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Project Management for Postgraduate Students


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  • 1. Project Management for Postgraduate Students Michael Kimlin 27th July 2007
  • 2. Overview of Today
    • Introduction, overview of day, overview of ‘Project Management’
    • Morning Tea
    • Workshop – “Personality profiling and it’s impact on project management”
    • Summary
    • Close and summary by Susan Gasson.
  • 3. Who am I?
    • Michael Kimlin
    • Faculty of Health, IHBI
    • Research into skin cancer and Vitamin D
    • Worked on many large scale projects in Australia and in the USA
    • My perspectives on “PG Project Management”
  • 4. Basic Project Management Thomas Tenkate QUT School of Public Health
  • 5. What is a Project?
    • ‘ A project is a temporary endeavour undertaken to create a unique product or service’. (PMBOK Guide, 2000)
    • Examples of projects:
      • Developing a new product or service
      • Effecting change in structure, staff or style of an organisation.
      • Developing or acquiring a new or modified information system
      • Implementing a new business procedure or process
  • 6. Characteristics of a Project
    • Temporary : every project has a definite beginning and end.
      • The end is reached when the project’s objectives have been achieved, or when it is clear that the project’s objectives will not or can not be met, or the need for the project no longer exists and the project is terminated.
    • Unique product or service: involves doing something that has not been done before.
      • Uniqueness of a project will be determined by the way in which it is distinguished from all the products or services.
    • Three fundamental variables : time, cost, quality.
    (Source: PMBOK Guide, 2000)
  • 7. Principles about Projects
    • Projects do not occur in a vacuum.
    • A project should develop from the identification of a specific need that is consistent with the strategic directions and priorities of the organisation.
    • Projects represent an investment of limited and valuable resources (human and financial) and thus need to be justified in terms of relative priority, opportunity cost (ie. what else could have been done with the resources) and the benefits to be realised for the investment.
    • They also need to be seen in the context of other work being done (process work and other projects) and the total investment of resources by the organisation.
    (Source: Qld Health)
  • 8. Queensland Health View on Projects – PM Plus
  • 9. What is Project Management?
    • ‘ Project management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements’ (PMBOK Guide, 2000).
    • Project management is accomplished through the use of processes such as: initiating, planning, executing, controlling, and closing.
    • When an organisation uses project management to managing its ongoing operations, this is called ‘Managing by Projects’.
  • 10. Why Manage Projects?
    • Using a moderately rigorous project management methodology improved productivity by 20 to 30%.
    • 85 - 90% of projects fail to deliver on time, on budget and to the quality of performance expected. The causes include:
      • Lack of a valid business case justifying the project
      • Objectives not properly defined and agreed
      • Lack of communication and stakeholder management
      • Outcomes/benefits not properly defined in measurable terms
      • Lack of quality control
      • Poor estimation of duration and cost
      • Inadequate definition and acceptance of roles (governance)
      • Insufficient planning and coordination of resources
      • All of these causes could be addressed by the application of project management tools and techniques.
    (Source: Tasmanian Government, 2005)
  • 11. Project Management Methodology
    • Organisations adopt methodologies to encourage consistent and quality project management practice across their organisation.
    • Current best practice in project management involves thinking about projects in terms of both:
      • A project lifecycle ; and
      • A set of management functions that need to be addressed throughout the life of the project.
    (Source: Qld Health)
  • 12. Project Management Lifecycle
    • Although each project is unique, regardless of whether they are large or small, all can be thought of in terms of a series of phases that make up the project lifecycle:
      • Concept
      • Planning and definition
      • Implementation
      • Finalisation
    • Or: Initiate, Manage, Finalise (Tasmanian Govt)
    (Source: Qld Health)
  • 13. Project Management Functions
    • Across the lifecycle, effective project management requires attention to nine key management functions.
      • Scope management - processes required to ensure that the project includes all of the work required, and only the work required, to complete the project successfully. It is primarily concerned with defining and controlling what is and is not in the project.
      • Time management - processes required to ensure timely completion of the project including activity definition, sequencing, duration estimating and schedule development.
      • Cost management – processes required to ensure that a project is completed within the approved budget.
      • Human resource management – processes required to ensure the most effective use of people involved with the project, including project stakeholders.
    (Source: Qld Health)
  • 14. Project Management Functions (2)
    • Quality management – processes required to ensure the project will satisfy the need/s for which it was undertaken.
    • Communication management – processes required to ensure the effective and timely collection, dissemination, exchange and storage of project information.
    • Risk management – processes required to ensure project risks are identified, analysed and managed effectively.
    • Procurement management – processes required to acquire and manage the quality provision of essential goods and services from outside the organisation (ie. purchase, lease, hire, sponsorship, etc.).
    • Integration management – processes to ensure that all the various elements of the project are properly coordinated.
    (Source: Qld Health)
  • 15. Project Management Methodology (Source: Qld Health)
  • 16. Concept Phase
    • The purpose of this phase is to determine, with minimal outlay of effort, if a project proposal is viable and worthy of further investment.
    • Concept development – involves initial scoping of a project proposal, in response to an identified need.
    • Options analysis – If, as a result of concept development, more than one way to meet the need has been identified and the preferred option is not immediately obvious, an options analysis may be undertaken to identify the most appropriate approach. The analysis explores the benefits, assumptions, constraints, risks and costs of each option, including a do nothing (status quo) option .
  • 17. Concept Phase
    • Preliminary project planning – builds upon the information gathered as a result of concept development and the options analysis (if undertaken) and provides an initial outline of:
      • Business case
      • Project implementation/logistics .
    • The nature of the project will determine which of the above elements are needed.
    • Key deliverable is a ‘Concept Brief’.
  • 18. Concept Phase
    • As a minimum, at the end of this phase, information on the following should be available:
      • Potential contribution to achieving organisational priorities, ie. alignment with business planning
      • Ability of the project to address the identified need, including evidence for the approach
      • Potential overlap, synergy or conflict with other projects in progress or existing capacity
      • Project scope
      • Major risks
      • Indicative resource requirements
      • Broad assessment of costs versus benefits
  • 19. Planning and Definition Phase
    • Purpose: to progress initial planning activities conducted in the concept phase to:
      • Develop a detailed and accurate understanding of the project (benefits, costs and risks) and how it will be implemented and managed.
      • Provide the higher authority with sufficient information to enable them to decide if the project is viable and investment should be made in its implementation.
  • 20. Planning and Definition Phase – Key Elements
    • Establishing or confirming project infrastructure and governance arrangements.
    • Project planning: ‘project plan’.
    • Contract formulation
    • Pre-implementation review: to confirm accuracy and relevance of project need, resources, governance arrangements, and the environment in which the project has been developed still exists.
  • 21. Planning and Definition Phase
    • By the end of this phase, detailed information on the following should be available:
      • Anticipated contribution to achieving organisational priorities
      • Ability of the project to address the identified need
      • Project scope, in particular: strategies to be implemented; and benefits and outputs to be delivered (and associated KPIs)
      • Risks, and risk management strategies
      • Resource requirements (financial, human and material) for the project’s implementation and implications for the ongoing operation of the organisation
      • Analysis of costs versus benefits
      • Timeline
      • Governance arrangements & accountabilities
      • Communication management strategies
  • 22. Implementation Phase
    • The purpose of this phase is to achieve the project objectives by managing the implementation of the project strategies as defined in the project plan and undertaking associated project management functions.
    • The key challenge during implementation is change control – watching for, identifying, responding to, anticipating the need for, and actioning change.
    • The project plan is the key management tool used to coordinate, monitor and review, and report on implementation.
  • 23. Implementation Phase – Key Elements
    • Establishing project governance and infrastructure:
      • Setting up a project team, steering committee
      • Clarifying roles, etc
    • Managing implementation against the plan :
      • Coordinating the implementation of project strategies and component activities
      • Monitoring & review
      • Making adjustments
    • Undertaking project status reporting
  • 24. Implementation Phase
    • By the end of the implementation phase, information on the following should be available:
      • Extent to which the project objectives have been achieved (responsibility of project manager and project team).
      • Extent to which the project is on track to address the project purpose (responsibility of project sponsor).
      • Effectiveness of the strategies used.
      • Actual costs, time and resources required to implement strategies.
      • Lessons learnt to inform future practice.
  • 25. Implementation Phase
    • This phase ends when either:
    • a) The project objectives have been achieved and the benefits arising from achievement of these are on track to be realised
    • b) There have been problems with implementation or circumstances have changed, to the extent that the objectives and/or benefits can no longer be achieved at a reasonable cost or at an acceptable level of risk
    • c) There have been developments in the broader environment such that the need no longer exists.
  • 26. Finalisation Phase
    • The purpose of the phase is to help ensure that:
      • Benefits of the project (ie. the purpose for which it was established) will ultimately be realised and sustained after the project is completed
      • Preparations have been completed to measure the extent to which the project purpose has been achieved
      • The project is appropriately closed down with achievements and lessons learnt documented and retained for future reference, and communicated to key stakeholders and others who may be interested in or benefit from the information.
  • 27. Finalisation Phase – Key Elements
    • Project handover : outputs of the project that impact future work are appropriately handed over to relevant people.
    • Post-implementation review : processes in place to measure success of the project.
    • Project completion reporting : achievements and lessons learnt are reflected on, documented and communicated.
    • Project closeout : project information is documented, stored and remaining resources dispersed.
  • 28. Finalisation Phase
    • By the end of the finalisation phase, information on the following should be available:
      • Who is responsible for what, after the project is finished, to ensure realisation and sustainability of the project benefits
      • Details of the post-implementation review and associated accountabilities
      • Where project information can be accessed from in the future
    • This phase ends when administrative closeout has been completed.
  • 29. Project Management Paperwork
    • Work specification : for small projects (no project plan)
    • Concept brief : 2 – 3 pages, scope, outcomes, rationale, costs, timeline, stakeholders, reach, risks.
    • Project plan : business case (expanded version of concept brief), project management (HR; schedule – WBS, GANTT chart; risk mgt; quality mgt; communication mgt; cost mgt)
    • Progress brief : monitor progress
  • 30. Some Things I have Learned
    • High level support from outset is critical.
    • Project tasks do not occur consistently throughout the project, so sometimes you have to put in a big effort to ensure that a deliverable is achieved, otherwise, you may delay the project significantly.
    • People management is difficult, and the wrong staff can significantly delay/destroy your project.
    • Regular reporting and communication with stakeholders is critical – you need to understand the viewpoints/ agendas of each stakeholder.
    • Organising steering group/committee meetings is difficult and you have to keep these people ‘on-side’.
    • Ensure that consultants used have clear understanding of their tasks and the expectations, including cost + penalties.
    • Financial management is critical – you need to understand the ‘official accounts’ and compare with your own records.
  • 31. Key References
    • Tasmanian Government Project Management Guidelines
    • Project Management Institute (2000) A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide), Project Management Institute, Pennsylvania.
    • Queensland Health (undated) PM Plus Project Management Principles .
    • Australian Institute of Project Management
  • 32. Morning Tea
  • 33. Project Management: Communication
  • 34. Why Psychological Type Theory?
    • Promotes understanding and acceptance of self and others
    • Values Difference
    • Facilitates communication
    • Respects each person’s unique contribution
    • Enhances work team effectiveness
  • 35. What do you already know about the Myers Briggs Type Indicator?
  • 36. Myers Briggs is a self –report questionnaire developed by Katherine Briggs and Isabel Myers. It was designed to make Jung’s theory of personality development understandable and useful in everyday life.
  • 37. What does MBTI measure?
  • 38.  
  • 39. MBTI preferences indicate the differences in people that result from the following:
    • 1.Where they prefer to focus their attention and get energy - E xtraversion or I ntroversion
    • 2. The way they prefer to take in information S ensing or i N tuition
    • 3.The way they prefer to make decisions T hinking or F eeling
    • 4.How they orient themselves to the external world with a J udging process or a P erceiving process.
  • 40. Some Basic Assumptions about Type Theory
    • All people are born with a predisposition for one type.
    • Everyone has a natural preference for one of the two opposites on each of the four MBTI dichotomies.
    • We use both poles at different times but not both at once and not with equal confidence
    • Preferences are neither good or bad. Each identifies normal and valuable human behaviours.
    • Type develops over time
    • Each individual is unique while type may identify patterns of behaviors the ways in which those have been used and developed vary widely.
  • 41. How the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator works
    • It forces us to make choices
    • The pattern of choices
    • indicates our preference
    • Our preference set indicates
    • our personality profile
  • 42. ACTIVITY: Personality Type Self-Select Form
  • 43.
    • Extraversion
    • A preference for the outer world of activity, things, events, people
    • Introversion
    • A preference for the inner world of thoughts, ideas, memories, feelings
    E I
  • 44.
    • Extraversion
    • Outgoing….
    • Energised by interaction with the outer world
    • Introversion
    • Reflective ….
    • Energising by interaction with the inner world
  • 45.
    • Extraversion
    • Act and then reflect
    • Introversion
    • Reflect and then act
  • 46.
    • Extraversion
    • Expansive…..
    • Energy spread over many interests
    • Introversion
    • Focused ….
    • Energy concentrated on things in depth
  • 47.
    • Extraversion
    • preference
    • Interact with many people
    • Energised by interaction
    • Sociable : usually initiate communication
    • Easy to get to know
    • Introversion
    • preference
    • Interact with small groups
    • Energised by time alone
    • Reserved : until they get to know you
    • Take time to get to know
  • 48.
    • Extraversion
    • Power – provides the initial energy in a group
    • Vulnerable to criticism and rejection
    • Shyness – tend to talk more
    • Loneliness is no network
    • Introversion
    • Power – confidence from thinking things through
    • Vulnerable to misunderstanding
    • Shyness – tend to withdraw
    • Loneliness is no significant friend
  • 49. Methods of Communication
    • Extraversion
    • Respond quickly without long pauses to think
    • Converse about people, things, and ideas in the external environment
    • Prefer face-to-face over written communication, voice mail over email
    • In meetings , like talking out loud to build their ideas.
    • Introversion
    • Pause and reflect before responding
    • Seek opportunities to communicate one-to-one
    • Prefer written over face-to-face communication, email over voice mail.
    • In meetings, verbalize ideas that have been thought through.
  • 50. MYTHS
    • An EXTRAVERT is not necessarily a back slapping party animal. He or she is a person who draws energy from interacting with the outer world of people and things.
    • An INTROVERT is not necessarily a hermit in a cave deep in the forest. He or she is a person who draws energy from making contact with the inner world of concepts and ideas.
  • 51. Fill in self report
    • Self report – indicate whether you have a preference for introversion or extraversion
    • * Handout: 1) Words to help you understand about type 2) MBTI descriptors
    • Divide into groups (preference for introversion or extraversion) and discuss your ideal work environment i.e. the setting in which you can be most productive
  • 52. Finding your True Type
    • The Indicator is the first step in identifying your true preferences
  • 53. Factors that contribute to you not reporting your True Type
    • Lack of differentiation of preferences
    • Influence of family, work and authority
    • Terms misunderstood
    • Social pressure
    • Growth period
  • 54. Understanding type differences for PG Project Management *Handout 1) “Using type differences at work”
  • 55. Summary
  • 56. Project Management
    • Projects are done for a reason…
    • Defined start and end points
    • Milestones in-between
    • Usually consist of a team
  • 57. Project Management
    • Team in PG Projects is the student, the supervisors and the University
    • Milestones include:
    • Stage 2, confirmation, annual progress reports
    • What is a successful project?
  • 58. Successful Projects:
    • Define the scope of the work
    • Lists key performance goals
    • Has a contingency plan
    • All parties are aware of the project focus
  • 59. A PG Supervisor…
    • Should be aware of student personality types
    • Potentially use PT to help in communication and understanding the best work environment for the student
    • Improve student learning outcomes
  • 60. More information: