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PM ppt

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Transcript

  • 1. Project Management ISM3011
  • 2. What We’re Going to do Today
    • Announcements
    • News & miscellany
    • Alphabet soup
    • MIS in the professions
    • Q & A from text
    • Project management
    • Making the business case
  • 3. Alphabet Soup
    • ISP
      • Internet Service Provider
      • Company that gives an individual or organization access to the Internet
    • PMI
      • Project Management Institute
      • Project Management Institute (PMI) has more than 200,000 members in over 150 countries.
      • According to the PMI Website, PMI “… is the world’s foremost advocate for the project management profession.”
  • 4. Alphabet Soup (part 2) & Podcast
    • EVM
      • Earned Value Management
      • Provides an objective measurement of how much work has been accomplished on a project.
      • Essential features of any EVM implementation include
        • a project plan that identifies work to be accomplished,
        • a valuation of planned work, called planned value (PV),
        • pre-defined “earning rules” that quantify the accomplishment of work.
    Earned Value (EV)
  • 5. Earned Value Example Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earned_value_management
  • 6. MIS in the Professions – Marketing Project Management
    • Robohead is a Web-based project management system specifically designed for marketing and creative organizations.
    • Here’s an online demo . (9 minutes)
    http://www.robohead.net/info/index.html
  • 7. Project Management
  • 8. Your Education as a Project
    • How do you plan the “project” of getting your degree?
  • 9. What is Project Management?
    • Project
      • “Temporary endeavor undertaken to produce a unique product or service” (Source: PM-BOK)
    • Project management
      • “… application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities in order to meet or exceed stakeholder needs and expectations …” (Source: PM-BOK)
    Definite beginning and end
  • 10. Project Triangle Tradeoffs among these three constraints
  • 11. Project Activities Source: PMBOK This is one view of PM activities, there are others.
  • 12. Project Management Activities
    • Initiating
      • Selecting a project
        • Business case development/analysis
      • Committing to a project
    • Planning
      • (See next slide)
    • Executing
    • Controlling
    • Closing
    Important, but outside our scope
  • 13. Project Planning Our focus
  • 14. Project Management
    • Elements of project management
      • Project manager
        • has the responsibility to integrate the efforts of people from various functional areas to achieve specific project goals
      • Project team
        • a group of people that often represents different functional areas or organizations
      • Project management system
        • consists of an organizational structure (functional or matrix) and an information system (network planning system)
  • 15. Network Planning Methods
    • PERT/CPM
      • Describing the project
        • shows all activities required to complete the project
        • describes (through a network diagram) the order of activities, demonstrating predecessors
  • 16. Network Planning Methods
    • PERT/CPM
      • Benefits
        • forces managers to organize data and express critical relationships
        • managers can estimate the completion time of a project
        • reports highlight the activities that are crucial to the completion of the project on time
        • managers can analyze the time/cost implications of resource trade-offs
  • 17. Network Planning Methods
    • Estimating time of completion in a network plan
      • probabilistic (uncertain)
      • deterministic (certain)
      • critical path
        • sequence of activities between a project’s start and finish that takes the longest
  • 18. Network Planning Methods
    • Estimating time of completion in a network plan
      • Earliest start and finish times
        • Earliest Finish time (EF)
        • Earliest Start time (ES)
        • EF = ES+t
        • where t = the time required to complete the activity
        • ES = EF from the preceding activity
  • 19. Network Planning Methods
    • Estimating time of completion in a network plan
      • Latest start and finish times
        • Latest Start time (LS)
        • Latest Finish time (LF)
        • LS = LF - t
        • where t = the time required to complete the activity
        • LF = LS from the immediately following activity
  • 20. Network Planning Methods
    • Estimating time of completion in a network plan
      • Activity Slack
        • maximum time an activity can be delayed without delaying the entire project
        • there is zero slack in the sequence of activities in the critical path
  • 21. Uncertain Time Estimates
    • Probabilistic Time Estimates
      • Optimistic time
        • shortest time an activity can be completed
      • Most likely time
        • best estimate of average time for an activity
      • Pessimistic time
        • longest time an activity can take
  • 22. Uncertain Time Estimates
    • Probabilistic Time Estimates
      • Activity’s mean time (t e ) and variance (  2 ) with beta distribution
      • t e = a + 4m + b
      • 6
      • 2
      •  2 = (b-a/6)
      • Analyzing probabilities
        • Z values = due date of project - earliest expected date square root of the variances
          • determines probability that a project will be done by a specified date
  • 23. Work Breakdown Structure
    • Divides a project into tasks/activities.
    • ID major tasks
    • Break down into subtasks
      • Well defined
      • Can be estimated and tracked
    • Identify task dependencies
      • E.g. Task B requires completion of Task A
    • Assign responsibility for each (sub)task
    • Results are measured in terms of progress/completion of tasks.
  • 24. WBS: Process
      • Familiarize yourself with the project.
      • ID all major tasks required to achieve goals.
      • Break into subtasks (repeat until you have manageable granularity)
      • ID responsibility for each lower level task.
      • Determine resource (time & personnel) requirements for each lowest level task.
      • This can serve as the basis for an estimate.
  • 25. Work Breakdown Structure Spreadsheet
  • 26. WBS Diagram Example Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Work_breakdown_structure Task Sub-Tasks
  • 27. Making the Business Case
  • 28. What is a business case?
    • Provides management with the information required for making an informed decision regarding a project.
    • Analysis of:
      • Organizational value
      • Feasibility
      • Costs
      • Benefits
      • Risks
    • Several alternatives
    Source for much of this presentation is Marchewka (2006). Information Technology Project Management , Wiley.
  • 29. Business Case Development Process
    • Define measurable organizational value
    • Identify alternatives
    • Assess feasibility
    • Assess risk
    • Define total cost of ownership
    • Define total benefits of ownership
    • Compare alternatives
    • Make recommendation
    Our focus
  • 30. What are the benefits?
    • Focus on measurable benefits.
    • Must provide value to the organization.
      • What areas of the organization are impacted?
      • Sources of value: Better, faster, cheaper, do more.
      • Measure in terms of $, %, numeric value.
    • Must be verifiable.
      • Time frame achieving the value.
  • 31. What are the alternatives?
    • Include a range of alternatives
    • Base case alternative
      • What happens if we don’t do anything?
      • “ Do nothing” is a valid alternative in most cases.
  • 32. Is the project feasible?
    • Economic feasibility
    • Technical feasibility
    • Organizational feasibility
    • Legal feasibility
    • Ethical feasibility
  • 33. Cost/benefit analysis: Costs
    • TCO: Total cost of ownership
      • Direct costs
        • Hardware, software, consultants
      • Indirect costs
        • Productivity loss during project/changeover
        • Quality assurance
      • Ongoing costs
        • Training, maintenance, upgrades, etc.
  • 34. Cost/benefit analysis: Benefits
    • TBO: Total benefits of ownership
    • Tangible benefits
      • Costs savings
      • Increased accuracy (reduced errors)
      • Improved workflow
      • Improved decision making
    • Intangible benefits
      • Increased customer satisfaction
      • Increased employee satisfaction
      • Reputation
  • 35. Risk analysis
    • Identify risks
      • What can go wrong?
    • Impact
      • What is the organizational impact of each risk?
    • Probability
      • How likely is each risk?
    • Response
      • What can be done to avoid or minimize the risk?
  • 36. Comparing Alternatives
    • Financial analysis
      • Payback period
      • ROI
      • NPV
    • Weight factors
    • Rate alternatives
    • Score = Sum (weights * scores)
    • Other approaches exist