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Project Management
Project Management
Project Management
Project Management
Project Management
Project Management
Project Management
Project Management
Project Management
Project Management
Project Management
Project Management
Project Management
Project Management
Project Management
Project Management
Project Management
Project Management
Project Management
Project Management
Project Management
Project Management
Project Management
Project Management
Project Management
Project Management
Project Management
Project Management
Project Management
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Project Management

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  • 1. Project Management Yi-Hsiang Chang & Mileta Tomovic School of Technology
  • 2. Outline • The need of project management • Project management triangle • Project planning • Project execution 2
  • 3. Objectives Students will be able to • Understand the basics of project management • Perform task analysis • Apply to semester group project 3
  • 4. Definition • A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to achieve a particular aim. • Project management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to a broad range of activities in order to meet the requirements of the particular project. • Project management knowledge and practices are best described in terms of a project’s lifecycle: Initiating, Planning, Executing, Controlling, and Closing • Reference: Project Management Institute 4
  • 5. Project Management • The purpose of project management is to provide a plan and the means on which to base management decisions throughout the life of a project. • Recent growth of project management is due to the increased amount of complex and collateral projects that need a great deal of organization and planning to run efficiently. • All kinds of projects can benefit from a project manager, from constructing a car to releasing a new software program; managers ensure that projects are completed on time and on budget. • Reference: Salary.com; Dream Job: Project Manager 5
  • 6. Constraints of a Project • A successful project manager must simultaneously manage the four constraints (or basic elemenets) of a project: – Resources • People, equipment, material – Time • Task durations, dependencies, critical path – Money • Costs, contingencies, profit – Scope • Project size, goals, requirements • Reference: About.com; Project Management 101 6
  • 7. Scope • The project scope is the definition of what the project is supposed to accomplish and the budget (of time and money) that has been created to achieve these objectives. It is absolutely imperative that any change to the scope of the project have a matching change in budget, either time or resources. • Change of scope: Such change usually occurs in the form of "scope creep". Scope creep is the piling up of small changes that by themselves are manageable, but in aggregate are significant. • A project manager can not effectively manage the resources, time and money in a project unless she or he actively manages the project scope. 7
  • 8. Resource • One critical task of resource management is to manage the labor hours of the project team. • Frequently a project team is involved in more than one project. As the switching between projects requires lead time, the project manager will try to avoid the time slippery caused by multitasking. • The project manager must also manage the equipment used for the project and the material needed by the people and equipment assigned to the project. 8
  • 9. Time • Project Managers who succeed in meeting their project schedule have a good chance of staying within their project budget. • Any project can be broken down into a number of tasks that have to be performed. To prepare the project schedule, the project manager has to figure out what the tasks are, how long they will take, what resources they require, and in what order they should be done. • The difficulty in managing a project schedule is that there are seldom enough resources and enough time to complete the tasks sequentially. Therefore, tasks have to be overlapped so several happen at the same time. 9
  • 10. Money • Often a project manager is evaluated on his or her ability to complete a project within budget. • A project budget is composed of the estimated cost, plus the contingency and design allowance, plus any profit. The project manager's job is to keep the actual cost at or below the estimated cost, to use as little of the design allowance and contingency as possible, and to maximize the profit the company earns on the project. • You can only manage effectively a limited number of cost items, so focus on the critical ones (using Pareto’s 80-20 rule). 10
  • 11. Project Management Triangle • The Theory of Triple Constraints: A basic but powerful and important premise in project management. • The three sides of the triangle are the project Co pe constraints, and act as the boundaries of the st S co project. • The key goal of project management is to ensure that the triple constraints remains in Time equilibrium. • If the scope of the project increases, either cost or time will need to increase. • Reference: ClarityVillage.com 11
  • 12. Project Initiating • Tasks of project initiation – To assess technical and economic feasibilities. – To define the measurable objectives – To determine realistic deliverables – To form a project team – To seek the support from upper management – To develop or continue relationship with customers (or stakeholders) – To establish procedures for management, decision-making, and communication. 12
  • 13. Project planning • Typical project planning activities – Define project phases, task titles, holidays, and other key project planning parameters. – Perform task analysis to determine the project task dependencies and timing constraint management – Creation and management of project budget as tasks are defined – Determine “optimal” project schedule with milestones through techniques such as critical path method (CPM) or critical chain 13
  • 14. Task Analysis • Definition in userfit Tools article – The study of what a user is required to do, in terms of actions and/or cognitive processes, to achieve a task objective • Purpose: To create a structure or model to – Describe tasks or activities – Synthesize individual components – Explore design implications • Reference: http://classweb.gmu.edu/ndabbagh/Resources/Resources2/taskanalysis 2.htm 14
  • 15. Terminology of Task Analysis • Goal: Something the user wants to achieve • Task: Series of activities or actions to achieve the goal – Problem solving – Decision making • Action: Simple task without problem solving • Prerequisites: Tasks or conditions needed to be accomplished prior to a specific task • Reference: http://www.usabilitynet.org/tools/taskanalysis.htm 15
  • 16. Techniques for Task Analysis • Common techniques – Hierarchical Task Analysis (HTA) – IDEF0 – Procedural Task Analysis (PTA) • Suggested practices – First use HTA to list out all the tasks needed along with prerequisites in order to achieve the project goal and objectives – Then use IDEF0 to layout the details of individual tasks and their connections – Finally use PTA to sequence individual tasks to determine the schedule (GANTT chart and PERT chart) 16
  • 17. HTA for Prerequisites 17
  • 18. IDEF0 for Task Detailing Constraints/ Boundary conditions Internal or Goal/ external stimulant/ Function to be Final state Initial state Input Control Output simulated Mechanism Resource 18
  • 19. PTA for Information Processing 19
  • 20. Elements of a Project Plan • Goal and objectives • Schedule – Goal describes the big picture – Baseline, milestones, and – Objectives state the necessary checkpoints procedures • Budget • Stakeholders – Estimated cost and allowance – The clients, the sponsors, upper • Risk management management – Worst case scenarios and – Foreseeable benefits and contingency plans deliverables • Assessment plan • Resource management – Measures of project correctness – Arrangement of people, and completeness equipments, materials 20
  • 21. Project Execution and Control • Execution – To better control time, cost, resource, and scope in order to complete the project according to the project plan – To know where the real action is • Monitoring – To find out whether the project is ahead or behind schedule – To investigate why things are happening 21
  • 22. Execute the project to answer… • Who is working on the project? What are the key personnel? How will people be brought into/taken off of the project? • How will the project be completed? What activities will take place to complete each deliverable? • When is the project being completed? What is the schedule for each activity? • Where will the project activities take place? What are the locations? • What are the risks? What are the contingency plans to manage those risks? • How much is the project going to cost? What are the costs for each resource we need (both human and nonhuman)? What is the total cost? • What kind of quality management does the project want to perform? How will quality be monitored? • What subcontractors does the project need? What kinds of contracts will the project use? • How will the project communicate with its staff? With stakeholders? How frequently? 22
  • 23. Project Closing • Project assessment – On time and on budget – Correctness: Whether the project was executed according to the given plan – Completeness: Whether the project was accomplished • Project documentation – Review of project execution – Comparison of original plan and actual plan – Lessons learned (especially those learned from the failures) – Conclusion and outlooks for future opportunities 23
  • 24. Advanced level… • The use of project management software such as Microsoft Project • The issues of cross-culture management • International collaboration 24
  • 25. Conclusion • What project management is • The keywords and their meaning in project management • The general practices of project planning and execution 25
  • 26. Review Questions • What are the constraints of a project? Please discuss in detail within the context of your group project. • What are the procedures to define the scope of a project? Please describe them in detail. • How do you estimate the cost and the schedule for a project? Please use your project planning as an example. • Reference: ProjectConnection.com 26
  • 27. Reference • Horine, G. (2005). Absolute beginner’s guide to project management. Indianapolis, IN: Que • Kerzner, H. (2001). Project management: a systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling. New York: John Wiley • Mooz, H. Forsberg, K., & Catterman, H. (2003). Communicating project management. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons. 27
  • 28. Additional Reading • Professional magazine – Baseline • Case study online – Infogoal – PMForum 28
  • 29. Acknowledgments The author wishes to acknowledge the support from the Society for Manufacturing Engineers - Education Foundation, SME-EF Grant #5004 for “Curriculum Modules in Product Lifecycle Management.” 29

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