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Project Management
Project Management
Project Management
Project Management
Project Management
Project Management
Project Management
Project Management
Project Management
Project Management
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Project Management

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  • 1. Project Management …………………………………………………………………………………… …. Project Management: Beneficial For  Summary The discipline of organizing and managing Persons who would like to Software project management is an umbrella resources in such a way gain knowledge about project activity within software engineering. It begins that these resources management field, project before any technical activity is initiated and deliver all the work team member practitioners continues throughout the definition, required to complete a new to project management, development, and support of computer project within defined and the persons who are software. scope, time, and cost related to project constraints. management team. Four P’s have a substantial influence on software project management—people, Project Manager: product, process, and project. People must A Person related to be organized to perform software work project management effectively. Communication with the customer activities like identifying must occur so that product scope and requirements, establishing requirements are understood. A process clear and achievable must be selected that is appropriate for the objectives, adapting the people and product. The project must be specifications, plans and planned by estimating effort and calendar approach to the different time to accomplish work tasks, defining work concerns and product, establishing quality check points, expectations of various and establishing mechanisms to monitor and stakeholders, balancing control work defined by the plan. the competing demands for quality, scope, time …………………………………………………………………………………… and cost, etc… …. Triple Constraints: Introduction Project managers often talk of a ―triple constraint‖ Project management is the discipline of organizing and managing resources in such a – project scope, time and way that these resources deliver all the work required to complete a project within cost – in managing defined scope, time, and cost constraints. A project is a temporary and one-time competing project endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service. This property of being a requirements. Project temporary and a one-time undertaking contrast with processes, or operations, which quality is affected by are permanent or semi-permanent ongoing functional work to create the same product balancing these three or service over-and-over again. The management of these two systems is often very factors. different and requires varying technical skills and philosophy, hence requiring the development of project management. The Critical path: Project consists of a set of The first challenge of project management is ensuring that a project is delivered within tasks which need to be the defined constraints. The second, more ambitious, challenge is the optimized completed first; the critical allocation and integration of the inputs needed to meet those pre-defined objectives. path represents the The project, therefore, is a carefully selected set of activities chosen to use resources minimum such set, the (time, money, people, materials, energy, space, provisions, communication, quality, critical set. risk, etc.) to meet the pre-defined objectives. Copyright 2006-2012 OTS Solutions Pvt. Ltd: an Offshore Software Development company info@otssolutions.com
  • 2. Key Features The Project Manager Project Management: The discipline of Project management is quite often the province and responsibility of an individual organizing and managing project manager. This individual seldom participates directly in the activities that resources in such a way produce the end result, but rather strives to maintain the progress and productive that these resources mutual interaction of various parties in such a way that overall risk of failure is reduced. deliver all the work required to complete a A project manager is often a client representative and has to determine and implement project within defined the exact needs of the client based on knowledge of the firm he/she is representing. scope, time, and cost The ability to adapt to the various internal procedures of the contracting party, and to constraints. form close links with the nominated representatives, is essential in ensuring that the key issues of cost, time, quality and above all, client satisfaction, can be realized. Project Manager: A Person related to In whatever field, a successful project manager must be able to envisage the entire project management project from start to finish and to have the ability to ensure that this vision is realized. activities like identifying requirements, establishing Any type of product or service - buildings, vehicles, electronics, computer software, clear and achievable financial services, etc. - may have its implementation overseen by a project manager objectives, adapting the and its operations by a product manager. specifications, plans and approach to the different According to Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide), the project concerns and manager is the person responsible for accomplishing the project objectives, managing expectations of various a project includes: stakeholders, balancing the competing demands  Identifying requirements for quality, scope, time  Establishing clear and achievable objectives and cost, etc…  Balancing the competing demands for quality, scope, time and cost  Adapting the specifications, plans and approach to the different concerns Triple Constraints: and expectations of various stakeholders. Project managers often talk of a ―triple constraint‖ Project managers often talk of a ―triple constraint‖ – project scope, time and cost – in – project scope, time and managing competing project requirements. Project quality is affected by balancing cost – in managing these three factors. High quality projects deliver the required product, service or result competing project within scope, on time and within budget. The relationship among these factors is such requirements. Project that if any one of three factors changes, at least one other factor is likely to be affected. quality is affected by Project managers also manage projects in response to uncertainty. Project risk is balancing these three uncertain event or condition that, it occurs, has positive or negative effect on at least factors. one project objective. The Critical path: Project consists of a set of tasks which need to be completed first; the critical path represents the minimum such set, the critical set. Copyright 2006-2012 OTS Solutions Pvt. Ltd: an Offshore Software Development company info@otssolutions.com
  • 3. Scope Triangle Key Features Like any human undertaking, projects Project Management: need to be performed and delivered under The discipline of certain constraints. Traditionally, these organizing and managing constraints have been listed as: scope, resources in such a way time, and cost. This is also referred to as that these resources the Project Management Triangle where Time deliver all the work each side represents a constraint. This required to complete a triangle illustrates the relationship between project within defined three primary forces in a project. Time is scope, time, and cost the available time to deliver the project, Cost Quality constraints. cost represents the amount of money or resources available and quality represents Project Manager: the ―fit-to-purpose‖ that the project must A Person related to project management activities like identifying achieve to be a success. The normal situation is that one of these factors is fixed and the requirements, establishing other two will vary in inverse proportion to each other. For example ―Time‖ is often fixed clear and achievable and the ―Quality‖ of the end product will depend on the ―Cost‖ or resources available. objectives, adapting the Similarly if you are working to a fixed level of ―Quality‖ then the ―Cost‖ of the project will specifications, plans and largely be dependent upon the ―Time‖ available (if you have longer you can do it with fewer approach to the different people). concerns and expectations of various A phenomenon known as ―scope creep‖ can be linked to the triangle too. Scope creep is stakeholders, balancing the almost unstoppable tendency a project has to accumulate new functionality. Some the competing demands scope creep is inevitable since, early on; your project will be poorly defined and will need to for quality, scope, time evolve. A large amount of scope creep however can be disastrous. When the scope starts and cost, etc… to creep, new functionality must be added to cover the increased scope. This is represented by the quality arm of the triangle, representing the ability of the ‗product‘ to Triple Constraints: fulfill users‘ requirements. More requirements fulfilled = a better quality product. In this Project managers often situation you have three and only three options: talk of a ―triple constraint‖ – project scope, time and 1. Add time – delay the project to give you more time to add the functionality cost – in managing 2. Add cost – recruit, hire or acquire more people to do the extra work competing project 3. Cut quality – trade off some non-essential requirements for the new requirements requirements. Project quality is affected by balancing these three If the art of management lies in making decisions, then the art of project management lies factors. in making decisions quickly! When faced with scope creep you cannot ignore it. You need to tackle it in one of the ways described above (more later) and the sooner the better. The Critical path: Delaying raises the risk of your project failing. A poor project manager will see the scope Project consists of a set of triangle as a strait-jacket by which their project is irrevocably constrained. tasks which need to be completed first; the critical A better project manager will make better use of one or more of the axes and will shift the path represents the emphasis in the project to one of the other axes. The best project managers will juggle all minimum such set, the three like hot potatoes and will make decisions every day which effectively trade-off time critical set. vs. quality vs. resources. Project life cycle is shown in following figure: Copyright 2006-2012 OTS Solutions Pvt. Ltd: an Offshore Software Development company info@otssolutions.com
  • 4. Key Features Project Management: The discipline of organizing and managing resources in such a way that these resources deliver all the work required to complete a project within defined scope, time, and cost constraints. Project Manager: A Person related to project management activities like identifying requirements, establishing clear and achievable objectives, adapting the specifications, plans and approach to the different The Critical Path concerns and expectations of various Another important concept in planning projects is that of the critical path. If a project stakeholders, balancing consists of a set of tasks which need to be completed, the critical path represents the the competing demands minimum such set, the critical set. This might seem to be a contradiction since you might for quality, scope, time think completion of all tasks is necessary to complete a project; after all, if they weren‘t and cost, etc… necessary they wouldn‘t be part of your project, would they? The critical path represents not the ideal set of tasks to be complete for your project, but the minimum set. It is this path Triple Constraints: that you must traverse in order to reach completion of your project on time. Other tasks Project managers often while important to overall completion do not impact upon the final delivery for the project. talk of a ―triple constraint‖ They can therefore be rescheduled if time is tight or circumstances change. Tasks on your – project scope, time and critical path however will affect the delivery time of the project and therefore should only be cost – in managing modified in extremis. In the following example the critical path is represented in bold. competing project requirements. Project quality is affected by balancing these three factors. The Critical path: Project consists of a set of tasks which need to be completed first; the critical path represents the minimum such set, the critical set. evident truths about project management. Copyright 2006-2012 OTS Solutions Pvt. Ltd: an Offshore Software Development company info@otssolutions.com
  • 5. Key Features Project Management: The discipline of Start Breakfast organizing and managing resources in such a way that these resources deliver all the work required to complete a project within defined scope, time, and cost constraints. Heat oil in Project Manager: frying pan A Person related to project management activities like identifying requirements, establishing clear and achievable objectives, adapting the specifications, plans and approach to the different Fry bacon and concerns and Make toast Sausages expectations of various stakeholders, balancing the competing demands for quality, scope, time and cost, etc… Triple Constraints: Project managers often Scramble eggs Wash plates talk of a ―triple constraint‖ – project scope, time and cost – in managing competing project requirements. Project quality is affected by balancing these three factors. The Critical path: Project consists of a set of tasks which need to be completed first; the critical path represents the minimum such set, the Serve critical set. constraints. 10 Axioms: Nick Jenkins (Pioneer in project management) has been suggested 10 self Copyright 2006-2012 OTS Solutions Pvt. Ltd: an Offshore Software Development company info@otssolutions.com
  • 6. Key Features In order to complete my project of cooking breakfast I have to go through the steps of frying bacon and sausages and scrambling eggs. The tasks ―make toast‖ and ―wash Project Management: plates‖, while important, are not time-dependent or as critical as the other three tasks. I The discipline of can move either of those tasks but if I try to move anything on the critical path its going to organizing and managing delay the project. Ideally I‘d like to have toast with my breakfast but a) it‘s not essential resources in such a way and b) it doesn‘t matter where in the process it happens. If I make toast before or after that these resources scrambling my bacon, it makes little difference to the overall result. On the other hand I deliver all the work can hardly fry my bacon before the oil is hot, nor can I scramble my eggs before frying required to complete a my bacon (they‘d turn to glue). The critical path represents the critical sequence of events project within defined which must occur if I want to successfully complete my project. Normally major scope, time, and cost 'milestones' will be represented on the critical path and they will often occur when constraints. different threads of the project come together. For example in the diagram to the right my only milestone is when I serve the completed breakfast. At this point I will have finished Project Manager: my preparations and completed everything on both tracks. This is represented by a A Person related to diamond in the diagram above. If I suddenly discovered I was late for work, I could project management cheerfully discard the optional ―toast‖ component of my project, take the critical path activities like identifying instead and still achieve my original milestone of delivering breakfast (and maybe even requirements, establishing make it to work on time!). clear and achievable objectives, adapting the specifications, plans and approach to the different Basic Principles for Successful Project Management concerns and expectations of various Nick Jenkins (Pioneer in project management) has been suggested following self stakeholders, balancing evident truths about project management: the competing demands for quality, scope, time I. Know your goal and cost, etc… It may sound obvious, but if you don‘t have an end-point in mind you‘ll never get there. You should be able to clearly state the goal of your project in a single sentence. If you Triple Constraints: can't, your chance of achieving it is slim. Project managers often talk of a ―triple constraint‖ II. Know your team – project scope, time and Your team is the most important resource you have available and their enthusiastic cost – in managing contribution will make or break your project. Look after them and make sure the team competing project operates as a unit and not as a collection of individuals. Communications are vital! Invest requirements. Project time in promoting trust and ensuring that everyone knows what they have to contribute to quality is affected by the bigger picture. Dish out reward as well as criticism, provide superior working balancing these three conditions and lead by example. factors. The Critical path: III. Know your stakeholders Project consists of a set of Spend time with your stakeholders. Stakeholders either contribute expert knowledge offer tasks which need to be their political or commercial endorsement which will be essential to success. Shake completed first; the critical hands and kiss babies as necessary and grease the wheels of the bureaucratic machine path represents the so that your project has the smoothest ride possible. minimum such set, the critical set. IV. Spend time on planning and design A traditional mistake is to leap before you are ready. When you‘re under pressure to and managing resources deliver, the temptation is to ‗get the ball rolling‘. The ball is big and heavy and it's very, in such a way that these very difficult to change its direction once it gets moving. So spend some time deciding resources deliver all the exactly how you‘re going to solve your problem in the most efficient and elegant way. work required to complete a project within defined scope, time, and cost Copyright 2006-2012 OTS Solutions Pvt. Ltd: an Offshore Software Development company info@otssolutions.com
  • 7. Key Features V. Promise low and deliver high Try and deliver happy surprises and not unpleasant ones. By promising low Project Management: Key Features (understating your goals) and delivering high (delivering more than your promised) you: The discipline of organizing and managing • Build confidence in yourself, the project and the team resources in such a way • Buy yourself contingency in the event that something goes wrong that these resources • Generate a positive and receptive atmosphere deliver all the work required to complete a Consider : if everything goes right you will finish early everyone will be happy; if project within defined something goes wrong you might still finish on time ; if things goes really badly you scope, time, and cost might still not deliver what you anticipated but it will still be better than if you over- constraints. promised! Project Manager: VI. Iterate! Increment! Evolve! A Person related to Most problems worth solving are too big to swallow in one lump. Any serious project project management will require some kind of decomposition of the problem in order to solve it. You must activities like identifying pay close attention to how each piece fits the overall solution. Without a systematic requirements, establishing approach you end up with a hundred different solutions instead of one big one. clear and achievable objectives, adapting the specifications, plans and VII. Stay on track approach to the different You have an end goal in mind. You need to work methodically towards the goal and concerns and provide leadership (make decisions). This applies whether you‘re a senior project expectations of various manager with a team of 20 or you‘re a lone web developer. Learn to use tools like stakeholders, balancing schedules and budgets to stay on track. Consistency is what separates professionals the competing demands from amateurs. for quality, scope, time and cost, etc… VIII. Manage change We live in a changing world. As your project progresses, the temptation to deviate from Triple Constraints: the plan will become irresistible. Stakeholders will come up with new and ‗interesting‘ Project managers often ideas, your team will bolt down all kinds of rat holes and your original goal will have all talk of a ―triple constraint‖ the permanence of a snowflake in quicksand. Scope creep or drift is a major source of – project scope, time and project failure and you need to manage or control changes if you want to succeed. cost – in managing competing project This doesn‘t imply that there should be single, immutable plan which is written down requirements. Project and all other ideas must be stifled. You need to build a flexible approach that absorbs quality is affected by changes as they arise. It‘s a happy medium you‘re striving for - if you are too flexible balancing these three your project will meander like a horse without a rider and if you are too rigid your factors. project will shatter like a pane of glass the first time a stakeholder tosses you a new The Critical path: requirement. Project consists of a set of tasks which need to be IX. Test Early, Test Often completed first; the critical Projects involve creative disciplines burdened with assumptions and mistakes. Sure path represents the you can do a lot of valuable work to prevent mistakes being introduced, but to err is minimum such set, the human and some of errors will make it into your finished product. Testing is the best critical set. way to find and eliminate errors. Project Management: The discipline of organizing and managing resources in such a way that these resources deliver all the work required to complete a project within defined scope, time, and cost constraints. Copyright 2006-2012 OTS Solutions Pvt. Ltd: an Offshore Software Development company 10 Axioms: info@otssolutions.com Nick Jenkins (Pioneer in project management) has been suggested 10 self
  • 8. Key Features X. Keep an open mind! Be flexible! The desired outcome is the delivery of the finished project to a customer Project Management: who is satisfied with the result. Any means necessary can be used to achieve this and The discipline of every rule listed above can be broken in the right circumstances, for the right reasons. organizing and managing resources in such a way Don‘t get locked into an ideology if the circumstances dictate otherwise. that these resources Don‘t get blinded by methodology. deliver all the work Follow your head. required to complete a project within defined Focus on delivering the project and use all the tools and people available to you. Keep scope, time, and cost an eye on the schedule and adjust your expectations and your plan to suit the constraints. conditions. Deliver the finished product, promote its use, and celebrate your success and then move on to the next project. Project Manager: A Person related to project management References : activities like identifying requirements, establishing Project Management Associations: clear and achievable Several national and professional associations exist which has as their aim the objectives, adapting the promotion and development of project management and the project management specifications, plans and profession. The most prominent associations include: approach to the different concerns and  The Association for Project Management (UK) (APM) expectations of various stakeholders, balancing  The Australian Institute of Project Management (AIPM) the competing demands for quality, scope, time  The International Project Management Association (IPMA) and cost, etc…  The Project Management Institute (PMI) Triple Constraints: Project managers often  The International Association of Project and Program Management (IAPPM) talk of a ―triple constraint‖ – project scope, time and  The International Project Management Commission (IPMC) cost – in managing competing project requirements. Project International Standards quality is affected by balancing these three  A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide) factors. The Critical path:  APM Body of Knowledge 5th ed. (APM - Association for Project Management Project consists of a set of (UK)) tasks which need to be completed first; the critical  PRINCE2 (Projects IN a Controlled Environment) path represents the minimum such set, the  P2M (A guidebook of Project & Program Management for Enterprise critical set. Innovation, Japanese third-generation project management method) 10 Axioms:  V-Modell (German project management method) Nick Jenkins (Pioneer in project management) has  HERMES (The Swiss general project management method, selected for use in been suggested 10 self Luxembourg and international organizations) evident truths about project management.  OPM3 Copyright 2006-2012 OTS Solutions Pvt. Ltd: an Offshore Software Development company info@otssolutions.com
  • 9. Key Features Professional Certifications Project Management:  ISO 10006:1997, Quality management - Guidelines to quality in project The discipline of management organizing and managing resources in such a way  CPM ([The International Association of Project & Program Management]) that these resources deliver all the work  ISEB Project Management Syllabus required to complete a project within defined  JPACE (Justify, Plan, Activate, Control, and End - The James Martin Method scope, time, and cost for Managing Projects (1981-present)) constraints. Project Manager:  Project Management Professional, Certified Associate in Project Management. A Person related to PMI certifications project management activities like identifying requirements, establishing clear and achievable objectives, adapting the specifications, plans and approach to the different concerns and expectations of various stakeholders, balancing the competing demands for quality, scope, time and cost, etc… Triple Constraints: Project managers often talk of a ―triple constraint‖ – project scope, time and cost – in managing competing project requirements. Project quality is affected by balancing these three factors. The Critical path: Project consists of a set of tasks which need to be completed first; the critical path represents the minimum such set, the critical set. 10 Axioms: Nick Jenkins (Pioneer in project management) has been suggested 10 self evident truths about project management. Copyright 2006-2012 OTS Solutions Pvt. Ltd: an Offshore Software Development company info@otssolutions.com
  • 10. About OTS Solutions OTS Solutions is one of the leading offshore software development service providers, offering an array of IT related services to its clients across the globe. Since our inception, we have steadily grown into a reputed provider of high-quality and cost-effective software development services. Our ability to evolve continuously and flexible approach towards the dynamic business world has helped us to gain success in short span of time. Today, OTS provides offshore as well as onsite software development services to its clients across the globe. Copyright 2006-2012 OTS Solutions Pvt. Ltd: an Offshore Software Development company info@otssolutions.com

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