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  • Print out the 2 WBS formats that appear in the teaching notes.
  • Write up on board (leave space for Step 1 to put all 6 up)
  • Deliverables- a new word in the English language used a lot in PM Mention who the customer is. (May need an iterative approach to developing this). Overall statement- 1 or 2 sentences- delivery of X by Y at a cost of Z. What is being delivered is specifed further (A halloween witch costume- one pointy hat, one black dress, one broom, one fake nose) 3) Milestones is where timing is specified further - the costume coming in pieces or all at once? 4) If there are specific tech requirements - size, fabric used? 5) Are there any deadlines for things not b- User can expect to get at least 10 wearings out of it. Not machine washable. Shoes not included. After done with all this- review with the customer! May need to be iterative
  • The why part is optional, but is important if the context is unclear. Makes it clearer to justify costly projects- Increase market share, test a new target demographic, raise company’s public image
  • Sample Scope Statement (we’d get more info on XYZ;s from our customer) (1) Project Objective: Organize a dinner dance for 30 couples by June/Decemenber ?? at a cost not greater than X$ to raise money for a local charity. (2) Deliverables: 1) 60 Catered dinners 2) Jazz combo 3) Rented hall …. Maybe 4) printed tickets 5) marketing literature? (3) Milestones: 1) Find and Reserve hall by date x 2) Sell 30 tickets by y 3) Arrange caterer by z (4) Technical Requirements: 1) Hall has sufficient space for tables to seat 60 people and a large enough dance floor. 2) Convenient parking (or transit) available 3) Hall has infrastructure to support catered dinner and jazz combo 4) Meals include vegetarian option (or other such) 5) Alcohol allowed to be served on premise? (5) Limits and Exclusions: 1) Caterer responsible for preparing, serving, and clean-up Provides food, linens and plates/silver/glassware 2) Ticket price set to generate at least $50 profit per couple 3) Jazz combo responsible for bringing, setting up, and breaking down sound system 4) Event transpires between 7:00pm – 12:00am Customer Review: Charity official
  • Project Charter is issued by Upper management. Difference is that a scope statement may not yet have management approval Expanded SOW (for Charter) can include team composition, etc. Scope creep- expand beyond what was documented in the project scope. Very, very common, especially with externally-focused projects.
  • Historically DS856 students have had issues with this- couldn’t define their project objective in the first deliverable- got points taken off… then couldn’t do it for the final.
  • Technically not quite the scope triangle
  • Quality is the area. In order to maintain the quality, you may have to sacrifice cost and/or time in order to meet unchecked scope creep This makes more sense if you draw the triangle as I did, with each of the 3 components as a side, so if shorten 1 side, have to lengthen another (realistically, 2) to enclose the same area (although technically have to take the inverse of scope) Cost- can be resources (hiring more people or subcontracting out, or buying finished products instead of making them)
  • Don’t have to have 1 in each, but is the most typical. Don’t make mistake of having all be enhance. Typically need to have at least 1 accept. Typical to have 1-enhance, cost if nothing else.
  • 1. Once date is set, time-constrained, scope (accept or constrain) cost-enhance. Could understand if people wanted Scope-constrain, cost accept instead. 2. Time-accept, Scope-constrain, Cost-accept (scope must be constrained- can’t reduce functionality, such as weight tolerance- though maybe some aethetics like the “signature span” might be sacrificed) 580 rebuild looks more like it was time-enhance. 3. Most people have set a date, so that’s generally time constrained. Some people are budget constained (and thus scope-accept), others are scope enhancing and budget accepting.
  • Is pretty straightforward
  • Graphically sometimes a pain- BIOS I/O is the same level as R/W head for HD, but you can’t tell
  • Include the diagram. Start with Frame…. Some question about whether the brakes qualify as their separate system.
  • We only cover this briefly
  • Hmmm- have to decide if want to show this- is really busy and confusing. Note how the level 4 items sometimes appear on row 4 others on row 5
  • Can roll up or roll down as appropriate to the level of the people being reported to
  • Note that the coding makes it clear what level the item is at, and then also is clear what the parent is…
  • Note- Friends at a software company were still using WBS, and it’s still the gold standard on PMI tests.
  • Typically for simpler projects that have less of inherent breakdown of sub-deliverables.
  • Usually Tasks are presented in order of execution Better have an R (and typically only 1) at each row. Not all tasks require an S. Who looks like they have the key roll on the project? (Richard) Who looks like the quant-head? (Dan) Who looks like the entry-level analyst, who may be being groomed for one of the other rolls? (Dave) Who appears to be serving more as administrative assistance? (The women, alas)
  • The communication issue is one reason I encourage project teams rather than single-person projects. In my opinion, it’s not really a true project if 1 person is responsible for all the planning
  • Note that the appropriate communication for each of these is different I am ignoring the “Project office”
  • Not everyone has the same plan format. This is Shale Oil’s, supposedly. Typically PM does the status reports and issue reports, not some “team recorder”
  • 1.Students construct a WBS using the hierarchical box format or the coding scheme (1 Soccer Tournament, 1.1 Field, 1.1.1 Goals). Students should be reminded to focus on deliverables and to break each deliverable into subcomponents as they proceed to the next level of the WBS. One common mistake is to identify groups of people (grounds crew, tournament committee) and not what they accomplish (deliverables). A second issue is level of detail or how many levels the WBS has that goes no farther than 3 or 4 levels, while the subcommittee responsible for fields may break their deliverable even further. 2. WBS would provide structure to the discussion. Instead of the free-for-all that occurred, the WBS would provide an agenda for discussing different elements of the project. The WBS would also be useful for assigning subcommittees responsible for each major deliverable 3. Because other soccer clubs have successfully hosted youth tournaments, she should contact nearby clubs and request planning information developed over the years. Clubs that annually hold summer tournaments are likely to have comprehensive checklists that would be a rich source of information in developing Manchester’s tournament plan. 4. By breaking down the major deliverables associated with a soccer tournament into more detailed subcomponents, the planners are unlikely to ignore cost items as well as have sufficient information to formulate cost estimates. With the exception of the referees, the tournament will rely on volunteer labor. Therefore, the task force should be able to identify specific cost items (printing brochures, trophies, field rental, equipment rental, etc). Tabulating cost estimates would provide a basis for doing a breakeven analysis and help the task force make important decisions such as entry fee and ideal size of the tournament (number of teams and games) as well as make specific decisions regarding items such as medals versus trophies and color versus black and white brochures

PM856-ch4.ppt Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Defining the Project Chapter 4
  • 2.  
  • 3. Defining the Project
    • Step 1: Defining the Project Scope
    • Step 2: Establishing Project Priorities
    • Step 3: Creating the Work Breakdown Structure
    • Step 4: Integrating the WBS with the Organization
    • Step 5: Coding the WBS for the Information System
  • 4. Step 1: Defining the Project Scope
    • Project Scope
      • A definition of the end result or mission of the project —a product or service for the client/customer—in specific, tangible, and measurable terms.
    • Purpose of the Scope Statement
      • To clearly define the deliverable(s) for the end user.
      • To focus the project on successful completion of its goals.
      • To be used by the project owner and participants as a planning tool and for measuring project success.
  • 5. Project Scope Checklist
    • A complete project scope contains the following elements:
    • Project objective
    • Deliverables
    • Milestones
    • Technical requirements
    • Limits and exclusions
    • … and then, finally…
    • Review[s] with customer
  • 6. Project Objective
    • Yes you can reduce your project to one sentence
      • Like the “Elevator Pitch” in Marketing
    • Answers the following questions
      • What?
      • When?
      • How Much?
      • And, if it’s not obvious…. Why?
    • One possible sample format:
      • We will deliver____ by date _____ (or within ____ weeks) at a cost of _____ (because of _____)
  • 7. Scope Statement: Example
    • You are in charge of organizing a dinner-dance concert for a local charity. You have hired a jazz combo.
      • Develop a scope statement for this project that contains examples of all the elements. Assume that the event will occur in 8 weeks and provide your best guess estimate of the dates for milestones.
      • Some of the necessary information has not yet been provided for you by your customer. Identify it.
      • You’ve managed to solicit an in-kind donation of 30 bottles of wine from a large winery. Modify all parts of your scope statement to support this…
  • 8. Project Scope: Terms and Definitions
    • Scope Statements
      • Can also be called statements of work (SOW)
    • Project Charter
      • May contain an expanded version of scope statement
      • Key Point: this is a document authorizing the project manager to initiate and lead the project.
    • Scope Creep
      • The tendency for the project scope to expand over time due to changing requirements, specifications, and priorities.
  • 9. Beware of Creeps
    • Projects without explicit project objectives or other poorly define portions of the scope statement are more subject to scope creep .
      • Discussion point: Is it important to re-build the Bay Bridge to incorporate a “signature span”
  • 10. Step 2: Establishing Project Priorities
    • Causes of Project Trade-offs
      • Shifts in the relative importance of criterions related to cost, time, and performance parameters
        • Budget –Cost
        • Schedule –Time
        • Performance –Scope
    • Managing the Priorities of Project Trade-offs
      • Constrain: the parameter is a fixed requirement.
      • Enhance: optimizing that parameter over others.
      • Accept: reducing (or not meeting) a parameter requirement.
  • 11. Step 2: Establishing Project Priorities
    • Ever heard the following?
    • “ Good, Fast, Cheap… you can have any 2”
  • 12. Project Management Trade-offs FIGURE 4.1 Quality Cost Scope Time
  • 13. Project Priority Matrix FIGURE 4.2
  • 14. Project Priority Matrix: Examples
    • Define a project priority matrix for the following projects
      • The previously mentioned charity dinner-dance
      • The new Bay Bridge
      • Your wedding
  • 15. Step 3: Creating the Work Breakdown Structure
    • Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
      • An hierarchical outline (map) that identifies the products and work elements involved in a project
      • Defines the relationship of the final deliverable (the project) to its sub-deliverables, and in turn, their relationships to work packages
      • Best suited for design and build projects that have tangible outcomes rather than process-oriented projects
  • 16. Hierarchical Breakdown of the WBS FIGURE 4.3
  • 17. How WBS Helps the Project Manager
    • WBS
      • Facilitates evaluation of cost, time, and technical performance of the organization on a project
      • Provides management with information appropriate to each organizational level
      • Helps in the development of the organization breakdown structure (OBS), which assigns project responsibilities to organizational units and individuals
      • Though it does not yet incorporate time and precedence info, it helps in defining and managing the plan, schedule, and budget
      • Defines communication channels and assists in coordinating the various project elements
  • 18. Work Breakdown Structure FIGURE 4.4
  • 19. WBS -Example
    • Develop a WBS for a project in which you are going to build a bicycle. Try to identify all of the major components and provide three levels of detail.
  • 20. Work Packages
    • A Work Package Is the Lowest Level of the WBS.
      • It is output-oriented in that it:
        • Defines work (what)
        • Identifies time to complete a work package (how long)
        • Identifies a time-phased budget to complete a work package (cost)
        • Identifies resources needed to complete a work package (how much)
        • Identifies a single person responsible for units of work (who)
  • 21. Step 4: Integrating the WBS with the Organization
    • Organizational Breakdown Structure (OBS)
      • Depicts how the firm is organized to discharge its work responsibility for a project
        • Provides a framework to summarize organization work unit performance
        • Identifies organization units responsible for work packages
        • Ties the organizational units to cost control accounts
  • 22. Integration of WBS and OBS FIGURE 4.5
  • 23. Step 5: Coding the WBS for the Information System
    • WBS Coding System
      • Defines:
        • Levels and elements of the WBS
        • Organization elements
        • Work packages
        • Budget and cost information
      • Allows reports to be consolidated at any level in the organization structure
  • 24. WBS Coding
  • 25. Alternatives to WBS
    • Not all industries use WBS
    • We will consider 2 others, which can also be used to supplement WBSs or help with subprojects
  • 26. Process Breakdown Structure
    • Process-Oriented Projects
      • Are driven by performance requirements in which the final outcome is the product of a series of steps of phases in which one phase affects the next phase
    • Process Breakdown Structure (PBS)
      • Defines deliverables as outputs required to move to the next phase
      • Checklists for managing PBS:
        • Deliverables needed to exit one phase and begin the next
        • Quality checkpoints for complete and accurate deliverables
        • Sign-offs by responsible stakeholders to monitor progress
  • 27. PBS for Software Project Development FIGURE 4.8
  • 28. Responsibility Matrices
    • Responsibility Matrix (RM)
      • Also called a linear responsibility chart
      • Summarizes the tasks to be accomplished and who is responsible for what on the project
        • Lists project activities and participants
        • Clarifies critical interfaces between units and individuals that need coordination
        • Provide an means for all participants to view their responsibilities and agree on their assignments
        • Clarifies the extent or type of authority that can be exercised by each participant
  • 29. Example: Responsibility Matrix for a Market Research Project FIGURE 4.9
  • 30. Responsibility Matrix for the Conveyor Belt Project FIGURE 4.10
  • 31. Communications
    • 90% of project management is communication
    • Poor or inappropriate communication is responsible for many project failures, employee dissatisfaction, and much dark office humor….
  • 32. Project Communication Plan
    • A communication plan answers the following:
      • What information needs to be collected?
      • Who will receive information?
      • What information methods will be used?
      • What are the access restrictions?
      • When will information be communicated?
      • How will information be communicated?
    • Different level of detail and styles are appropriate for…
      • Communication to Clients
      • Communication to Upper Management
      • Communication to the Project Team
  • 33. Communication Plan: Example
  • 34. Case: Soccer Tournament
    • Make a list of the major deliverables for the project and use them to develop a draft of the WBS for the tournament that contains at least three levels of detail (for some of the items). What are the major deliverables associated with hosting an event such as a soccer tournament?
    • How would developing a WBS alleviate some of the problems that occurred during the first meeting and help Nicolette organize and plan the project?
    • Where can Nicolette find additional information to help her develop a WBS for the tournament?
    • How could Nicolette and her task force use the WBS to generate cost estimates for the tournament? Why would this be useful information?