Yi-Hsiang Chang & Mileta Tomovic
School of Technology
• The need of project management
• Project management triangle
• Project planning
• Project execution
Students will be able to
• Understand the basics of project management
• Perform task analysis
• Apply to semester group project
• A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to achieve a
• Project management is the application of knowledge, skills,
tools and techniques to a broad range of activities in order
to meet the requirements of the particular project.
• Project management knowledge and practices are best
described in terms of a project’s lifecycle: Initiating, Planning,
Executing, Controlling, and Closing
• Reference: Project Management Institute
• The purpose of project management is to provide a plan and
the means on which to base management decisions
throughout the life of a project.
• Recent growth of project management is due to the
increased amount of complex and collateral projects that
need a great deal of organization and planning to run
• All kinds of projects can benefit from a project manager,
from constructing a car to releasing a new software program;
managers ensure that projects are completed on time and
• Reference: Salary.com; Dream Job: Project Manager
Constraints of a Project
• A successful project manager must simultaneously manage
the four constraints (or basic elemenets) of a project:
• People, equipment, material
• Task durations, dependencies, critical path
• Costs, contingencies, profit
• Project size, goals, requirements
• Reference: About.com; Project Management 101
• The project scope is the definition of what the project is supposed to
accomplish and the budget (of time and money) that has been created
to achieve these objectives. It is absolutely imperative that any change
to the scope of the project have a matching change in budget, either
time or resources.
• Change of scope: Such change usually occurs in the form of "scope
creep". Scope creep is the piling up of small changes that by themselves
are manageable, but in aggregate are significant.
• A project manager can not effectively manage the resources, time and
money in a project unless she or he actively manages the project scope.
• One critical task of resource management is to manage the labor hours
of the project team.
• Frequently a project team is involved in more than one project. As the
switching between projects requires lead time, the project manager will
try to avoid the time slippery caused by multitasking.
• The project manager must also manage the equipment used for the
project and the material needed by the people and equipment assigned
to the project.
• Project Managers who succeed in meeting their project schedule have a
good chance of staying within their project budget.
• Any project can be broken down into a number of tasks that have to be
performed. To prepare the project schedule, the project manager has to
figure out what the tasks are, how long they will take, what resources
they require, and in what order they should be done.
• The difficulty in managing a project schedule is that there are seldom
enough resources and enough time to complete the tasks sequentially.
Therefore, tasks have to be overlapped so several happen at the same
• Often a project manager is evaluated on his or her ability to
complete a project within budget.
• A project budget is composed of the estimated cost, plus the
contingency and design allowance, plus any profit. The
project manager's job is to keep the actual cost at or below
the estimated cost, to use as little of the design allowance
and contingency as possible, and to maximize the profit the
company earns on the project.
• You can only manage effectively a limited number of cost
items, so focus on the critical ones (using Pareto’s 80-20
Project Management Triangle
• The Theory of Triple Constraints: A basic but
powerful and important premise in project
• The three sides of the triangle are the project
constraints, and act as the boundaries of the
• The key goal of project management is to
ensure that the triple constraints remains in
• If the scope of the project increases, either cost
or time will need to increase.
• Reference: ClarityVillage.com
• Tasks of project initiation
– To assess technical and economic feasibilities.
– To define the measurable objectives
– To determine realistic deliverables
– To form a project team
– To seek the support from upper management
– To develop or continue relationship with customers (or stakeholders)
– To establish procedures for management, decision-making, and
• Typical project planning activities
– Define project phases, task titles, holidays, and other key project
– Perform task analysis to determine the project task dependencies
and timing constraint management
– Creation and management of project budget as tasks are defined
– Determine “optimal” project schedule with milestones through
techniques such as critical path method (CPM) or critical chain
• Definition in userfit Tools article
– The study of what a user is required to do, in terms of actions and/or
cognitive processes, to achieve a task objective
• Purpose: To create a structure or model to
– Describe tasks or activities
– Synthesize individual components
– Explore design implications
Terminology of Task Analysis
• Goal: Something the user wants to achieve
• Task: Series of activities or actions to achieve the goal
– Problem solving
– Decision making
• Action: Simple task without problem solving
• Prerequisites: Tasks or conditions needed to be
accomplished prior to a specific task
• Reference: http://www.usabilitynet.org/tools/taskanalysis.htm
Techniques for Task Analysis
• Common techniques
– Hierarchical Task Analysis (HTA)
– Procedural Task Analysis (PTA)
• Suggested practices
– First use HTA to list out all the tasks needed along with prerequisites
in order to achieve the project goal and objectives
– Then use IDEF0 to layout the details of individual tasks and their
– Finally use PTA to sequence individual tasks to determine the
schedule (GANTT chart and PERT chart)
HTA for Prerequisites
IDEF0 for Task Detailing
Internal or Goal/
external stimulant/ Function to be
Initial state Input
PTA for Information Processing
Elements of a Project Plan
• Goal and objectives • Schedule
– Goal describes the big picture – Baseline, milestones, and
– Objectives state the necessary checkpoints
procedures • Budget
• Stakeholders – Estimated cost and allowance
– The clients, the sponsors, upper • Risk management
management – Worst case scenarios and
– Foreseeable benefits and contingency plans
• Assessment plan
• Resource management – Measures of project correctness
– Arrangement of people, and completeness
Project Execution and Control
– To better control time, cost, resource, and scope in order to complete
the project according to the project plan
– To know where the real action is
– To find out whether the project is ahead or behind schedule
– To investigate why things are happening
Execute the project to answer…
• Who is working on the project? What are the key personnel? How will people
be brought into/taken off of the project?
• How will the project be completed? What activities will take place to complete
• When is the project being completed? What is the schedule for each activity?
• Where will the project activities take place? What are the locations?
• What are the risks? What are the contingency plans to manage those risks?
• How much is the project going to cost? What are the costs for each resource
we need (both human and nonhuman)? What is the total cost?
• What kind of quality management does the project want to perform? How will
quality be monitored?
• What subcontractors does the project need? What kinds of contracts will the
• How will the project communicate with its staff? With stakeholders? How
• Project assessment
– On time and on budget
– Correctness: Whether the project was executed according to the
– Completeness: Whether the project was accomplished
• Project documentation
– Review of project execution
– Comparison of original plan and actual plan
– Lessons learned (especially those learned from the failures)
– Conclusion and outlooks for future opportunities
• The use of project management software such as
• The issues of cross-culture management
• International collaboration
• What project management is
• The keywords and their meaning in project management
• The general practices of project planning and execution
• What are the constraints of a project? Please discuss in
detail within the context of your group project.
• What are the procedures to define the scope of a project?
Please describe them in detail.
• How do you estimate the cost and the schedule for a project?
Please use your project planning as an example.
• Reference: ProjectConnection.com
• Horine, G. (2005). Absolute beginner’s guide to project
management. Indianapolis, IN: Que
• Kerzner, H. (2001). Project management: a systems
approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling. New York:
• Mooz, H. Forsberg, K., & Catterman, H. (2003).
Communicating project management. Hoboken, NJ: John
Wiley and Sons.
• Professional magazine
• Case study online
The author wishes to acknowledge the support from
the Society for Manufacturing Engineers -
Education Foundation, SME-EF Grant #5004 for
“Curriculum Modules in Product Lifecycle