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Project Management Concepts and Applications

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  • 1. Project Management Concepts and Applications
    • Vilas Nitivattananon, PhD
    • Urban Environmental Management
    • School of Environment, Resources and Development
    • Asian Institute of Technology
    • [email_address]
  • 2. Topics
    • General concepts
    • Organization
    • Planning process and tools
    • Control
    • Examples
    • Questions and discussions
  • 3. Project Life Cycle VS Environmental Assessment
  • 4. General Concepts
    • A project can be thought of as an organization which exists to develop a system to respond to a problem
    • Projects can be divided into logical phases or stages to indicate the types of tasks or activities conducted within a period of time
      • Conceptual
      • Definition
      • Acquisition
      • Operation
  • 5. Project Management
    • Project management
      • A set of principles, methods, tools, and techniques for effective management of objectives oriented work (projects) in the context of a specific and unique organization environment
    • Why?
      • Purpose
      • Complexity
      • Uniqueness
      • Unfamiliarity
      • Impermanence
      • Life cycle
  • 6. Measures and Constraints
    • Measures
      • Time
      • Cost
      • Performance
    • Constraints
      • Labor
      • Facilities
      • Capital
      • Schedules
      • Knowledge
      • Technology
  • 7. Characteristics
    • Well defined goals
    • Predetermined period of performance
    • Ceiling on expenditures (budget)
    • Limit on human resources and capital assets
    • Limit on available tools / technology
  • 8. Objectives must be:
    • Clearly defined
    • Achievable
    • Measurable
    • Agreed upon
  • 9. Source of Change
    • Internally driven (specification review)
    • Client driven
    • Regulatory driven
    • Externally driven (market conditions)
  • 10. Standard Tools
    • Product oriented work breakdown structure
    • Estimating techniques
    • Task dependencies (PERT Charts)
    • Graphic scheduling (GANTT Charts)
    • Critical path analysis
    • Resource leveling techniques
    • Management reporting
    • Project management information system
  • 11. Project Manager’s Role
    • Responsibility
    • Authority
    • Accountability
    • Dealing with the organization structure
    • Coordinating
    • Motivating
    • Negotiating
    • Managing (vs. Doing)
    • Interpersonal skills (vs. hands-on / technical)
  • 12. Planning, Organizing, & Control
    • Planning
      • Establish objectives
      • Develop the plan
      • Get plan approval
    • Organizing
      • Determine skill needs
      • Identify people
      • Compute the schedule
      • Get staff / schedule approval
    • Control
      • Collect progress data
      • Analyze data
      • Report on project status
      • Take corrective action
  • 13. Planning Steps
    • Concentrate on identifying the work
    • Employs such tools and techniques as:
      • Methodology
      • WBS
      • PERT
      • Estimating techniques
  • 14. Organizing Steps
    • Concentrates on identifying people and timings
    • Employs such tools and techniques as:
      • Skills analysis
      • GANTT
      • Critical path analysis
  • 15. Control Steps
    • Concentrates on identifying and resolving problems
    • Employs such tools and techniques as:
      • Monitoring & tracking
      • Plan analysis
      • Management reporting
      • Change control
  • 16. Project Management Responsibilities
    • Meet technical specifications
    • Insure that costs do not exceed amount budgeted by management
    • Insure objectives are met within specified time frame
    • Comply with organizational constraints
    • Address changes with minimum risk to all of the above
  • 17. Nature of Organization
    • Hierarchical
    • Matrix
    • Task force
  • 18. Steps in Planning Process
    • Assess adequacy of technical objectives (PM)
    • Initiate top-down WBS development (PM)
    • Negotiate functional participation (PM & FM’s)
    • Complete top-down WBS development (PM & Team)
    • Determine interfaces & network (PM & team)
    • Develop task estimates (PM & team)
  • 19. Steps in Planning Process (cont’d.)
    • Develop draft of project plan (PM)
    • Compare draft of plan to project objectives (PM)
    • Negotiate plan revisions (PM & Team)
    • Negotiate objectives revisions (PM & client)
    • Decide on proceeding with project (PM & Client)
    • Prepare detailed schedule and resource plans (PM)
  • 20. Steps in Planning Process (cont’d.)
    • Identify key deliverables and milestones (PM)
    • Determine detailed estimates for people, costs, equipment (PM)
    • Obtain commitments from managers (PM & FM’s)
    • Obtain plan approval from client and sr. management (PM, client, and SM)
    • Distribute project plans and commence work (PM & Team)
  • 21. Managing Changes to the Objectives
    • Change may occur as soon as planning commences
    • Control procedures must include:
      • Maintenance of change log
      • Defining impact of change
      • Appropriate communications
      • Proper decisions / approvals
    • Changes and change investigation will have an effect on:
      • Schedule
      • Cost
      • Resource utilization
      • Risk
  • 22. Work Breakdown Structure
    • Identifies specific work elements (tasks)
    • Communicates objectives and strategy to participants
    • Provide structure for effective management reporting
    • Promotes standardization across projects
  • 23. WBS Functions
    • Identify prime objectives and supporting objectives
    • Establish major steps or phases of the project
    • Determine the products or deliverables for each phase
    • Identify the tasks needed to produce each deliverables
  • 24. WBS Categories
    • Components of a product or service
    • Functions
    • Time phases
    • Organizational units
    • Persons
    • Geographical areas
    • Cost accounts
  • 25. WBS Examples
    • Feasibility phase
      • Deliverable A
        • Task 1
        • Task 2
      • Deliverable B
        • Task 1
        • Task 2
    • Analysis phase
      • Deliverable A
        • Task 1
    • Design phase
      • Deliverable
        • Task 1
  • 26. PERT and Critical Path Method (CPM)
    • Program evaluation review technique
    • Network based
      • Event diagram
      • Precedence diagram
      • Arrow diagram
    • Used for estimating expected time
          • (O + P + 4ML)/6
  • 27. Rules for Estimating
    • Be realistic / honest
    • Involve those doing the work
    • Start at the appropriate level of WBS
    • Preliminary estimates may assume:
      • Average performance
      • Dedicated work effort (no interruptions)
      • Sufficient resources available
  • 28. GANTT Chart Attributes
    • Results of dependencies and resources assignments
    • More “user friendly” than PERT
    • Identifies schedule (not dependencies)
    • Can show “planned VS actual”
    • Can show resource utilization
  • 29. Product of Planning and Organizing
    • Statement of technical objectives
    • Work breakdown structure
    • Task lists
    • Task dependencies
    • Network diagram
    • Schedule and resource utilization plan (GANTT)
    • Critical path calculation
  • 30. Control
    • Project management standards
    • Defined control sequence
    • Defined control responsibilities
    • Schedule for reporting
    • Agreed upon report formats
  • 31. Project Control Steps
    • Measure
      • Planned condition
      • Actual condition
      • Deviation between planned and actual
    • Analyze
      • Impact of the deviation
      • Nature of the problem
      • Cause of the problem (accountability)
  • 32. Project Control Steps (cont’d.)
    • Communicate
      • Determine who “needs to know”
      • Inform appropriate parties
      • Decide if necessary to elevate the problem
    • Take corrective action
      • Develop alternative solutions
      • Recommend and obtain approval
      • Implement solution
      • Determine future preventive action
      • Follow up on effectiveness of solution
  • 33. What to Track / Monitor
    • Completed tasks
    • Tasks in progress
      • Beware of the “90% complete” trap
      • Need to know how much work remains
    • Future tasks
      • Changes
      • Delays
    • Major deliverables / milestones
    • Work effort utilization
    • Quality
      • “ if it is done” vs. “how well it is done”
      • Standards help!
  • 34. How to Track / Monitor
    • Who collects the data?
      • Delegate where possible
      • Plan time for this
    • When to collect the data?
      • Weekly, bi-weekly
      • Consistency is key
    • How to collect the data?
      • Accurately, completely
      • Proper format
      • Level of detail
      • Summary requirements
    • Who receives the data?
  • 35. Taking Corrective Action
    • Responsibility of PM
      • Identify impact
      • Report impact
      • Do not make changes in a vacuum!!
    • Involves negotiation
      • With the client
      • With management
      • With the project team
    • Obtaining support and commitment depends on
      • Demonstrating effective control
      • Maintaining effective communication (reporting)
  • 36. Project Management Information System (PMIS)
    • A framework or methodology, a system, for collecting, organizing, storing, processing, and disseminating the information needed to manage projects
    • Manual or automated (computerized) system
  • 37. Components of Project Management Standards
    • Prescribed project phases and major deliverables
    • Prescribed tools & techniques
    • Classification of projects
    • Forms used
      • Task lists
      • Change control
      • Status reports
    • Prescribed schedules for time collection and reporting
    • Specified automated tools
  • 38. Benefits of Automated Information Tools
    • Creating plan models
      • Incorporates standard methodology
      • Insures completeness
    • Creating “what if” scenarios
      • Facilitates negotiations
    • Communicating
      • Task or “to do” lists
      • Graphics (network /Gantt)
      • Management reports
    • Project change
      • Re-calculating critical path
      • Re-scheduling
  • 39. Suggested Discussions
    • Specific characteristics of your project(s) and their implications in terms of project management
    • Relationship between objectives, tasks and outputs
    • Appropriate tool(s) to be used in planning your projects
    • Time and cost estimation – how and accuracy
    • Difficulties in attempting project control
    • Process of collecting data about cost, schedule and work accomplished
    • Project termination and extension – reasons and management

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