On October 23rd, 2014, we updated our
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A definition of the end result or mission of the project —a product or service for the client/customer—in specific, tangible, and measurable terms.
Purpose of the Scope Statement
To clearly define the deliverable(s) for the end user.
To focus the project on successful completion of its goals.
To be used by the project owner and participants as a planning tool and for measuring project success.
Project Scope Checklist
A complete project scope contains the following elements:
Limits and exclusions
… and then, finally…
Review[s] with customer
Yes you can reduce your project to one sentence
Like the “Elevator Pitch” in Marketing
Answers the following questions
And, if it’s not obvious…. Why?
One possible sample format:
We will deliver____ by date _____ (or within ____ weeks) at a cost of _____ (because of _____)
Scope Statement: Example
You are in charge of organizing a dinner-dance concert for a local charity. You have hired a jazz combo.
Develop a scope statement for this project that contains examples of all the elements. Assume that the event will occur in 8 weeks and provide your best guess estimate of the dates for milestones.
Some of the necessary information has not yet been provided for you by your customer. Identify it.
You’ve managed to solicit an in-kind donation of 30 bottles of wine from a large winery. Modify all parts of your scope statement to support this…
Project Scope: Terms and Definitions
Can also be called statements of work (SOW)
May contain an expanded version of scope statement
Key Point: this is a document authorizing the project manager to initiate and lead the project.
The tendency for the project scope to expand over time due to changing requirements, specifications, and priorities.
Beware of Creeps
Projects without explicit project objectives or other poorly define portions of the scope statement are more subject to scope creep .
Discussion point: Is it important to re-build the Bay Bridge to incorporate a “signature span”
Step 2: Establishing Project Priorities
Causes of Project Trade-offs
Shifts in the relative importance of criterions related to cost, time, and performance parameters
Managing the Priorities of Project Trade-offs
Constrain: the parameter is a fixed requirement.
Enhance: optimizing that parameter over others.
Accept: reducing (or not meeting) a parameter requirement.
Step 2: Establishing Project Priorities
Ever heard the following?
“ Good, Fast, Cheap… you can have any 2”
Project Management Trade-offs FIGURE 4.1 Quality Cost Scope Time
Project Priority Matrix FIGURE 4.2
Project Priority Matrix: Examples
Define a project priority matrix for the following projects
The previously mentioned charity dinner-dance
The new Bay Bridge
Step 3: Creating the Work Breakdown Structure
Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
An hierarchical outline (map) that identifies the products and work elements involved in a project
Defines the relationship of the final deliverable (the project) to its sub-deliverables, and in turn, their relationships to work packages
Best suited for design and build projects that have tangible outcomes rather than process-oriented projects
Hierarchical Breakdown of the WBS FIGURE 4.3
How WBS Helps the Project Manager
Facilitates evaluation of cost, time, and technical performance of the organization on a project
Provides management with information appropriate to each organizational level
Helps in the development of the organization breakdown structure (OBS), which assigns project responsibilities to organizational units and individuals
Though it does not yet incorporate time and precedence info, it helps in defining and managing the plan, schedule, and budget
Defines communication channels and assists in coordinating the various project elements
Work Breakdown Structure FIGURE 4.4
Develop a WBS for a project in which you are going to build a bicycle. Try to identify all of the major components and provide three levels of detail.
A Work Package Is the Lowest Level of the WBS.
It is output-oriented in that it:
Defines work (what)
Identifies time to complete a work package (how long)
Identifies a time-phased budget to complete a work package (cost)
Identifies resources needed to complete a work package (how much)
Identifies a single person responsible for units of work (who)
Step 4: Integrating the WBS with the Organization
Organizational Breakdown Structure (OBS)
Depicts how the firm is organized to discharge its work responsibility for a project
Provides a framework to summarize organization work unit performance
Identifies organization units responsible for work packages
Ties the organizational units to cost control accounts
Integration of WBS and OBS FIGURE 4.5
Step 5: Coding the WBS for the Information System
WBS Coding System
Levels and elements of the WBS
Budget and cost information
Allows reports to be consolidated at any level in the organization structure
Alternatives to WBS
Not all industries use WBS
We will consider 2 others, which can also be used to supplement WBSs or help with subprojects
Process Breakdown Structure
Are driven by performance requirements in which the final outcome is the product of a series of steps of phases in which one phase affects the next phase
Process Breakdown Structure (PBS)
Defines deliverables as outputs required to move to the next phase
Checklists for managing PBS:
Deliverables needed to exit one phase and begin the next
Quality checkpoints for complete and accurate deliverables
Sign-offs by responsible stakeholders to monitor progress
PBS for Software Project Development FIGURE 4.8
Responsibility Matrix (RM)
Also called a linear responsibility chart
Summarizes the tasks to be accomplished and who is responsible for what on the project
Lists project activities and participants
Clarifies critical interfaces between units and individuals that need coordination
Provide an means for all participants to view their responsibilities and agree on their assignments
Clarifies the extent or type of authority that can be exercised by each participant
Example: Responsibility Matrix for a Market Research Project FIGURE 4.9
Responsibility Matrix for the Conveyor Belt Project FIGURE 4.10
90% of project management is communication
Poor or inappropriate communication is responsible for many project failures, employee dissatisfaction, and much dark office humor….
Project Communication Plan
A communication plan answers the following:
What information needs to be collected?
Who will receive information?
What information methods will be used?
What are the access restrictions?
When will information be communicated?
How will information be communicated?
Different level of detail and styles are appropriate for…
Communication to Clients
Communication to Upper Management
Communication to the Project Team
Communication Plan: Example
Case: Soccer Tournament
Make a list of the major deliverables for the project and use them to develop a draft of the WBS for the tournament that contains at least three levels of detail (for some of the items). What are the major deliverables associated with hosting an event such as a soccer tournament?
How would developing a WBS alleviate some of the problems that occurred during the first meeting and help Nicolette organize and plan the project?
Where can Nicolette find additional information to help her develop a WBS for the tournament?
How could Nicolette and her task force use the WBS to generate cost estimates for the tournament? Why would this be useful information?