objectives and/or benefits can no longer be achieved at a reasonable cost or at an acceptable level of risk
c) There have been developments in the broader environment such that the need no longer exists.
The purpose of the phase is to help ensure that:
Benefits of the project (ie. the purpose for which it was established) will ultimately be realised and sustained after the project is completed
Preparations have been completed to measure the extent to which the project purpose has been achieved
The project is appropriately closed down with achievements and lessons learnt documented and retained for future reference, and communicated to key stakeholders and others who may be interested in or benefit from the information.
Finalisation Phase – Key Elements
Project handover : outputs of the project that impact future work are appropriately handed over to relevant people.
Post-implementation review : processes in place to measure success of the project.
Project completion reporting : achievements and lessons learnt are reflected on, documented and communicated.
Project closeout : project information is documented, stored and remaining resources dispersed.
By the end of the finalisation phase, information on the following should be available:
Who is responsible for what, after the project is finished, to ensure realisation and sustainability of the project benefits
Details of the post-implementation review and associated accountabilities
Where project information can be accessed from in the future
This phase ends when administrative closeout has been completed.
Project Management Paperwork
Work specification : for small projects (no project plan)
Project plan : business case (expanded version of concept brief), project management (HR; schedule – WBS, GANTT chart; risk mgt; quality mgt; communication mgt; cost mgt)
Progress brief : monitor progress
Some Things I have Learned
High level support from outset is critical.
Project tasks do not occur consistently throughout the project, so sometimes you have to put in a big effort to ensure that a deliverable is achieved, otherwise, you may delay the project significantly.
People management is difficult, and the wrong staff can significantly delay/destroy your project.
Regular reporting and communication with stakeholders is critical – you need to understand the viewpoints/ agendas of each stakeholder.
Organising steering group/committee meetings is difficult and you have to keep these people ‘on-side’.
Ensure that consultants used have clear understanding of their tasks and the expectations, including cost + penalties.
Financial management is critical – you need to understand the ‘official accounts’ and compare with your own records.
Tasmanian Government Project Management Guidelines http://www.egovernment.tas.gov.au/themes/project_management
Project Management Institute (2000) A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide), Project Management Institute, Pennsylvania. http://www.pmi.org/info/pp_pmbok2000welcome.asp
Queensland Health (undated) PM Plus Project Management Principles .
Australian Institute of Project Management http://www.aipm.com.au/html/default.cfm
Project Management: Communication
Why Psychological Type Theory?
Promotes understanding and acceptance of self and others
Respects each person’s unique contribution
Enhances work team effectiveness
What do you already know about the Myers Briggs Type Indicator?
Myers Briggs is a self –report questionnaire developed by Katherine Briggs and Isabel Myers. It was designed to make Jung’s theory of personality development understandable and useful in everyday life.
What does MBTI measure?
MBTI preferences indicate the differences in people that result from the following:
1.Where they prefer to focus their attention and get energy - E xtraversion or I ntroversion
2. The way they prefer to take in information S ensing or i N tuition
3.The way they prefer to make decisions T hinking or F eeling
4.How they orient themselves to the external world with a J udging process or a P erceiving process.
Some Basic Assumptions about Type Theory
All people are born with a predisposition for one type.
Everyone has a natural preference for one of the two opposites on each of the four MBTI dichotomies.
We use both poles at different times but not both at once and not with equal confidence
Preferences are neither good or bad. Each identifies normal and valuable human behaviours.
Type develops over time
Each individual is unique while type may identify patterns of behaviors the ways in which those have been used and developed vary widely.
How the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator works
It forces us to make choices
The pattern of choices
indicates our preference
Our preference set indicates
our personality profile
ACTIVITY: Personality Type Self-Select Form
A preference for the outer world of activity, things, events, people
A preference for the inner world of thoughts, ideas, memories, feelings
Energised by interaction with the outer world
Energising by interaction with the inner world
Act and then reflect
Reflect and then act
Energy spread over many interests
Energy concentrated on things in depth
Interact with many people
Energised by interaction
Sociable : usually initiate communication
Easy to get to know
Interact with small groups
Energised by time alone
Reserved : until they get to know you
Take time to get to know
Power – provides the initial energy in a group
Vulnerable to criticism and rejection
Shyness – tend to talk more
Loneliness is no network
Power – confidence from thinking things through
Vulnerable to misunderstanding
Shyness – tend to withdraw
Loneliness is no significant friend
Methods of Communication
Respond quickly without long pauses to think
Converse about people, things, and ideas in the external environment
Prefer face-to-face over written communication, voice mail over email
In meetings , like talking out loud to build their ideas.
Pause and reflect before responding
Seek opportunities to communicate one-to-one
Prefer written over face-to-face communication, email over voice mail.
In meetings, verbalize ideas that have been thought through.
An EXTRAVERT is not necessarily a back slapping party animal. He or she is a person who draws energy from interacting with the outer world of people and things.
An INTROVERT is not necessarily a hermit in a cave deep in the forest. He or she is a person who draws energy from making contact with the inner world of concepts and ideas.
Fill in self report
Self report – indicate whether you have a preference for introversion or extraversion
* Handout: 1) Words to help you understand about type 2) MBTI descriptors
Divide into groups (preference for introversion or extraversion) and discuss your ideal work environment i.e. the setting in which you can be most productive
Finding your True Type
The Indicator is the first step in identifying your true preferences
Factors that contribute to you not reporting your True Type
Lack of differentiation of preferences
Influence of family, work and authority
Understanding type differences for PG Project Management *Handout 1) “Using type differences at work”
Projects are done for a reason…
Defined start and end points
Usually consist of a team
Team in PG Projects is the student, the supervisors and the University
Stage 2, confirmation, annual progress reports
What is a successful project?
Define the scope of the work
Lists key performance goals
Has a contingency plan
All parties are aware of the project focus
A PG Supervisor…
Should be aware of student personality types
Potentially use PT to help in communication and understanding the best work environment for the student