INTRODUCTION TO PROJECT MANAGEMENT PROCESSES, TOOLS, & TECHNIQUES PREPARED & PRESENTED BY THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE PITTSBURGH CHAPTER
Projects are only successful when started well
The objective of this seminar is to introduce the key project management processes, tools, and techniques presented in A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK ® Guide) 2000 Edition, the Project Management Institute’s (PMI ® ) sanctioned standards for Project Management Professional (PMP ® ) Certification. PMBOK 9 KNOWLEDGE AREAS PMI” is a service and trademark, “PMP” is a certification mark, and “PMBOK” is a trademark of the Project Management Institute, Inc. which are all registered in the United States and other nations. SCOPE TIME COST QUALITY INTEGRATION RISK COMMUNICA- TIONS PROCUREMENT HUMAN RESOURCES
Using the PMBOK processes, knowledge areas, and definitions, this seminar introduces and demonstrates some proven, practical tools/techniques that are applied for managing projects. The PMBOK five (5) major project management (PM) processes, including Project Initiating, Planning, Executing, Controlling, and Closing, serve as the framework for presentation of this seminar. Reference: Provil & Associates’ Seminar “Essentials for Effective Project Management” at www.iet.duq.edu
It is important to note that these 5 major PM processes are iterative and over-lapping throughout the project life cycle. They are not one-at-a-time, step-by-step processes. For example, Project Planning is not a one-time process. Planning is an iterative process that becomes more detailed and refined as the project progresses. In addition, these processes may overlap throughout the project life cycle, as illustrated above. Depending on the nature of the project, it may be necessary to repeat these processes over periods of time and at varying levels of effort throughout the project. In fact, these processes are usually reiterated within each phase of the project life cycle. Reference: Integrated Management Associates’ Seminar “A Practical Approach to Planning & Controlling Projects” at www.iet.duq.edu
Above is the outline for presentation of this seminar. Following is a list of key deliverables (i.e. tools/techniques) that will be introduced and provided throughout this seminar, including but not limited to: Project Communications Plan Project Charter Sample Responsibility Matrix Sample Risk Log Budget Worksheet Project Change Request Project Report Scope Change Request Project Archives Checklist Formal Acceptance & Closure Meeting Agenda Planner Project Issues & Changes Log
Projects are only successful when started well
Above is the PMBOK definition of a project. More specifically, a project is defined as a temporary endeavor that consumes resources, incurs cost, and produces deliverables over a finite period of time to achieve a specific goal(s). What are the three (3) basic reasons (i.e. general root causes) why we create projects? Projects come in various types and sizes. They may vary in length or complexity, but the above mentioned definition of a project applies to all of them. Projects are distinguished by having a finite start and end date. Project managers should be able to prioritize work based on their ability to forecast the end date for the project. Reference: Integrated Management Associates’ Seminar “A Practical Approach to Planning & Controlling Projects” at www.iet.duq.edu
Operation activities are similar to project activities, because they also produce deliverables, consume resources and incur costs. However, they are on-going or repetitive in nature, which distinguishes them from project activities/tasks. What are some examples of operation activities? Reference: Integrated Management Associates’ Seminar “A Practical Approach to Planning & Controlling Projects” at www.iet.duq.edu
Programs are made up of many projects as well as ongoing operation type activities, including repetitive/cyclical activities such as administration, routine maintenance work, material warehousing, etc. Programs are funded typically on a fiscal year basis. Project funding is generally more time (i.e. duration) focused. The tools and techniques presented in this seminar are typically applied to planning and managing projects. However, many of the planning and management concepts presented can be extended to the development and management of programs. Reference: Integrated Management Associates’ Seminar “A Practical Approach to Planning & Controlling Projects” at www.iet.duq.edu
Like any profession, project management is the combination of both: 1. and 2. Reference: Provil & Associates’ Seminar “Essentials for Effective Project Management” at www.iet.duq.edu
Some key benefits derived from implementing project management are listed above. These benefits may vary across industries, businesses within industries, organizations within businesses as well as programs/projects within organizations. Reference: Provil & Associates Seminar’ “Essentials for Effective Project Management” at www.iet.duq.edu
Likewise, the liabilities derived from implementing project management may be very subjective. Reference: Provil & Associates’ Seminar “Essentials for Effective Project Management” at www.iet.duq.edu
What is the most significant and, perhaps, the most challenging responsibility of the Project Manager? How does a Project Manager ensure successful accomplishment of this key role/responsibility? Reference: Integrated Management Associates’ Seminar “A Practical Approach to Planning & Controlling Projects” at www.iet.duq.edu
The PMBOK Definition of a Stakeholder includes Individuals or Organizations who: Are actively involved in the project. Or 2. May be positively or negatively affected by the project. Or May exert influence over the project and its results. What are some tools that best serve to support more effective communications to project stakeholders? Reference: Provil & Associates’ Seminar “A Practical Approach to Projects Communications Management” at www.iet.duq.edu
The PMBOK recognizes that every project should have a Communication Management Plan (CMP), which includes the following: Project Stakeholders Contact Listing Data / Information Collection & Filing Information / Reports Listing Reports Content & Formats Reports Production Schedules Methods for Information / Report Access Method for Updating the CMP For more practical application, we recommend application of a simple Project Communications Plan, including listings of all key project contacts, meetings, and reports (see Deliverable – PROJECT COMM PLAN Spreadsheet). Reference: Provil & Associates’ Seminar “A Practical Approach to Projects Communications Management” at www.iet.duq.edu
How is Project Success measured in your organization? Reference: Provil & Associates’ Seminar “Essentials for Effective Project Management” at www.iet.duq.edu
Project success or failure is determined by the outcome of the project variables, including: Scope : Simply stated: The deliverable(s) and the work to be done, represented by the end product as well as all the necessary work activities/tasks to produce it. Time : The time frame or duration for the project represented by the total time elapsed between the defined start and end date of the project as well as individual project milestones/events. Cost : The project budget, simply represented by the available funding for the project. Resources : Represented by the human resources, materials and/or equipment necessary to deliver the project. Quality : The performance criteria of the end product, represented by the expectations of the customer/end-user(s). In order to have any chance of achieving project success, the project manager and the project team must understand the key stakeholder’s expectation/ranking of these project variables. Reference: Integrated Management Associates’ Seminar “A Practical Approach to Planning & Controlling Projects” at www.iet.duq.edu
There are three (3) basic ways that organization’s organize to perform projects, including: The Functional Project Team Organization The Matrixed Project Team Organization’ The Projectized Team Organization In the following pages, we’ll discuss each approach, including the advantages and disadvantages of each. Reference: Integrated Management Associates’ Seminar “A Practical Approach to Planning & Controlling Projects” at www.iet.duq.edu
In this type of organization structure resources are grouped by functional units or disciplines. Project leadership is executed by designated leaders within each discipline, typically referred to as Project Coordinators. What are the advantages of the Functional Project Team? What are the potential disadvantages? Reference: Integrated Management Associates’ Seminar “A Practical Approach to Planning & Controlling Projects” at www.iet.duq.edu
In this type of organizational structure, resources are also grouped by their functional skills or discipline, however, work is primarily accomplished through application of a cross-functional project team. A project manager / project leader is assigned to each project. This individual is usually responsible for the successful delivery of the project. What are the advantages of a Matrix Project Organization? What are the potential disadvantages? Reference: Integrated Management Associates’ Seminar “A Practical Approach to Planning & Controlling Projects” at www.iet.duq.edu
In the projectized organization the focus of all resources is on “the project”. Typically, resources are assigned full-time to one project, and one project only. The project manager has overall responsibility for the project scope, budget, quality, schedule, and resources (i.e. the project variables). What are the advantages of a Projectized Organization? What are the potential disadvantages? Reference: Integrated Management Associates’ Seminar “A Practical Approach to Planning & Controlling Projects” at www.iet.duq.edu
In many organizations, there may be application of various project organization approaches, including Functional, Matrix, and Projectized Organizations. Furthermore, it is not unusual to find hybrid approaches, as well. Reference: Integrated Management Associates’ Seminar “A Practical Approach to Planning & Controlling Projects” at www.iet.duq.edu
Projects are only successful when started well
Describe each of the process groups and where initiation fits into thepicture Be sure to describe how each phase of a project my have initiation in it Figure 3-1 2000 PMBOK Helps keep project focused on business needs by initiating at the begining of each phase
Project Management Framework - Slide 41 Describe each section and explain how this works
Limiting scope helps make a project more successful Chaos report from standish group states that any project over $3 M has 0% chance of success
Pass out or reference template for project proposal Add graphic
Project Management Framework Slide 28
This is a sample work breakdown structure. When creating the WBS start with the goal and start breaking it down into Smaller & smaller deliverables. After you’ve identified your deliverable, list the activities that must be done to complete that deliverable. Deliverables define WHAT you are going to do Activities define HOW you are going to accomplish it A WBS does not show the sequence in which work is performed. That will come later, the idea at this point is just to break it down. The WBS can highlight missing items. Hierarchical view is typically seen on a wall with stickies At this point address level of detial to be included in a WBS. Level of detail to allow you to estimate time and cost and assign a resource.
Use Post-it Notes to construct a WBS with the class participating. - Post the goal at the top = “Build a garage for …” (Pick someone from the class) - Facilitate the class to brainstorm the deliverables and activities to build a garage. * Deliverables = Nouns Activities = Verbs
This would be a good time to give an example. Ask the class how long it takes to make a 3 minute egg. Direct them to all of the tasks required to prepare, cook, and clean-up from the egg. This show the value of breaking down the work (WBS) then estimating.
PERT – Program Evaluation & Review Technique This is just one part of PERT –.
Point out that “resources” is ALL resources – work as well as material in scheduling tool
Discuss what this is and why you care. Critical Path is: The longest path through a project network Determines the project finish date. The set of activities on a single path that have zero or the smallest float Critical Path Benefits All activities on the critical path MUST be completed as scheduled or the project slips! Focuses the project team’s efforts Critical Path shifts during execution If all the float is used up on an activity, it becomes part of the critical path
Fast tracking – Compressing the project schedule by overlapping activities that would normally be done in sequence. Crashing – Decreasing the duration – how to get the maximum duration compression for the least cost. (like adding resources) Talk to the point that doing this introduces risk into the project - you as a PM just need to be aware of it and ensure that it is acceptable to the team and the stakeholders.
Speak to the fact that every company has its own method for budget planning. In addition, government contracts have their own requirements. What we are introducing here is one technique to help more accurately identify tangible items that should be included in the budget.
Emphasize that this is an estimate. Just like the schedule.
Do mention that Microsoft Project can also be a place to record and monitor the project budget.
Good afternoon! My name is Susan Keaney and I’m here today to talk about 2 of my favorite subjects…execution and control! We’ve initiated and planned our project – now it’s time to get down to business and “just do it”! It may seem like a maze to many of you, but when you understand the tools of the trade, you’ll be able to navigate your project’s twists and turns effectively and productively!
Just an overall reminder of where we are in the overall PM lifecycle….
Now that we’ve planned the project, it’s time to enter into the next phase – and that deals with the actual execution of the project. This is where you actually start working on the project and working towards achieving the milestones and creating the deliverables associated with the project.
You will recall that Sam provided an example of a Communications Plan earlier today….your Communications Plan can be in any form, any tool that you feel comfortable in using. We’ve provided a template in your deliverables “take away” to help you develop your own format.
Here’s another example of a communications plan – it explains who gets what/when and who is responsible for providing the information. It doesn’t have to be an elaborate tool/plan – this was done as an Excel spreadsheet! The important thing is to have one and to use it!
The answer is not just to hold more meetings! How many meetings do you attend in just one week? The average PM attends XX.
Solicit other ideas from attendees – what other ideas have they used or have seen used that seemed to work well?
Ok – let’s go back to our working project. We’re now going to construct a Communications Plan for our garage project. Let’s break back into our teams and take 10 minutes to develop a Plan for our project. We’ll then get back together and share our plans….
This is a HUGE responsibility for both the PM and the team….. Team members MUST be comfortable to raise issues and/or potential issues; it is not acceptable to “ignore the moose on the table” Many people are afraid to raise an issue and appear that they can’t resolve it themselves….the PM needs to ensure that he/she establishes an open communications “policy” so that issues can be identified and resolved early on – before they cause significant damage or impact to the project. Process for issue identification needs to be reviewed with the team and documented so that as issues arise, team members know what to do…. Now, what happens if you or your team cannot resolve the issue yourself? Let’s talk about issue escalation…
Sometimes teams can’t resolve issues on their own – this can be due to a variety of reasons (limited resources, competing priorities, etc) These issues need to be raised and escalated so that they can be resolved quickly and in a timely manner…again, so that project progress is not impeded and that client expectations can be met/managed. This flow chart illustrates the escalation process at a company I consulted for. Let’s briefly walk through it to ensure that we all understand how/when issues need to be escalated. How do we define “significant”? You’ll need to decide for your project; it could be 1 day, 1 week or even an hour!
Now let’s move on to the subject of project control – some people are bothered by the “control” word so it you’d prefer, you can think about this section as the management portion of your project.
The basic concept behind all project management is understanding the triple constraint… .Talk about balancing the triangle and having a complete triangle. Successful projects may be defined many different ways – Some companies aren’t as concerned with the costs as with the time. Others must keep the costs to a minimum and are willing to allow the schedule to slip if needed. You must work with your clients to determine what their definition of success is.
Purpose What changes are potentially beneficial ? Key Point Stress the importance of identifying a real change (test that doesn’t go as planned) or a requested change (I need the inner diameter of the pipe to be ¾” not ½” NOW) , as soon as possible
Tie in to requirements definition discussion later in session…..
You and your team need to know the impacts of a proposed change on your project so that you can make the “right” decision. You may need to go back to your project sponsor or the customer and to do so, you must be able to tell them the potential impacts ($$ and time)
One thing your project needs to have is a formalized change control system…. What is it?
Be careful about responding to oral requests. Initial request can be made orally but it MUST be documented!
Performance reports == “dare to open your kimono” Top question – should be addressed in your project communications plan Performance reports can be indicative that something is wrong on the project and that changes need to be made – ie., are we chronically behind schedule? Are milestones being missed – and why? Was there a change that we did not anticipate (and was it documented?!)
Project performance/status reports can take a lot of forms – here’s an example of one for your consideration. We’ve provided this in your deliverables package… Your project performance/status report needs to address what is important to your stakeholders, your client, your sponsor, etc.
The major input into your change control system is a change request form. Here’s an example of a change request form…we’ve included it in your package of deliverables for your consideration and potential use on your projects.
Let’s spend some time discussing scope control in a little more depth…..
Here is a proposed change control process for your consideration…..
As you might suspect, change control and communications are tightly interwoven. Here’s an example of a communications “hierarchy” for a change control process/procedure…..
Another thing you need to consider is “how high is high” when you are setting your priorities….the criteria need to be identified and documented to ensure all team members understand.
Now let’s move on to the subject of scope creep – this is different from a formal change request…and it is much more difficult to control! I’m working with a company right now who is really struggling with this because they constantly want to make their product “better” --
Can you think of instances on your project where this has occurred? What were the consequences? Who “paid” for the enhancements?
So, how do we avoid scope creep? First line of defense – identifying, understanding and documenting ALL project requirements. That includes ALL stakeholders!
Another way to control scope creep is through the establishment and use of baselines.
This is HUGE!
Once you have a solid requirements document (this can be in the form of a formal requirements document, technical/functional specification or even a requirements log in Excel), in order for it to be effective and help you control scope creep, it must be reviewed and signed off by your key stakeholders – who might you want to sign-off on this? Discuss who and why they might be important….
Another key element of project control is the area of Risk Management. I want to refresh your memory from earlier this morning – Jack spoke about the importance of your project risk plan. I want to bring this up again because you often need your risk plan while you are executing/controlling your project. Your risk plan should not become “shelf ware” – it needs to be revisited throughout the life of your project to ensure that it is applicable and ready to be implemented should one of your identified risks occur.
Look at your risk plan to determine what has changed since you created it? What do you know now that you didn’t know then? Make adjustments to your plan…it should be a living breathing document and a vital part of your overall project plan.
OK, you’ve been sitting a long time now – let’s now try and put all of this theory into practice. Your garage project is coming along – the walls are up, the pad is poured and suddenly……. Let’s take 10 minutes and decide how you would manage this change request…..Please be prepared to share your response with the other groups when we reconvene….
Thank them for their time…. Complex subjects – we could spend entire days on the topics of execution and control. References provided at end of our literature. We’ll also talk more about how you can get additional assistance and information at the conclusion of our training today. This concludes my portion of the session. Any questions?????? I’d now like to introduce Betsy who will talk about the Project Closing Phase of the PM lifecycle…. Betsy……
Projects are only successful when started well
1. ALL 5 PROCESS AREAS USED IN EACH PHASE OF PROJECT JUST ENOUGH PROCESS JUST IN TIME ANSWERS QUESTIONS ABOUT THE PROJECT - WHAT WE DID, WHEN, WHY , WHOM, HOW THE 4 P’s OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT – PEOPLE PERFORMING PERFECT PROCESS 3. ESSENCE OF MY PRESENTATION – THE CLOSING PROCESS INFORMS ON OPERATIONAL RESULTS & PREDICTS FUTURE PROJECT PERFORMANCE 4. HELPS PM MOVE FROM REACTIVE…..CREATIVE REACTIVE RECATIVE RCEATIVE CREATIVE From Sam’s Introduction WHY WE DO PROJECTS? – FIX A PROBLEM EXLORE AN OPPORTUNITY MEET A BUSINESS NEED
This section will focus on the final PMI Process Group – Closing Mention this is following previous sections: SAM – INTRODUCTION; MIKE – INITIATING; JACK – PLANNING; SUSAN – EXECUTING & CONTROLLING Arrows represents flow of documents and documentable items
1. Project Closure is a Prime Process from PMBOK 2. Two Parts: Contract and Administrative 3. Contract can be both internal and external – get examples of each 4. TEMPLATES AVAILABLE IN YOUR HANDOUTS – - ARCHIEVE CHECK LIST - FORMAL CONTRACT ACCEPTANCE AND CLOSE OUT
Administrative Close Out – INCLUDES CELEBRATION Collect project records – for each phase/process and is on-going through out entire project - place where records go can include web repository - WHEN CLOSE OUT IS DONE AS PART OF EACH PHASE, DON’T NEED ENTIRE PROEJCT TEAM TO DO THIS PHASE - IF NOT DON’T AS PART OF EACH PHASE, GET OUTPUT FROM EACH TEAM MEMBER – THESE ARE THE DELIVERABLES OF THE PROJECT 3. Lessons Learned includes best practices, identification & capture & dissemination to stakeholders 4. Remember Cultural Awareness of your organization is key to success 5. ON PUNCH LIST – MANY PMs CREATE FOR EACH PHASE & KEEP IT A DYNAMIC DOCUMENT THROUGHOUT LIFE OF PROJECT
Contract Close Out is often captured in legal documents - FORMAL - LEGAL - WRITTEN 2. May include looking at a review of procurement process
EXERCISE – IF TIME PERMTIS – ask them to tell me what Inputs/Tools & Techniques/Outputs they created/used for the Garage Project Key Message: Each phase of project generates outputs which are part of the Closing process What you put in = what you put out as archives, project records All project records signed off internally & w/end-user Signed contract documents w/ end-user; payment - S/W delivered, Eq. Installed, etc. 6. Documented Lesson Learned to S. Mgmt Looking for continuous improvement by - Application of lessons learned, i.e., co-location, >regression testing, >customer mtgs w/Account Mgr. MISSING DOCUMENTATION = VAPOR PAPER EXPERT = PERSON FORMALLY ASSIGNED RESPONSIBILITY FOR THAT AREA; OR, THE MONTY PYTHON DEFINITION: “NOT COVERED WITH SHIT” PROJECT MANAGER ALSO BRINGS IN HIS/HER EXPERT JUDGETMENT = YOUR GUT TELLING YOU TO ASK ‘WHY’ ONE MORE TIME’ SET UP MTG’ FOLLOW UP WITH SR. EXEC., ETC.
1. Why This is Important - How to know what you’ve done - How to stay done 2. Reinforces difference between process and project - process – on-going relationship with Customers, Clients - project – linked chain of measured achievements with defined time, defined resources, defined work by defined people 3. Customer Satisfaction Evaluation 4. Lessons Learned Captured 5. You can’t improve it if you can’t measure it 6. # OF PROJECTS THAT FAILED:
9 KNOWLEDGE AREAS APPLIED ACROSS THE 5 PROCESS GROUPS WITHIN YOUR ORG’s. LIFECYCLE GIVE YOUA WAY TO ADDRESS 3 OF THESE 4 REASONS OR 57% OF THE TOTAL - 38% Scope Creep through use of the documentation of what we are doing & why - 11% Project Team Politics through use of the discipline of agendas, deliverables - 8% of lack of resources through showing plan, responsibilities matrix, scope of work 2. AND, WITH PRACTICE, ADDRESS THE REMAINING ISSUE BY GIVING YOU A WAY TO SPEAK TO THE EXECUTIVE SPONSOR(s) - 43% Inadequate Executive Sponsorship through signed off, approval of scope, project plan, changes
Closing – Why Hard to Get Speaking Truth to Power – Robert J. Grapham “Prject Maangement a if People Matter” Nature of Engineers – to find the perfect solution…Just give me a little longer and I’ll get it I’M ALREADY ASSIGNED TO MY NEXT PROJECT Hard Skills = 9 PMBOK business areas; the ‘science’ of project mgmt Soft Skills = the ‘art’ of project mgmt Getting Folks to Do What They Know How to Do when YOU want Them To Do It = the ‘bull’
ORIGINALLY SAW THIS AT A PMI VENDORS SHOW - PRIMAVERA THIS IS AN EXPANDED VERSION OF SAM’S BALANCED SCALES SHOWN IN HIS INTRODUCION THE BULL IS YOUR UNRELENTING EFFORT, YOUR CHRONIC NEED TO GET YOUR PROJECT TO BE AS IMPORTANT TO THOSE OUTSIDE THE PROJECT AS YOU & YOUR PROJECT TEAM MEMBERS TREAT IT 6 PHASES OF A PROJECT: 1. ENTHUSIASM 2. DISILLUSIONMENT 3. PANIC 4. SEARCH FOR THE GUILTY 5. PUNISH THE INNOCENTS 6. PRAISE AND HONORS FOR NON-PARTICIPANTS
Projects are only successful when started well
Introduction to Project Management: Processes, Tools, & Techniques Presented by the PMI Pittsburgh Chapter
This seminar provides an introduction to the primary processes and knowledge areas of applied project management, including initiating, planning, executing, controlling and closing of Information Technology (I.T.) projects. Objective:
Executing Process PROJECT S T A R T PROJECT F I N I S H T I M E L E V E L O F A C T I V I T Y Closing Process Controlling Process Planning Process Initiating Process CONCEPT DEVELOP IMPLEMENT CLOSEOUT PHASES OF THE PROJECT LIFE CYCLE : Iterative & Overlapping
To validate alignment with overall business objectives
To assign a project manager
PMI Framework Document
Initiating Core Process—Initiation Process Output Input Tools and Techniques 1. Project description 2. Strategic plan 3. Project selection criteria 4. Historical information “ Initiation is the process of formally recognizing that a new project exists or that an existing project should continue into its next phase.” 1. Project proposal 2. Project manager identified/ assigned 1. Project selection methods 2. Expert judgment PMI Framework Document
Determine scope statement for your garage. Your scope statement should be clear on what you are going to do, and not going to do within your project. Include assumptions, constraints, and any major concerns that you feel should be address during project planning and later phases. Remember that this output will feed into the next phases of the project.
Administrative Close Out – Generating, gathering, disseminating information to formalize phase or project completion, including evaluating the project, compiling lessons learned for use in planning future phases or projects
Contract Close Out – Completion and settlement of the contact including resolution of any open items
Archive contract documentation of completed work results
Notification to end-user of contract completion
Obtain formal acceptance
Input Tools Output Output Input 1. Project Charter 2. Project Scope Statement 3. Project Plan 4. Contract Documentation 5. Organizational Process Documents 6. Budget Worksheet 7. Risk Plan and log 8. Performance Reports 8. Contract Deliverables 1. Project mgmt methodology - 9 knowledge areas - 5 process groups 2. “Expert” Judgment 1. Administrative Closure Archives 2. Contract Closure Archives 3. Final Product, Service, Result 4. Environment & Org. Updates 5. Organization Process Assets Closing – Process Flow: Tools & Techniques Project Integration Management Overview www.pmi.org , May, 2004
Closing – Why This Process is Important “ Only by examining our mistakes and applying the lessons learned can one stem the tide of project failures and enhance an organization’s probability of success” Chaos: A Recipe for Success The Standish Group International, Inc. 1999
What is the Number One Reason Projects Fail? Source: PM Network, May 2004, p.12