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Project Management <ul><li>Define project, project management, RAD, JAD </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the project triangle an...
Project Management <ul><li>Project -  temporary  endeavor undertaken to create a  unique  product or service </li></ul><ul...
Project Triangle <ul><li>  </li></ul>Time Cost Scope QUALITY
Project Management Activities <ul><li>Ensuring progress of project using metrics </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying risks and a...
Development Models <ul><li>Systems Development Life Cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid Applications Development (RAD) </li></ul...
Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) <ul><li>Overview </li></ul><ul><li>Software Acquisition Choices </li></ul><ul><li>SD...
SDLC - Prior Problems <ul><li>Failure to meet: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Budgets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schedules </li></u...
SDLC - Characteristics <ul><li>“ Problem” or “Opportunity” </li></ul><ul><li>Many names; Widely applicable </li></ul><ul><...
SDLC - Characteristics <ul><li>Disciplined approach </li></ul><ul><li>Systems approach </li></ul><ul><li>Iterative (not se...
SDLC - Advantages <ul><li>Focus on tradeoffs </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on goals </li></ul><ul><li>Controls: milestones, chec...
SDLC - Reasons for Failure <ul><li>Scope too broad or too narrow </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of needed skills </li></ul><ul><li...
SDLC Phases <ul><li>Initiation and Feasibility </li></ul><ul><li>Requirements Definition </li></ul><ul><li>Functional Desi...
I. Initiation & Feasibility <ul><li>Project objectives & Scope </li></ul><ul><li>Preliminary  survey & feasibility </li></...
II. Requirements Definition <ul><li>Problem/Opportunity definition </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze current system </li></ul><ul>...
Problem/Opportunity Definition <ul><li>Symptoms vs. real problems </li></ul><ul><li>Question decision maker’s statement of...
Analyze Current System <ul><li>+ Understand activities involved </li></ul><ul><li>+ Identify decision points </li></ul><ul...
III. Functional Design <ul><li>Focus on business needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>usability, reliability </li></ul></ul><ul><li...
IV. Technical Design and Construction <ul><li>Finalize architecture and acquire hardware </li></ul><ul><li>Complete techni...
V. Verification <ul><li>Program Testing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structured walkthrough </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Code inspe...
VI. Implementation <ul><li>Cut-over </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parallel conversion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct cut-over <...
VII. Maintenance and Review <ul><li>Post-implementation audit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ends - information requirements (infor...
Iterative Development System Concept Version “1” Version “2” Version “N” Software Development Process
Uses of Prototyping <ul><li>Verifying user needs </li></ul><ul><li>Verifying that design = specifications </li></ul><ul><l...
Uses of Prototyping <ul><li>Testing a design under varying environments </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrating a new product to u...
Prototyping <ul><li>Proposed Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved user communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Users...
Observed Effects of Prototyping <ul><li>ease of use (+) </li></ul><ul><li>user needs (+) </li></ul><ul><li>unrealistic use...
Rapid Applications Development (RAD) <ul><li>+ Like prototyping, uses iterative development </li></ul><ul><li>+ Uses tools...
Joint Applications Development (JAD) <ul><li>+ Saves interviewing and data collection time </li></ul><ul><li>+ Structured ...
Project Dimensions Affecting Risk <ul><li>Project Size (relative to others) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The pregnant lady </li><...
Tools for Project Management <ul><li>Risk a function of size, complexity and clarity </li></ul><ul><li>Tools </li></ul><ul...
Integration Tools <ul><li>EXTERNAL </li></ul><ul><li>User project manager </li></ul><ul><li>User specification approval pr...
Management Issues <ul><li>Pulling the plug </li></ul><ul><li>Measuring success </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource constraints ...
Open Sourcing <ul><li>The process of building and improving “free” software by an Internet community </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
Free Software <ul><li>The freedom to run the program for any purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>The freedom to study how the progr...
Open Sourcing Issues <ul><li>Protection of Intellectual Property </li></ul><ul><li>Updating and maintaining open source co...
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Project Management Define project, project management, RAD, JAD

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Transcript of "Project Management Define project, project management, RAD, JAD"

  1. 1. Project Management <ul><li>Define project, project management, RAD, JAD </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the project triangle and its tradeoffs </li></ul><ul><li>Describe project management activities </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of functional, project (purpose) and matrix structures </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the advantages, disadvantages and characteristics of SDLC (System Development Life Cycle) and prototyping </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the phases of SDLC </li></ul><ul><li>Describe project dimensions affecting risk </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss integration in dealing with risk </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss issues in managing behavioral factors </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss open sourcing as a development approach </li></ul>
  2. 2. Project Management <ul><li>Project - temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service </li></ul><ul><ul><li>may be divided into subprojects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Project management - application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities to meet or exceed stakeholder needs and expectations from a project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>T.A.N.S.T.A.A.F.L. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Project Triangle <ul><li>  </li></ul>Time Cost Scope QUALITY
  4. 4. Project Management Activities <ul><li>Ensuring progress of project using metrics </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying risks and assessing the probability of them occurring </li></ul><ul><li>Ensuring progress toward deliverables within constraints of time and resources </li></ul><ul><li>Running coordination meetings of the project team </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiating for resources on behalf of the project </li></ul>
  5. 5. Development Models <ul><li>Systems Development Life Cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid Applications Development (RAD) </li></ul><ul><li>Prototyping </li></ul><ul><li>Joint Applications Development (JAD) (like RAD with users) </li></ul><ul><li>Agile Programming (Dynamic System Development Method; Extreme Programming; Scrum Crystal) </li></ul><ul><li>Object-Oriented </li></ul>
  6. 6. Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) <ul><li>Overview </li></ul><ul><li>Software Acquisition Choices </li></ul><ul><li>SDLC Overview </li></ul><ul><li>SDLC:Phases </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative Approaches </li></ul>
  7. 7. SDLC - Prior Problems <ul><li>Failure to meet: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Budgets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schedules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>TOO LITTLE…. TOO LATE </li></ul>
  8. 8. SDLC - Characteristics <ul><li>“ Problem” or “Opportunity” </li></ul><ul><li>Many names; Widely applicable </li></ul><ul><li>“ Analysis” vs. “Synthesis” </li></ul><ul><li>Variance across stages </li></ul>
  9. 9. SDLC - Characteristics <ul><li>Disciplined approach </li></ul><ul><li>Systems approach </li></ul><ul><li>Iterative (not sequential) </li></ul><ul><li>Cyclical </li></ul>
  10. 10. SDLC - Advantages <ul><li>Focus on tradeoffs </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on goals </li></ul><ul><li>Controls: milestones, checklist, accountability </li></ul><ul><li>Tools, models, CASE </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchical decomposition </li></ul><ul><li>Designed for user & manager involvement </li></ul>
  11. 11. SDLC - Reasons for Failure <ul><li>Scope too broad or too narrow </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of needed skills </li></ul><ul><li>Incomplete specifications </li></ul><ul><li>No control/no framework </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of management/user involvement </li></ul><ul><li>Too time-consuming </li></ul>
  12. 12. SDLC Phases <ul><li>Initiation and Feasibility </li></ul><ul><li>Requirements Definition </li></ul><ul><li>Functional Design </li></ul><ul><li>Technical Design and Construction </li></ul><ul><li>Verification </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance & Review </li></ul>
  13. 13. I. Initiation & Feasibility <ul><li>Project objectives & Scope </li></ul><ul><li>Preliminary survey & feasibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operational </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Project proposal and schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Identify assumptions & constraints </li></ul>
  14. 14. II. Requirements Definition <ul><li>Problem/Opportunity definition </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze current system </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on decisions and related information needs </li></ul><ul><li>Define business functionality </li></ul><ul><li>Plan for training, user acceptance </li></ul>
  15. 15. Problem/Opportunity Definition <ul><li>Symptoms vs. real problems </li></ul><ul><li>Question decision maker’s statement of problem </li></ul><ul><li>Bound problem realistically </li></ul><ul><li>Try to ascertain actual cause </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes figuring out the problem is half the solution </li></ul>
  16. 16. Analyze Current System <ul><li>+ Understand activities involved </li></ul><ul><li>+ Identify decision points </li></ul><ul><li>+ Identify problems & efficiencies </li></ul><ul><li>+ Be aware of history </li></ul><ul><li>- Bias thinking </li></ul>
  17. 17. III. Functional Design <ul><li>Focus on business needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>usability, reliability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Logical design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outputs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inputs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Databases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personnel </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. IV. Technical Design and Construction <ul><li>Finalize architecture and acquire hardware </li></ul><ul><li>Complete technical definition of data access and other system components </li></ul><ul><li>Make (program) vs. buy </li></ul><ul><li>Develop test plans </li></ul><ul><li>Revise schedule, plan and costs </li></ul>
  19. 19. V. Verification <ul><li>Program Testing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structured walkthrough </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Code inspection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unit test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pairs testing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Verification, stress, user and security testing </li></ul>
  20. 20. VI. Implementation <ul><li>Cut-over </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parallel conversion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct cut-over </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pilot conversion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phased conversion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>User training </li></ul>
  21. 21. VII. Maintenance and Review <ul><li>Post-implementation audit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ends - information requirements (information, performance) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Means - process </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maintenance (correcting bugs & scheduled maintenance) </li></ul><ul><li>Enhancement (adding functionality) </li></ul>
  22. 22. Iterative Development System Concept Version “1” Version “2” Version “N” Software Development Process
  23. 23. Uses of Prototyping <ul><li>Verifying user needs </li></ul><ul><li>Verifying that design = specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Selecting the “best” design </li></ul><ul><li>Developing a conceptual understanding of novel situations </li></ul>
  24. 24. Uses of Prototyping <ul><li>Testing a design under varying environments </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrating a new product to upper management </li></ul><ul><li>Implementing a new system in the user environment quickly </li></ul>
  25. 25. Prototyping <ul><li>Proposed Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved user communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Users like it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low risk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoids over-design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experimentation and innovation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spreads labor to user department </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages in practice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prototypes are used “as is” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Integration often difficult </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Design flaws </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poor performance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to manage process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates unrealistic expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Documentation is difficult </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Observed Effects of Prototyping <ul><li>ease of use (+) </li></ul><ul><li>user needs (+) </li></ul><ul><li>unrealistic user expectations (-) </li></ul><ul><li>added features (?) </li></ul><ul><li>poorer performance(-) </li></ul><ul><li>mixed design quality </li></ul><ul><li>mixed maintainability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>less need </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>more difficult to do </li></ul></ul><ul><li>effort decreased (+) </li></ul><ul><li>difficult cost-estimation (-) </li></ul><ul><li>end-user participation increased (+) </li></ul><ul><li>more expertise needed (-) </li></ul><ul><li>difficult planning & control (-) </li></ul>Software Product Software Process
  27. 27. Rapid Applications Development (RAD) <ul><li>+ Like prototyping, uses iterative development </li></ul><ul><li>+ Uses tools to speed up development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GUI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reusable code </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>code generation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>programming, language testing and debugging </li></ul></ul><ul><li>- Requirements may be frozen too early </li></ul><ul><li>- Basic standards often overlooked </li></ul>
  28. 28. Joint Applications Development (JAD) <ul><li>+ Saves interviewing and data collection time </li></ul><ul><li>+ Structured process </li></ul><ul><li>+ Highly collaborative with business units </li></ul><ul><li>- Expensive </li></ul><ul><li>- Low use of technology </li></ul>
  29. 29. Project Dimensions Affecting Risk <ul><li>Project Size (relative to others) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The pregnant lady </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Complexity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extent of difficulty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interdependence of components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relative </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Clarity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High vs. Low </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Tools for Project Management <ul><li>Risk a function of size, complexity and clarity </li></ul><ul><li>Tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>External integration tools (beyond project team) --- clarity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal integration tools ( within project team) --- complexity </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Integration Tools <ul><li>EXTERNAL </li></ul><ul><li>User project manager </li></ul><ul><li>User specification approval process </li></ul><ul><li>User-managed control process </li></ul><ul><li>Users as team members </li></ul><ul><li>User responsibility for education&installation </li></ul><ul><li>INTERNAL </li></ul><ul><li>IT professional team leader </li></ul><ul><li>Frequent team meetings </li></ul><ul><li>Regular technical status reviews </li></ul><ul><li>Outside technical assistance </li></ul><ul><li>Goal setting by team </li></ul>
  32. 32. Management Issues <ul><li>Pulling the plug </li></ul><ul><li>Measuring success </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource constraints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact on customers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business success </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare the future </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Open Sourcing <ul><li>The process of building and improving “free” software by an Internet community </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Release early and often </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delegate as much as possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Archive and manage the versions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be as open as possible </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Free Software <ul><li>The freedom to run the program for any purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>The freedom to study how the program works, and adapt it to your needs. Access to the source code is a precondition for this. </li></ul><ul><li>The freedom to distribute copies so that you can help your neighbor. </li></ul><ul><li>The freedom to improve and release your improvements to the public, so that the whole community benefits. Access to source code is a precondition for this GNU Project- Free Software Foundation, “The Free Software Definition,” http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/free-sw.html , Downloaded 4/3/02. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Open Sourcing Issues <ul><li>Protection of Intellectual Property </li></ul><ul><li>Updating and maintaining open source code </li></ul><ul><li>Competitive advantage </li></ul><ul><li>Tech support </li></ul><ul><li>Standards </li></ul>
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