CII Benchmarking & Metrics
                                (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0)
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CII Benchmarking & Metrics
                               (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0)
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CII Benchmarking & Metrics
                               (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0)
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CII Benchmarking & Metrics
                              (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0)
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CII Benchmarking & Metrics
                                                 (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0)
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CII Benchmarking & Metrics
                                          (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0)
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CII Benchmarking & Metrics
                                 (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0)
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CII Benchmarking & Metrics
                                   (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0)
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CII Benchmarking & Metrics
                                     (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0)
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CII Benchmarking & Metrics
                               (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0)
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CII Benchmarking & Metrics
                               (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0)
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CII Benchmarking & Metrics
                                  (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0)
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CII Benchmarking & Metrics
                                (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0)
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CII Benchmarking & Metrics
                                (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0)
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CII Benchmarking & Metrics
                                (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0)
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CII Benchmarking & Metrics
                                (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0)
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CII Benchmarking & Metrics
                                 (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0)
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CII Benchmarking & Metrics
                                   (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0)
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CII Benchmarking & Metrics
                                 (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0)
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CII Benchmarking & Metrics
                                (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0)
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CII Benchmarking & Metrics
                               (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0)
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CII Benchmarking & Metrics
                               (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0)
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CII Benchmarking & Metrics
                               (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0)
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CII Benchmarking & Metrics
                                 (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0)
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CII Benchmarking & Metrics
                                (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0)
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CII Benchmarking & Metrics
                               (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0)
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CII Benchmarking & Metrics
                                 (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0)
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CII Benchmarking & Metrics
                                     (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0)
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CII Benchmarking & Metrics
                                   (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0)
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CII Benchmarking & Metrics
                          (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0)
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CII Benchmarking & Metrics
                                 (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0)
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CII Benchmarking & Metrics
                                (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0)
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CII Benchmarking & Metrics
                                (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0)
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CII Benchmarking & Metrics
                                (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0)
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CII Benchmarking & Metrics
                               (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0)
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CII Benchmarking & Metrics
                                   (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0)
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CII Benchmarking & Metrics
                                 (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0)
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CII Benchmarking & Metrics
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PDRI (Project Definition Rating Index) Buildings.doc
PDRI (Project Definition Rating Index) Buildings.doc
PDRI (Project Definition Rating Index) Buildings.doc
PDRI (Project Definition Rating Index) Buildings.doc
PDRI (Project Definition Rating Index) Buildings.doc
PDRI (Project Definition Rating Index) Buildings.doc
PDRI (Project Definition Rating Index) Buildings.doc
PDRI (Project Definition Rating Index) Buildings.doc
PDRI (Project Definition Rating Index) Buildings.doc
PDRI (Project Definition Rating Index) Buildings.doc
PDRI (Project Definition Rating Index) Buildings.doc
PDRI (Project Definition Rating Index) Buildings.doc
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PDRI (Project Definition Rating Index) Buildings.doc

  1. 1. CII Benchmarking & Metrics (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0) Glossary of Terms Acceptance Testing. Facility capacity testing at the time a project is expected to reach design capacity. The timing in which this takes place varies by type of facility. Acceptance testing may occur shortly after start-up of a process unit, 6 to 12 months on building or mechanical trains, or 2 to 3 years for a paper mill. Addition (Add-on). - A new addition that ties in to an existing facility, often intended to expand capacity. Synonym: Expansion. Alliance Partner. A participant in a long-term association with a non-affiliated organization, used to further the common interests of the members. The continued association is based upon mutual trust and the satisfactory performance of each participant, and the alliance as a whole, rather than a pure contractual obligation. Automation/Integration (AI) Technology. The Automation and Integration Technology practice addresses the degree of automation/level of use and integration of automated systems for predefined tasks/work functions common to most projects. Bar Coding. The use of automatic identification technology by labeling, identifying, and controlling items, materials, and equipment through the use of bar codes. A bar code can be defined as a self contained message with information encoded in the widths of bars and spaces in a printed pattern. Change. A change is any event that results in a modification of the project work, schedule or cost. Owners and designers frequently initiate changes during design development to reflect changes in project scope or preferences for equipment and materials other than those originally specified. Contractors often initiate changes when interferences are encountered, when designs are found to be not constructable, or other design errors are found. Change Management. Change Management is the process of incorporating a balanced change culture of recognition, planning and evaluation of project changes in an organization to effectively manage project changes. Constructability. Constructability is the effective and timely integration of construction knowledge into the conceptual planning, design, construction and field operations of a project to achieve the overall project objectives in the best possible time and accuracy, at the most cost-effective levels. Contingency. All costs in contingency accounts including but not limited to normal contingency, allowances, reserves, indirect costs for schedule contingency, escalation, etc. Cost of Land. The cost of land includes the purchase price of the land obtained for project use. It does not include the cost of preparing the land for use, such as soil remediation, demolition of existing structures, site preparation, etc. Cost of Quality Management. The sum of those costs associated with quality deviation prevention and appraisal activities. Examples include: • Quality System/Program Development • Personnel Qualification Testing • Formal Design Check/Review • On/Off-Site Inspection Direct Cost of Field Rework. The sum of those costs associated with actual performance of tasks involved in rework. Examples include: • Labor Glossary of Terms Page 1
  2. 2. CII Benchmarking & Metrics (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0) Glossary of Terms • Materials • Equipment • Supervisory personnel • Associated overhead cost Electronic Data Interchange (EDI). EDI is a technology that permits the direct computer-to-computer exchange of data in a standard format. Data is transmitted in a standard industry format, checked for error, and imported directly into the receiving computer system without re-keying. Expansion. - A new addition that ties in to an existing facility, often intended to expand capacity. Synonym: Addition. Grass Roots (Green Field). A new facility from the foundations and up. A project requiring demolition of an existing facility before new construction begins is also classified as grass roots. Integrated Database. An integrated database is a concept of organizing, storing, and managing all electronic data relating to a project in such a fashion that data is entered and stored once and then accessed and utilized by multiple users and applications. The users may include those involved with facility planning, design, procurement, construction, plant operations, and suppliers. Materials Management. Materials management is an integrated process for planning and controlling all necessary efforts to make certain that the quality and quantity of materials and equipment are appropriately specified in a timely manner, are obtained at a reasonable cost, and are available when needed. The materials management systems combine and integrate the takeoff, vendor evaluation, purchasing, expediting, warehousing, distribution, and disposing of materials functions. Mechanical Completion. The point in time when a plant is capable of being operated although some trim, insulation, and painting may still be needed. This occurs after completion of precommissioning. In some industries, mechanical completion may have the same general meaning as beneficial occupancy. Modernization. A facility for which a substantial amount of the equipment, structure, or other components is replaced or modified, and which may expand capacity and/or improve the process or facility. Synonyms: Renovation, Upgrade. Modularization. Modularization refers to the use of offsite construction. For the purposes of the benchmarking data, modularization includes all work that represents substantial offsite construction and assembly of components and areas of the finished project. Examples that would fall within this categorization include: • Skid assemblies of equipment and instrumentation that naturally ship to the site in one piece, and require minimal on-site reassembly. • Super-skids of assemblies of components that typically represent substantial portions of the plant, intended to be installed in a building. • Prefabricated modules comprising both industrial plant components and architecturally finished enclosures. Modularization does not include offsite fabrication of components. Examples of work that would be excluded from the definition of modularization include: Glossary of Terms Page 2
  3. 3. CII Benchmarking & Metrics (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0) Glossary of Terms • Fabrication of the component pieces of a structural framework • Fabrication of piping spool-pieces Planning for Startup. Startup is the transitional phase between plant construction completion and commercial operations, including all of the activities that bridge these two phases. Planning for Startup consists of a sequence of activities that begins during requirements definition and extends through initial operations. Pre-Project Planning. Pre-Project Planning involves the process of developing sufficient strategic information that owners can address risk and decide to commit resources to maximize the chance for a successful project. Pre-project planning includes putting together the project team, selecting technology, selecting project site, developing project scope, and developing project alternatives. Pre-project planning is often perceived as synonymous with front-end loading, front-end planning, feasibility analysis, and conceptual planning. Project Budget at Authorization to Proceed. This is the estimated cost for your company’s portion of the project at authorization to proceed. If your contract had cost changes before authorization to proceed, then these changes should be included in the project budget. Do not include estimated costs for change orders received during project execution. . Project Development Changes. Changes required to execute the original scope of work or obtain original process basis. Examples include: • Unforeseen site conditions that require a change in design / construction methods • Changes required due to errors and omissions • Acceleration • Change in owner preferences • Additional equipment or processes required to obtain original planned throughput • Operability or maintainability changes Project Change Management. Practices related to the management and control of both scope changes and project changes. P&IDs (Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams). Schematic diagrams which show the layout and relationship of piping and instrumentation. Quality Management. Quality Management incorporates all activities conducted to improve the efficiency, contract compliance and cost effectiveness of design, engineering, procurement, QA/QC, construction, and start-up elements of construction projects. Renovation. A facility for which a substantial amount of the equipment, structure, or other components is replaced or modified, and which may expand capacity and/or improve the process or facility. Synonyms: Modernization, Upgrade. Scope Changes. Changes in the base scope of work or process basis. Examples include: • Feedstock change • Changed site location • Changed throughput • Addition of unrelated scope Glossary of Terms Page 3
  4. 4. CII Benchmarking & Metrics (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0) Glossary of Terms Team Building. Team Building is a project-focused process that builds and develops shared goals, interdependence, trust and commitment, and accountability among team members and that seeks to improve team members problem-solving skills. Total Actual Project Cost. This is the total actual cost of all work performed by your company, including costs attributable to work added or deducted by change orders. Turnaround/Shutdown/Outage. The period during which a boiler, generating unit, transmission line, or other facility is shutdown and unable to perform its normal operations. The shutdown of a facility including for maintenance, inspection, testing, regulatory changes, or, in some cases, for refuelling is known as a planned shutdown. Turnaround is interchangeable with shutdown or outage depending on industry groups. Upgrade. A facility for which a substantial amount of the equipment, structure, or other components is replaced or modified, and which may expand capacity and/or improve the process or facility. Synonyms: Modernization, Renovation. Zero Accidents. Zero accident techniques include the site specific safety programs and implementation, auditing and incentive efforts to create a project environment and a level of training that embraces the mind set that all accidents are preventable and that zero accidents is an obtainable goal. 3D CAD modeling. Computer aided drafting system that provides three-dimensional views for checking physical interferences in addition to providing two and three dimensional drafting capabilities. Glossary of Terms Page 4
  5. 5. CII Benchmarking & Metrics (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0) Glossary of Terms Project Phase Table Project Phase Start/Stop Typical Activities & Products Typical Cost Elements Pre-Project Planning Start: Defined Business Need • Options Analysis • Owner Planning Team Personnel that requires facilities • Life-cycle Cost Analysis Expenses Typical Participants: Stop: Total Project Budget • Project Execution Plan • Consultant Fees & Expenses • Owner Personnel Authorized • Appropriation Submittal Pkg • Environmental Permitting Costs • Planning Consultants • P&IDs and Site Layout • Project Manager / Construction • Constructability Consultant • Project Scoping Manager Fees • Alliance / Partner • Procurement Plan • Licensor Costs • Arch. Rendering Detail Design Start: Design Basis • Drawing & spec preparation • Owner Project Management Stop: Release of all approved • Bill of material preparation Personnel Typical Participants: drawings and specs for • Procurement Status • Designer Fees • Owner Personnel construction (or last package • Sequence of operations • Project Manager / Construction • Design Contractor for fast-track) • Technical Review Manager Fees • Constructability Expert • Definitive Cost Estimate • Alliance / Partner Demolition / Abatement Start: Mobilization for • Remove existing facility or • Owner Project Management (see note below) demolition portion of facility to allow Personnel Stop: Completion of construction or renovation to • Project Manager / Construction Typical Participants: demolition proceed Manager Fees • Owner Personnel • Perform cleanup or abatement / • General Contractor and/or Demolition • General Contractor remediation Specialist Charges • Demolition Contractor • Abatement / Remediation Contractor • Remediation / Abatement Charges Contractor Note: The demolition / abatement phase should be reported when the demolition / abatement work is a separate schedule activity (potentially paralleling the design and procurement phases) in preparation for new construction. Do not report the demolition / abatement phase if the work is integral with modernization or addition activities. Glossary of Terms Page 5
  6. 6. CII Benchmarking & Metrics (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0) Glossary of Terms Project Phase Table (Cont.) Project Phase Start/Stop Typical Activities & Products Typical Cost Elements Procurement Start: Procurement Plan for • Vendor Qualification • Owner project management personnel Engineered Equipment • Vendor Inquiries • Project Manager / Construction Typical Participants: Stop: All engineered • Bid Analysis Manager fees • Owner personnel equipment has been • Purchasing • Procurement & Expediting personnel • Design Contractor delivered to site • Expediting • Engineered Equipment • Alliance / Partner • Engineered Equipment • Transportation • Transportation • Shop QA / QC Alliance / Partner • Vendor QA/QC Construction Start: Beginning of continuous • Set up trailers • Owner project management personnel substantial construction • Site preparation • Project Manager / Construction Typical Participants: activity • Procurement of bulks Manager fees • Owner personnel Stop: Mechanical Completion • Issue Subcontracts • Building permits • Design Contractor • Construction plan for Methods/ • Inspection QA/QC (Inspection) Sequencing • Construction labor, equipment & • Construction Contractor and • Build Facility & Install supplies its subcontractors Engineered Equipment • Bulk materials • Complete Punchlist • Construction equipment • Demobilize construction • Contractor management personnel equipment • Warranties • Warehousing Start-up / Commissioning Start: Mechanical Completion • Testing Systems • Owner project management personnel Note: Does not usually apply to Stop: Custody transfer to user/ • Training Operators • Project Manager / Construction infrastructure or building type operator (steady state • Documenting Results Manager fees projects operation) • Introduce Feedstocks and • Consultant fees & expenses obtain first Product • Operator training expenses Typical Participants: • Hand-off to user/operator • Wasted feedstocks • Owner personnel • Operating System • Vendor fees • Design Contractor • Functional Facility • Construction Contractor • Warranty Work • Training Consultant • Equipment Vendors Glossary of Terms Page 6
  7. 7. CII Benchmarking & Metrics (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0) Glossary of Terms PDRI (Project Definition Rating Index) Buildings SECTION I: BASIS OF PROJECT DECISION A. BUSINESS STRATEGY A1. Building Use Identify and list building uses or functions. These may include uses such as: · Retail · Institutional · Instructional · Medical · Storage · Food service · Recreational · Research · Multimedia · Office · Light manufacturing A description of other options which could also meet the facility need should be defined. (As an example, was renovating existing space rather than building new space considered?) A listing of current facilities that will be vacated due to the new project should be produced. A2. Business Justification Identify driving forces for the project and specify what is most important from the viewpoint of the owner including both needs and expectations. Address items such as: · Need date · Target consumers · Building utilization justification · Possible competitors · Level of amenities · Location · Sales or rental levels · Market capacity · Use flexibility · Number of lessons/occupant types · Support new business initiatives · Facility replacement/consolidation A3. Business Plan A project strategy should be developed that supports the business justification in relation to the following items: · Funding availability Glossary of Terms Page 7
  8. 8. CII Benchmarking & Metrics (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0) Glossary of Terms · Cost and financing · Schedule milestones (including known deadlines) · Types and sources of project funds · Related/resulting projects A4. Economic Analysis An economic model should be developed to determine the viability of the venture. The model should acknowledge uncertainty and outline the boundaries of the analysis. It should acknowledge items such as: · Design life · Building ownership · Tax implications of investment including length of ownership · Long-term operating and maintenance costs · Resale/lease potential or in the case of institutional buildings, long-term use plans · Analysis of capital and operating cost versus sales or occupancy and profitability A5. Facility Requirements Facility size requirements are many times determined by applicable code and are often driven by occupancy. Note that this analysis is at the macro level. Some considerations are listed below: · Number of occupants · Volume · Net and gross square footage by area uses · Support infrastructure · Classroom size · Linear feet of display space · Number of laboratory stations · Occupant accommodation requirements (i.e., number of hospital beds, number of desks, number of workstations, on-site child care, on-site medical care, cot space, etc.) A6. Future Expansion/Alteration Considerations The possibility of expansion and/or alteration of the site and building should be considered for facility design. These considerations consist of a list of items that will facilitate the expansion or evolution of building use including adaptability/flexibility. Evaluation criteria may include: · Provisions for site space in case of possible future expansion up or out · Technologically advanced facility requirements · Are departments or functional areas intended to “grow in place” during the future phase? · If there will not be a future expansion of the building, how will departments or areas expand? · Are any functional areas more likely than others to move out of the building in the future to allow others to expand or move in? · Who will occupy the building in five, 10, 15, 20 years? · Flexibility or adaptability for future uses. Glossary of Terms Page 8
  9. 9. CII Benchmarking & Metrics (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0) Glossary of Terms · Future phasing plan A7. Site Selection Considerations Evaluation of sites should address issues relative to different locations (i.e., global, country, or local). This evaluation may take into consideration existing buildings or properties, as well as new locations. The selection criteria include items such as: · General geographic location o Access to the targeted market area o Local availability and cost of skilled labor (e.g., construction, operation) o Available utilities o Existing facilities o Economic incentive zones o Tax · Land availability and developed costs · Legal constraints · Unusual financing requirements in region/locality · Domestic culture vs. international culture · Community relations · Labor relations · Government relations · Political issues/constraints · Education/training · Safety and health considerations · Environmental issues · Symbolic and aesthetic · Historic preservation · Weather/climate · Permitting Schedule A8. Project Objectives Statement This statement defines the project objectives and priorities for meeting the business strategy. It should be clear, concise, measurable, and specific to the project. It is desirable to obtain total agreement from the entire project team regarding these objectives and priorities to ensure alignment. Specifically, the priorities among cost, schedule, and value-added quality features should be clear. The objectives also should comply with any master plans if applicable. B. OWNER PHILOSOPHIES B1. Reliability Philosophy A brief description of the project intent in terms of reliability should be defined. A list of the general design principles to be considered to achieve optimum/ideal operating performance from the facility/building should be addressed. Considerations may include: · Critical systems redundancy · Architectural/structural/civil durability Glossary of Terms Page 9
  10. 10. CII Benchmarking & Metrics (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0) Glossary of Terms · Mechanical/electrical/plumbing reliability B2. Maintenance Philosophy A list of the general design principles to be considered to meet building maintenance requirements should be identified. This evaluation should include life cycle cost analysis of major facilities. Considerations may include: · Daily occupancy loads · Maximum building occupancy requirements · Equipment monitoring requirements · Energy conservation programs · Selection of materials and finishes · Requirements for building finishes B3. Operating Philosophy A list of the general design issues that need to be considered to support routine operations should be developed. Issues may include: · Operating schedule/hours · Provisions for building rental or occupancy assignments (i.e., by room, floor, suite) including flexibility of partitioning · Future renovation schedule · User finish out philosophy · Flexibility to change layout B4. Design Philosophy A listing of design philosophy issues should be developed. These issues should be directed at concerns such as the following: · Design life · Aesthetic requirements · Compatibility with master plan · Theme · Image · Environmentally sustainable design (internal/external) · Quality of life C. PROJECT REQUIREMENTS C1. Value-Analysis Process A structured value analysis approach should be in place to consider design and material alternatives in terms of their cost effectiveness. Items that impact the economic viability of the project should be considered. Items to evaluate include issues such as: · Discretionary scope issues · Expensive materials of construction Glossary of Terms Page 10
  11. 11. CII Benchmarking & Metrics (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0) Glossary of Terms · Life-cycle analysis of construction methods and structure C2. Project Design Criteria Project design criteria are the requirements and guidelines which govern the design of the project. Any design review board or design review process should be clearly articulated. Evaluation criteria may include: · Level of design detail required · Climatic data · Codes and standards o National o Local o Owner specific o International · Utilization of design standards o Owner’s o Contractor’s o Designer’s o Mixed · Level of design detail required · Donor or benefactor requirements · Sole source requirements for equipment or systems · Insurance underwriter requirements · Cultural preferences C3. Evaluation of Existing Facilities If existing facilities are available, then a condition assessment must be performed to determine if they will meet facility requirements. Evaluation criteria may include: · Capacity · Power · Utilities (i.e., potable water, gas, oil) · Fire water · Waste treatment/disposal · Sanitary sewer · Telecommunications · Security · Storm water containment system/filtration · Access o Rail o ADA or local standards o Roads · Parking areas · Type and size of buildings/structures · Amenities o Food service o Ambulatory access o Medical facilities o Recreation facilities including public outdoor spaces Glossary of Terms Page 11
  12. 12. CII Benchmarking & Metrics (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0) Glossary of Terms o Change rooms · Condition assessment of existing facilities and infrastructure · Other C4. Scope of Work Overview This work statement overview is a complete narrative description of the project that is discipline-oriented and supports development of the project schedule and project cost estimate. It sets the limits of work by each involved party and generally articulates their financial, task, and contractual responsibilities. It clearly states both assumptions and exclusions used to define the scope of work. C5. Project Schedule Ideally, the project schedule should be developed by the project team (owner, A/E, and construction contractor). It should include milestones, unusual schedule considerations and appropriate master schedule contingency time (float), procurement of long-lead or critical pacing equipment, and required submissions and approvals. C6. Project Cost Estimate The project cost estimate should address all costs necessary for completion of the project. This cost estimate may include the following: · Construction contract estimate · Professional fees · Land cost · Furnishings · Administrative costs · Contingencies · Cost escalation for elements outside the project cost estimate · Startup costs including installation · Miscellaneous expenses including but not limited to: o Specialty consultants o Inspection and testing services o Bidding costs o Site clearance o Bringing utilities to the site o Environmental impact mitigation measures o Local authority permit fees o Occupant moving and staging costs o Utility costs during construction (if paid by owner) o Interest on borrowed funds (cost of money) o Site surveys, soils tests o Availability of construction laydown and storage at site or in remote or rented facilities SECTION II: BASIS OF DESIGN D. SITE INFORMATION D1. Site Layout Glossary of Terms Page 12
  13. 13. CII Benchmarking & Metrics (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0) Glossary of Terms The facility should be sited on the selected property. Layout criteria may include items such as: · Access (e.g., road, rail, marine, air) · Construction access · Historical/cultural · Trees and vegetation · Site massing and context constraints or guidelines (i.e., how a building will look in three dimensions at the site) · Access transportation parking, delivery/service, and pedestrian circulation considerations · Open space, street amenities, “urban context concerns” · Climate, wind, and sun orientation for natural lighting views, heat loss/gain, energy conservation, and aesthetic concerns D2. Site Surveys The site should be surveyed for the exact property boundaries, including limits of construction. A topography map with the overall plot and site plan is also needed. Evaluation criteria may include: · Legal property descriptions with property lines · Easements · Rights-of-way · Drainage patterns · Deeds · Definition of final site elevation · Benchmark control systems · Setbacks · Access and curb cuts · Proximity to drainage ways and flood plains · Known below grade structures and utilities (both active and inactive) · Trees and vegetation · Existing facility locations and conditions · Solar/shadows D3. Civil/Geotechnical Information The civil/geotechnical site evaluation provides a basis for foundation, structural, and hydrological design. Evaluations of the proposed site should include items such as: · Depth to bedrock · General site description (e.g., terrain, soils type, existing structures, spoil removal, areas of hazardous waste, etc.) · Expansive or collapse potential of soils · Fault line locations · Spoil area for excess soil (i.e., location of on-site area or off-site instructions) · Seismic requirements · Water table elevation · Flood plain analysis · Soil percolation rate and conductivity · Ground water flow rates and directions Glossary of Terms Page 13
  14. 14. CII Benchmarking & Metrics (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0) Glossary of Terms · Need for soil treatment or replacement · Description of foundation design options · Allowable bearing capacities · Pier/pile capacities · Paving design options · Overall site analysis D4. Governing Regulatory Requirements The local, state, and federal government permits necessary to construct and operate the facility should be identified. A work plan should be in place to prepare, submit, and track permit, regulatory, re-zoning, and code compliance for the project. It should include items such as: · Construction · Unique requirements · Environmental · Structural calculations · Building height limits · Setback requirements · Fire · Building · Occupancy · Special · Signage · Historical issues · Accessibility · Demolition · Solar · Platting · Air/water · Transportation The codes that will have a significant impact on the scope of the project should also be investigated and explained in detail. Particular attention should be paid to local requirements. Regulatory and code requirements may affect the defined physical characteristics and project cost estimate. The project schedule may be affected by regulatory approval processes. For some technically complex buildings, regulations may change frequently. D5. Environmental Assessment An environmental assessment should be performed for the site to evaluate issues that can impact the cost estimate or delay the project. These issues may include: · Archeological · Location in an EPA air quality non-compliance zone · Location in a wet lands area · Environmental permits now in force · Existing contamination · Location of nearest residential area · Ground water monitoring in place · Downstream uses of ground water Glossary of Terms Page 14
  15. 15. CII Benchmarking & Metrics (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0) Glossary of Terms · Existing environmental problems with the site · Past/present use of site · Noise/vibration requirements · Air/water discharge requirements and options evaluated · Discharge limits of sanitary and storm sewers identified · Detention requirements · Endangered species · Erosion/sediment control D6. Utility Sources with Supply Conditions The availability/non-availability of site utilities needed to operate the facility with supply conditions of quantity, temperature, pressure, and quality should be evaluated. This may include items such as: · Potable water · Drinking water · Cooling water · Fire water · Sewers · Instrument air · Facility air · Heating water · Gases · Steam · Electricity (voltage levels) · Communications (e.g., data, cable television, telephones) · Special requirement (e.g., deionized water or oxygen) D7. Site Life Safety Considerations Fire and life safety related items should be taken into account for the selected site. These items should include fire protection practices at the site, available firewater supply (amounts and conditions), and special safety requirements unique to the site. Evaluation criteria may include: · Wind direction indicator devices (e.g., wind socks) · Fire monitors and hydrants · Flow testing · Access and evacuation plan · Available emergency medical facilities · Security considerations (site illumination, access control) D8. Special Water and Waste Treatment Requirements On-site or pretreatment of water and waste should be evaluated. Items for consideration may include: · Wastewater treatment · Process waste · Sanitary waste · Waste disposal · Storm water containment and treatment Glossary of Terms Page 15
  16. 16. CII Benchmarking & Metrics (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0) Glossary of Terms E. BUILDING PROGRAMMING E1. Program Statement The program statement identifies the levels of performance for the facility in terms of space planning and functional relationships. It should address the human, physical, and external aspects to be considered in the design. Each performance criteria should include these issues: · A performance statement outlining what goals are to be attained (e.g., providing sufficient lighting levels to accomplish the specified task safely and efficiently) · A measure that must be achieved (e.g., 200 foot-candles at surface of surgical table) · A test which is an accepted approach to establish that the criterion has been met (e.g., using a standard light meter to do the job) E2. Building Summary Space List The summary space list includes all space requirements for the entire project. This list should address specific types and areas. Possible space listings include: · Building population · Administrative offices · Lounges · Food Service Cafeteria · Conference rooms · Vending alcoves · Janitorial closets · Elevators · Stairs · Loading docks · Dwelling units · Special technology considerations · Classrooms · Laboratories · Corridors · Storage facilities · Mechanical rooms · Electrical rooms · Parking space · Entry lobby · Restrooms · Data/computer areas A room data sheet should correspond to each entry on the summary space list. Room data sheets are discussed in element E11. The room data sheet contains information that is necessary for the summary space list. This list is used to determine assignable (usable) and non-assignable (gross) areas. E3. Overall Adjacency Diagrams Glossary of Terms Page 16
  17. 17. CII Benchmarking & Metrics (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0) Glossary of Terms The overall adjacency diagrams depict the layout of each department or division of the entire building. They show the relationship of specific rooms, offices, and sections. The adjacency diagrams must adequately convey the overall relationships between functional areas within the facility. Note that these diagrams are sometimes known as “bubble diagrams” or “balloon diagrams.” They are also commonly expressed in an adjacency matrix. E4. Stacking Diagrams A stacking diagram portrays each department or functional unit vertically in a multi-story building. Stacking diagrams are drawn to scale, and they can help establish key design elements for the building. These diagrams are easily created with space lists and adjacency (or bubble) diagrams. Critical vertical relationships may relate to circulatory (stairs, elevators), structural elements, and mechanical or utility shafts. Stacking diagrams can establish building elements such as floor size. This type of diagram often combines functional adjacencies and space requirements and also shows how the project is sited. E5. Growth and Phased Development Provisions for future phases or anticipated use change must be considered during project programming. A successful initial phase necessitates a plan for the long term phases. The following phasing issues may be addressed. · Guidelines to allow for additions (i.e., over-design of structural systems, joist layout, column spacing) · Technology needs as facility grows and expands or changes (e.g., mechanical systems, water demands) · Compare the additional costs involved with making the building “expandable” versus the probability of the future expansion occurring as envisioned. · Provisions for infrastructure that allow for future expansion E6. Circulation and Open Space Requirements An important component of space programming is common-area open spaces, both interior and exterior. These areas include the items listed and considerations such as: · Exterior o Service dock areas and access o Circulation to parking areas o Passenger drop-off areas o Pedestrian walkways o Courtyards, plazas, or parks o Landscape buffer areas o Unbuildable areas (e.g., wetlands or slopes) o Sidewalks or other pedestrian routes o Bicycle facilities o Lobbies and entries o Security considerations (e.g., card access or transmitters) o Snow removal plan o Postal and newspaper delivery o Waste removal Glossary of Terms Page 17
  18. 18. CII Benchmarking & Metrics (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0) Glossary of Terms o Fire and life-safety circulation considerations · Interior o Interior aisle ways and corridors o Vertical circulation (i.e., personnel and material transport including elevators and escalators) o Directional and location signage E7. Functional Relationship Diagrams/Room by Room Room by room functional relationship diagrams show the structure of adjacencies of a group of rooms. With these adjacency diagrams (also known as bubble diagrams), the architect can convert them into a floor plan with all the relationships. Each space detail sheet should have a minimum of one functional relationship diagram. Rooms are often represented by circles, bubbles, squares, or rectangles. Larger rooms are represented with bigger symbols. They are also commonly expressed in an adjacency matrix. E8. Loading/Unloading/Storage Facilities Requirements list of requirements identifying materials to be unloaded and stored and products to be loaded along with their specifications. This list should include items such as: · Storage facilities to be provided and/or utilized · Refrigeration requirements and capabilities · Mail/small package delivery · Recycling requirements E9. Transportation Requirements Specifications for implementation of facility transportation (e.g., roadways, conveyers, elevators) as well as methods for receiving and shipping of materials (e.g., air, rail, truck, marine) should be identified. Provisions should be included for items such as: · Facility access requirements based on transportation · Drive-in doors · Extended ramps for low clearance trailers · Rail car access doors · Service elevators · Loading docks · Temporary parking E10. Building Finishes Levels of interior and exterior finishes should be defined for the project. For example, the finishes may include categories such as: Interior Schedule: · Type A o Floor: vinyl composition tile o Walls: painted · Type B o Floor: direct glue carpet Glossary of Terms Page 18
  19. 19. CII Benchmarking & Metrics (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0) Glossary of Terms o Walls: vinyl wall covering · Type C o Floor: carpet over pad o Walls: wood paneling Exterior Schedule: · Type 1 o Walls: brick o Trim: brick · Type 2 o Walls: overlapping masonry o Trim: cedar Finishes and local design standards are further defined in category F. E11. Room Data Sheets Room data sheets contain the specific requirements for each room considering its functional needs. A room data sheet should correspond to each room on the building summary space list. The format of the room data sheet should be consistent. Possible issues to include on room data sheets are: · Critical dimensions · Technical requirements (e.g., fireproof, explosion resistance, X-ray) · Furnishing requirements · Equipment requirements · Audio/visual (A/V) data and communication provisions · Lighting requirements · Utility requirements · Security needs including access/hours of operation · Finish type · Environmental issues · Acoustics/vibration requirements · Life-safety E12. Furnishings, Equipment, and Built-Ins All moveable furnishings, equipment, and built-ins should be listed on the room data sheets. Moveable and fixed in place equipment should be distinguished. Building modifications, such as wide access doors or high ceilings, necessary for any equipment also need to be listed. Long delivery time items should be identified and ordered early. It is critical to identify the utility impact of equipment (e.g., electrical, cooling, special water or drains, venting, radio frequency shielding). Examples may include: · Furniture · Kitchen equipment · Medical equipment · Material handling · Partitions New items and relocated existing items must be distinguished in the program. The items can be classified in the following categories. Glossary of Terms Page 19
  20. 20. CII Benchmarking & Metrics (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0) Glossary of Terms New Items: · Contractor furnished and contractor installed · Owner furnished and contractor installed · Owner furnished and owner installed Existing Items: · Relocated as is and contractor installed · Refurbished and installed by contractor · Relocated as is and owner installed · Refurbished and installed by owner E13. Window Treatment Any special fenestration window treatments for energy and/or light control should be noted in order to have proper use of natural light. Some examples include: · Blocking of natural light · Glare reducing windows · Exterior louvers · Interior blinds F. BUILDING/PROJECT DESIGN PARAMETERS F1. Civil/Site Design Civil/site design issues should be addressed to provide a basis for facility design. Issues to address may include: · Service and storage requirements · Elevation and profile views · High point elevations for grade, paving, and foundations · Location of equipment · Minimum overhead clearances · Storm drainage system · Location and route of underground utilities · Site utilities · Earth work · Subsurface work · Paving/curbs · Landscape/xeriscape · Fencing/site security F2. Architectural Design Architectural design issue should be addressed to provide a basis for facility design. These issues may include the following: Glossary of Terms Page 20
  21. 21. CII Benchmarking & Metrics (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0) Glossary of Terms · Determination of metric (hard/soft) versus Imperial (English) units (Note: The term “hard” metric means that materials and equipment are identified on the drawings and have to be delivered in metric- sized unit dimensions such as 200mm by 400mm. “Soft” metric means that materials and equipment can be delivered using sizes that approximate the metric dimensions given on the drawings, such as three-inch length instead of eight cm. It is important to set these dimensions and not “mix and match.”) · Requirements for building location/orientation horizontal and vertical · Access requirements · Nature/character of building design (e.g., aesthetics) · Construction materials · Acoustical considerations · American with Disabilities Act requirements or other local access requirements · Architectural Review Boards · Planning and zoning review boards · Circulation considerations · Seismic design considerations · Color/material standards · Hardware standards · Furniture, furnishings, and accessories criteria · Design grid · Floor to floor height F3. Structural Design Structural design considerations should be addressed to provide a basis for the facility design. These considerations may include the following: · Structural system (e.g., construction materials, constraints) · Seismic requirements · Foundation system · Corrosion control requirements/required protective coatings · Client specifications (e.g., basis for design loads, vibration, deflection) · Future expansion/flexibility considerations · Design loading parameter (e.g., live/dead loads, design loads, collateral load capacity, equipment/material loads, wind/snow loads, uplift) · Functional spatial constraints F4. Mechanical Design Mechanical design parameters should be developed to provide a basis for facility design. Items to consider include: · Special ventilation or exhaust requirements · Equipment/space special requirements with respect to environmental conditions (e.g., air quality, special temperatures) · Energy conservation and life cycle costs · Acoustical requirements · Zoning and controls · Air circulation requirements · Outdoor design conditions (e.g., minimum and maximum yearly temperatures) Glossary of Terms Page 21
  22. 22. CII Benchmarking & Metrics (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0) Glossary of Terms · Indoor design conditions (e.g., temperature, humidity, pressure, air quality) · Building emissions control · Utility support requirements · System redundancy requirements · Plumbing requirements · Special piping requirements · Seismic requirements F5. Electrical Design Electrical design parameters provide the basis for facility design. Consider items such as: · Power sources with available voltage and amperage · Special lighting considerations (e.g., lighting levels, color rendition) · Voice, data, and video communications requirements · Uninterruptable power source (UPS) and/or emergency power requirements · Energy consumption/conservation and life cycle cost · Ability to use daylight in lighting · Seismic requirements · Lightning/grounding requirements F6. Building Life Safety Requirements Building life safety requirements are a necessity for building operations. They should be identified at this stage of the project. Possible safety requirements are listed below: · Fire resistant requirements · Explosion resistant requirements · Area of refuge requirements in case of catastrophe · Safety and alarm requirements · Fire detection and/or suppression requirements · Eye wash stations · Safety showers · Deluge requirements and foam · Fume hoods · Handling of hazardous materials · Isolation facilities · Sterile environments · Emergency equipment access · Personnel shelters · Egress · Public address requirements · Data or communications protection in case of disaster or emergency · Fall hazard protection · Gas hazard detection F7. Constructability Analysis CII defines constructability as, “the optimum use of construction knowledge and experience in planning, design, procurement, and field operations to achieve overall project objectives. Maximum benefits occur Glossary of Terms Page 22
  23. 23. CII Benchmarking & Metrics (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0) Glossary of Terms when people with construction knowledge and experience become involved at the very beginning of a project.” Is there a structured approach for constructability analysis in place? Have provisions been made to provide this on an ongoing basis? This would include examining design options and details of construction that minimize construction costs while maintaining standards of safety, quality, and schedule. Elements of constructability during pre-project planning include: · Constructability program in existence · Construction knowledge/experience used in project planning · Early construction involvement in contracting strategy development · Developing a construction-sensitive project schedule · Considering major construction methods in basic design approaches · Developing site layouts for efficient construction · Early identification of project team participants for constructability analysis · Usage of advanced information technologies F8. Technological Sophistication The requirements for intelligent or special building systems should be evaluated. Examples of these systems may include: · Video conferencing · Internet connections · Advanced audio/visual (A/V) connections · Personnel sensing · Computer docking stations · “Smart” heating or air-conditioning · Intercommunication systems · Security systems · Communication systems · Conveyance systems G. EQUIPMENT G1. Equipment List Project-specific equipment should be defined and listed. (Note: Building systems equipment is addressed in element F4 – Mechanical Design and F5 – Electrical Design). In situations where owners are furnishing equipment, the equipment should be properly defined and purchased. The list should define items such as: · Process · Medical · Food service/vending · Trash disposal · Distributed control systems · Material handling · Existing sources and characteristics of equipment o Relative sizes o Weights o Location o Capacities Glossary of Terms Page 23
  24. 24. CII Benchmarking & Metrics (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0) Glossary of Terms o Materials of construction o Insulation and painting requirements o Equipment related access o Vendor, model, and serial number once identified o Equipment delivery time, if known G2. Equipment Location Drawings Equipment location/arrangement drawings identify the specific location of each item of equipment in a project. These drawings should identify items such as: · Plan and elevation views of equipment and platforms · Location of equipment rooms · Physical support requirement (e.g., installation bolt patterns) · Coordinates or location of all major equipment G3. Equipment Utility Requirements This evaluation should consist of a tabulated list of utility requirements for all major equipment items such as: · Power and/or all utility requirements · Flow diagrams · Design temperature and pressure · Diversity of use · Gas · Water SECTION III: EXECUTION APPROACH H. PROCUREMENT STRATEGY H1. Identify Long-lead/Critical Equipment and Materials Identify engineered equipment and material items with lead times that will impact the design for receipt of supplier information or impact the construction schedule with long delivery times. H2. Procurement Procedures and Plans Procurement procedures and plans include specific guidelines, special requirements, or methodologies for accomplishing the purchasing, expediting, and delivery of equipment and materials required for the project. Evaluation criteria may include: · Who will perform procurement? · Listing of approved vendors, if applicable · Client or contractor purchase orders · Reimbursement terms and conditions · Guidelines for supplier alliances, single source, or competitive bids · Guidelines for engineering/construction contracts · Who assumes responsibility for owner-purchased items? Glossary of Terms Page 24
  25. 25. CII Benchmarking & Metrics (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0) Glossary of Terms o Financial o Shop inspection o Expediting · Tax strategy o Depreciation capture o Local sales and use tax treatment o Investment tax credits · Definition of source inspection requirements and responsibilities · Definition of traffic/insurance responsibilities · Definition of procurement status reporting requirements · Additional/special owner accounting requirements · Definition of spare parts requirements · Local regulations (e.g., tax restrictions, tax advantages) · Incentive/penalty strategy for contracts · Storage J. DELIVERABLES J1. CADD/Model Requirements Computer Aided Drafting and Design (CADD) requirements should be defined. Evaluation criteria may include: o Software system required by client (e.g., AutoCAD, Intergraph) o Will the project be required to be designed using 2D or 3D CADD? Will rendering be required? o If 3D CADD is to be used, will a walk-through simulation be required? o Owner/contractor standard symbols and details o How will data be received and returned to/from the owner? o Disk o Electronic transfer o Tape o Reproducibles o Full-size mock-ups Physical model requirements depend upon the type needed for analysis, such as study models or design checks. J2. Documentation/Deliverables Documentation and deliverables required during project execution should be identified. If electronic media are to be used, format and application packages should be outlined. The following items may be included in a list of deliverables: o Drawings and specifications o Project correspondence o Permits o Maintenance and operating information/startup procedures o Facility keys, keying schedules, and access codes o Project data books (quantity, format, contents, and completion date) Glossary of Terms Page 25
  26. 26. CII Benchmarking & Metrics (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0) Glossary of Terms o Equipment folders (quantity, format, contents, and completion date) o Design calculations (quantity, format, contents, and completion date) o Spare parts and maintenance stock (special forms) o Procuring documents/contract documents o Record (as-built) documents o Quality assurance documents o Project signage o Guarantees/warranties o Inspection documents o Certificates of inspection o Shop drawings and samples o Bonds o Distribution matrix K. PROJECT CONTROL K1. Project Quality Assurance and Control Quality assurance and quality control procedures need to be established. Responsibility for approvals needs to be developed. Electronic media requirements should be outlined. These issues may include: o Responsibility during design and construction o Testing of materials and workmanship o ISO 9000 requirements o Submittals and shop drawing approach o Inspection reporting requirements o Progress photos o Reviewing changes and modifications o Communication documents (e.g., RFIs, RFQs) o Commissioning tests o Lessons-learned feedback K2. Project Cost Control Procedures for controlling project cost need to be outlined and responsibility assigned. Electronic media requirements should be identified. These may include cost control requirements such as: o Financial (client/regulatory) o Phasing or area sub-accounting o Capital vs. non-capital expenditures o Report requirements o Payment schedules and procedures o Cash flow projections/draw down analysis o Cost code scheme/strategy o Costs for each project phase o Periodic control check estimates o Change order management procedure, including scope control K3. Project Schedule Control Glossary of Terms Page 26
  27. 27. CII Benchmarking & Metrics (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0) Glossary of Terms The project schedule is created to show progress and ensure that the project is completed on time. The schedule is necessary for design and construction of the building. A schedule format should be decided on at the beginning of the project. Typical items included in a project schedule are listed below. o Milestones o Unusual schedule considerations o Required submissions and/or approvals o Required documentation and responsible party o Baseline vs. progress to date o Long-lead or critical pacing equipment delivery o Critical path activities o Contingency or “float time” o Permitting or regulatory approvals o Activation and commissioning o Liquidated damages/incentives The owner must also identify how special project issues will be scheduled. These items may include: o Selection, procurement, and installation of equipment o Design of interior spaces (including furniture and accessory selection) o Stages of the project that must be handled differently than the rest of the project o Tie-ins, service interruptions, and road closures K4. Risk Management Major project risks need to be identified, quantified, and management actions taken to mitigate problems developed. Pertinent elements may include: o Design risks o Expertise o Experience o Work load o Teamwork orientation o Communication o Integration and coordination o Construction risks o Availability of craft labor and construction materials o Weather o Differing/unforeseen/difficult site conditions o Long-lead item delays o Strikes o Inflation o Scope growth o Management risks o Availability of designers o Critical quality issues o Bidders o Human error o Cost and schedule estimates o Timely decisions Glossary of Terms Page 27
  28. 28. CII Benchmarking & Metrics (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0) Glossary of Terms o Team chemistry o Insurance considerations K5. Safety Procedures Safety procedures and responsibilities must be identified for design consideration and construction. Safety issues to be addressed may include: o Hazardous material handling o Interaction with the public o Working at elevations/fall hazards o Evacuation plans and procedures o Drug testing o First aid stations o Accident reporting and investigation o Pre-task planning o Safety orientation and planning o Safety incentives o Other special or unusual safety issues L. PROJECT EXECUTION PLAN L1. Project Organization The project team should be identified including roles, responsibilities, and authority. Items to consider include: o Core team members o Project manager assigned o Project sponsor assigned o Working relationships between participants o Communication channels o Organizational chart o Approval responsibilities/responsibility matrix L2. Owner Approval Requirements All documents that require owner approval should be clearly defined. These may include: o Milestones for drawing approval by phase o Comment o Approval o Bid issues (public or private) o Construction o Durations of approval cycle compatible with schedule o Individual(s) responsible for reconciling comments before return o Types of drawings/specifications o Purchase documents/general conditions and contract documents o Data sheets o Inquiries o Bid tabulations Glossary of Terms Page 28
  29. 29. CII Benchmarking & Metrics (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0) Glossary of Terms o Purchase orders o Supplier information L3. Project Delivery Method The methods of project design and construction delivery, including fee structure should be identified. Issues to consider include: o Owner self-performed o Designer and constructor qualification selection process o Selected methods (e.g., design/build, CM at risk, competitive sealed proposal, bridging, design-bid-build) o Contracting strategies (e.g., lump sum, cost-plus) o Design/build scope package considerations L4. Design/Construction Plan and Approach This is a documented plan identifying the specific approach to be used in designing and constructing the project. It should include items such as: o Responsibility matrix o Subcontracting strategy o Work week plan/schedule o Organizational structure o Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) o Construction sequencing of events o Site logistics plan o Safety requirements/program o Identification of critical activities that have potential impact on facilities (i.e., existing facilities, crane usage, utility shut downs and tie-ins, testing) o Quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) plan o Design and approvals sequencing of events o Equipment procurement and staging o Contractor meeting/reporting schedule o Partnering or strategic alliances o Alternative dispute resolution o Furnishings, equipment, and built-ins responsibility L5. Substantial Completion Requirements Substantial Completion (SC) is defined as the point in time when the building is ready to be occupied. The following may need to be addressed: o Have specific requirements for SC responsibilities been developed? o Have warranty, permitting, insurance, and tax implications been considered? o Commissioning o Equipment/systems startup and testing o Occupancy phasing o Final code inspection o Calibration o Verification Glossary of Terms Page 29
  30. 30. CII Benchmarking & Metrics (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0) Glossary of Terms o Documentation o Training o Acceptance o Landscape requirements o Punchlist completion plan and schedule o Substantial completion certificate Glossary of Terms Page 30
  31. 31. CII Benchmarking & Metrics (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0) Glossary of Terms PDRI (Project Definition Rating Index) Industrial SECTION I - BASIS OF PROJECT DECISION A. MANUFACTURING OBJECTIVES CRITERIA A1. Reliability Philosophy A list of the general design principles to be considered to achieve dependable operating performance from the unit. Evaluation criteria should include: · Justification of spare equipment · Control, alarm, and safety systems redundancy · Extent of providing surge and intermediate storage capacity to permit independent shutdown of portions of the plant · Mechanical / structural integrity of components (metallurgy, seals, types of couplings, bearing selection, etc.) A2. Maintenance Philosophy A list of the general design principles to be considered to meet unit up-time requirements. Evaluation criteria should include: · Scheduled unit / equipment shutdown frequencies and durations · Equipment access / monorails / cranes · Maximum weight or size requirements for available repair equipment · Equipment monitoring requirements (vibrations monitoring, etc.) A3. Operating Philosophy A list of the general design principles that need to be considered to support the routine scheduled production from the unit in order to achieve the projected overall on-stream time or service factor. Evaluation criteria should include: · Level of operator coverage and automatic control to be provided · Operating time sequence (ranging from continuous operation to five day, day shift only) · Necessary level of segregation and clean out between batches or runs · Desired unit turndown capability · Design requirements for routine startup and shutdown B. BUSINESS OBJECTIVES B1. Products A list of product(s) to be manufactured and their specifications. It should address items such as: · Chemical composition · Allowable impurities · Physical form Glossary of Terms Page 31
  32. 32. CII Benchmarking & Metrics (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0) Glossary of Terms · By-products · Raw materials · Wastes B2. Market Strategy Has a market strategy been developed and clearly communicated? It must identify the driving forces (other than safety) for the project and specify what is most important from the viewpoint of the business group. It should address items such as: · Cost · Schedule · Quality B3. Project Strategy Has a project strategy been defined that supports the market strategy in relation to the following items: · Cost · Schedule · Quality B4. Affordability / Feasibility Have items that may improve the affordability of the project been considered? These should include incremental cost criteria such as: · Consideration of feedstock availability and transport to the job site · Performing an analysis of capital and operating cost versus sales and profitability Results of these studies should be communicated to the project team. B5. Capacities The design output of a given specification product from the unit. Capacities are usually defined as: · On-stream factors · Yield · Design rate B6. Future Expansion Considerations A list of items to be considered in the unit design that will facilitate future expansion. Evaluation criteria should include: · Providing space for a possible new reactor train · Providing tie-ins to permit a duplicate or mirror image unit that can be added without necessitating a shutdown · Guidelines for over design of structural systems to allow for additions Glossary of Terms Page 32
  33. 33. CII Benchmarking & Metrics (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0) Glossary of Terms B7. Expected Project Life Cycle This is the time period that the unit is expected to be able to satisfy the products and capacities required. Have requirements for ultimate disposal and dismantling been considered? These requirements should include: · Cost of ultimate dismantling and disposal · Dismantling equipment requirements · Presence of contaminants · Disposal of hazardous materials · Possible future uses B8. Social Issues Evaluation of various social issues such as: · Domestic culture vs. international culture · Community relations · Labor relations · Government relations · Education / training · Safety and health considerations C. BASIC DATA RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT C1. Technology The chemistry used to convert the raw materials supplied to the unit into the finished product. Proven technology involves least risk, while experimental technology has a potential for change. Technology can be evaluated as: · Existing / proven · Duplicate · New · Experimental C2. Processes A particular, specific sequence of steps to change the raw materials into the finished product. Proven processes involve the least risk, while experimental processes have a potential for change. Processes can be evaluated as: · Existing / proven · Duplicate · New · Experimental D. PROJECT SCOPE D1. Project Objectives Statement (Y/N) Glossary of Terms Page 33
  34. 34. CII Benchmarking & Metrics (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0) Glossary of Terms This is a mission statement that defines the project objectives and priorities for meeting the business objectives. It is important to obtain total agreement from the entire project team regarding these objectives and priorities to ensure alignment. D2. Project Design Criteria The requirements and guidelines which govern the design of the project. Evaluation criteria should include: · Level of design detail required · Climatic data · Codes & standards · National · Local · Utilization of engineering standards · Owner's · Contractor's · Mixed D3. Site Characteristics Available vs. Required (Y/N) An assessment of the available vs. the required site characteristics. Evaluation criteria should include: · Capacity · Utilities · Power · Fire water · Pipe racks · Flare systems · Waste treatment / disposal · Cooling water · Storm water containment system · Type of buildings / structures · Amenities · Food service · Recreation facilities · Change rooms · Ambulatory access · Medical facilities · Product shipping facilities · Material receiving facilities · Material storage facilities · Product storage facilities · Security D4. Dismantling and Demolition Requirements Has a scope of work been defined for the dismantling of existing equipment and/or piping which may be necessary for completing new construction? Evaluation criteria should include: · Timing Glossary of Terms Page 34
  35. 35. CII Benchmarking & Metrics (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0) Glossary of Terms · Permits · Approval · Safety requirements · Hazardous operations · Plant / operations requirements · Narrative (scope of work) for each system · Are the systems that will be dismantled... · Named & marked on process flow diagrams · Named & marked on P&ID's · Denoted on line lists and equipment lists · Denoted on piping plans or photo-drawings D5. Lead / Discipline Scope of Work This is a complete narrative description of the project, generally discipline oriented. This should be developed through the use of the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) (Halpin et al. 1987). D6. Project Schedule (Y/N) Has the project milestone schedule been developed, analyzed, and agreed upon by the major project participants? This should involve obtaining early constructability input from: · Operations · Engineering · Construction E. VALUE ENGINEERING E1. Process Simplification (Y/N) Identify activities (through studies, reviews, etc.) for reducing the number of steps or the amount of equipment needed in the process in order to optimize performance. E2. Design & Material Alternatives Considered / Rejected (Y/N) Is there a structured approach in place to consider design and material alternatives? Has it been implemented? E3. Design For Constructability Analysis Is there a structured approach for constructability analysis in place? Have provisions been made to provide this on an ongoing basis? This would include examining design options that minimize construction costs while maintaining standards of safety, quality, and schedule. CII defines constructability as, "the optimum use of construction knowledge and experience in planning, design, procurement, and field operations to achieve overall project objectives. Maximum benefits occur when people with construction knowledge and experience become involved at the very beginning of a project" (CII 1986). SECTION II - FRONT END DEFINITION F. SITE INFORMATION Glossary of Terms Page 35
  36. 36. CII Benchmarking & Metrics (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0) Glossary of Terms F1. Site Location (Y/N) Has the geographical location of the proposed project been defined? This involves an assessment of the relative strengths and weaknesses of alternate site locations. A site that meets owner requirements and maximizes benefits for the owner company should be selected. Evaluation of sites may address issues relative to different types of sites (i.e. global country, local, "inside the fence," or "inside the building"). This decision should consider the long-term needs of the owner company (CII 1995). The selection criteria should include items such as: · General geographic location o Access to the targeted market area o Near sources of raw materials o Local availability and cost of skilled labor (e.g. construction, operation, etc.) o Available utilities o Existing facilities · Land availability and costs · Access (e.g. road, rail, marine, air, etc.) · Construction access and feasibility · Political constraints · Legal constraints · Regulatory constraints · Financing requirements · Social issues · Weather · Climate F2. Surveys & Soil Tests Survey and soil test evaluations of the proposed site should include items such as: · Topography map · Overall plant plot plan · General site description (e.g. terrain, existing structures, spoil removal, areas of hazardous waste, etc.) · Definition of final site elevation · Benchmark control system · Spoil area (i.e. location of on-site area or off-site instructions) · Seismic requirements · Water table · Soil percolation rate & conductivity · Existing contamination · Ground water flow rates and directions · Downstream uses of ground water · Need for soil treatment or replacement · Description of foundation types · Allowable bearing capacities · Pier / pile capacities Glossary of Terms Page 36
  37. 37. CII Benchmarking & Metrics (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0) Glossary of Terms F3. Environmental Assessment Evaluation of the site by characteristics such as: · Location in an EPA air quality non-compliance zone · Location in a wet lands area · Environmental permits now in force · Location of nearest residential area · Ground water monitoring in place · Containment requirements · Existing environmental problems with the site · Past / present use of site F4. Permit Requirements Is there a permitting plan in place? The local, state, and federal government permits necessary to construct and operate the unit should be identified. These should include items such as: · Construction · Fire · Local · Building · Environmental · Occupancy · Transportation · Special F5. Utility Sources With Supply Conditions Has a list been made identifying availability / nonavailability of site utilities needed to operate the unit with supply conditions of temperature, pressure, and quality? This should include items such as: · Potable water · Instrument air · Drinking water · Plant air · Cooling water · Gases · Fire water · Steam · Sewers · Condensate · Electricity (voltage levels) F6. Fire Protection & Safety Considerations A list of fire and safety related items to be taken into account in the design of the facility. These items should include fire protection practices at the site, available firewater supply (amounts and conditions), special safety requirements unique to the site, etc. Evaluation criteria should include: Glossary of Terms Page 37
  38. 38. CII Benchmarking & Metrics (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0) Glossary of Terms · Eye wash stations · Deluge requirements · Safety showers · Wind direction indicator · Fire monitors & hydrants devices (i.e. wind socks) · Foam · Alarm systems · Evacuation plan · Medical facilities · Security fencing G. PROCESS / MECHANICAL G1. Process Flow Sheets Drawings that provide the process description of the unit. Evaluation criteria should include: · Major equipment items · Flow of materials to and from the major equipment items · Primary control loops for the major equipment items · Sufficient information to allow sizing of all process lines G2. Heat & Material Balances Heat balances are tables of heat input and output for major equipment items (including all heat exchangers) within the unit. Material balances are tables of material input and output for all equipment items within the unit. The documentation of these balances should include: · Special heat balance tables for reaction systems · Information on the conditions (e.g. temperature and pressure) · Volumetric amount (GPM, ACFM, etc.) G3. Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams (P&ID's) These are often referred to by different companies as: EFD's - Engineering Flow Diagrams MFD's - Mechanical Flow Diagrams PMCD's - Process & Mechanical Control Diagrams In general, P&ID's are considered to be a critical element within the scope definition package of an industrial project. Since incomplete information on P&ID's is frequently identified as a source of project escalation, it is important to understand their level of completeness. It often requires several iterations, or passes, to obtain all of the necessary information from each discipline specialist. During each iteration, additional information is added to the P&ID's. Thus, it is unlikely for P&ID's to be completely defined in a project's scope definition package. VALVES o Process needed valves Glossary of Terms Page 38
  39. 39. CII Benchmarking & Metrics (Project Questionnaire Version 9.0) Glossary of Terms o Valves needed for maintenance o Bypasses, blocks, and bleeds o Drains, vents, freeze protection, etc. o Type of valve designated o Non-line sized valves indicated o Control valves sized o Miscellaneous designated valves added o Valve tags added (not always done) o Valve design details added (as necessary) PIPING SPECIALTY ITEMS o Identification of items o Numbering of items (usually by piping) o Specialty item design details (as necessary) UTILITIES o Main connections and continuations o Remaining connections and continuations o Overall distribution and control o Utilities design details INSTRUMENTATION o Elements, loops, and functions o Primary elements o Local panel or control house location o Control panel or CRT location o Computer inputs and outputs o Process steam traps (may be specialty items) o Hard wired interlocks o Motor controls (need schematics) o Type of primary elements o Instrument numbers o Uniform logic control details o Indicator lights o Instrumentation design details (as necessary) SAFETY SYSTEMS o Process Safety Management Hazard Analysis review o Key process relief valves o Remaining relief valves o Failure mode of control valves o Car sealed valves (as necessary) o Relief valve sizes (instrumentation / process check) o Relief system line sizes o System design details (as necessary) Glossary of Terms Page 39

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