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    My White Paper.doc My White Paper.doc Document Transcript

    • Guideline - DRAFT IAPPM Confidential A Guide to Project Management Auditing, Assessments and Recommendations Project and Program Management Audits Essential Tips and Guidebook for Undertaking Pre and Post Project Audits and Assessments THE INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF PROJECT AND PROGRAM MANAGEMENT (IAPPM) New Jersey / Hyderabad / London / Sydney / Singapore / Katmandu /Montreal Filename: my-white-paperdoc865.doc 1
    • Guideline - DRAFT IAPPM Confidential PROJECT MANAGER Madaline Muñoz /Jason Charvat/other. MARKETING MANAGER Xxxxxx Xxxxxxxx PRODUCTION EDITOR Marc McDonald PHOTO EDITOR Xxxxxx Xxxxxxxx ILLUSTRATION COORDINATOR Xxxxxx Xxxxxxxx This book was set in Times New Roman and printed and bound by.XXXXXX XXXXXXXXXX. The cover was printed by.XXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXX This book is printed on acid-free paper. ∞ The paper in this guideline was manufactured by a mill whose forest management programs include sustained yield harvesting of its timberlands. Sustained yield harvesting principles ensure that the numbers of trees cut each year does not exceed the amount of new growth. Copyright © IAPPM. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (508) 750-8400, fax (508) 750-4470. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department, IAPPM, 111 Lloyd Court, New Jersey, NJ 08816, (732)763-8338, E-Mail: volunteer@iappm.org ISBN 0- Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Filename: my-white-paperdoc865.doc 2
    • Guideline - DRAFT IAPPM Confidential Document History Revision Status as Contact Action Date No. of Date 0.01 Filename: my-white-paperdoc865.doc 3
    • Guideline - DRAFT IAPPM Confidential Contents 1 Executive Summary......................................................................................................5 1.1 Purpose of the Guidebook................................................................................................................................5 1.2 The Importance of Project Audits.....................................................................................................................7 1.3 The Audit Construct..........................................................................................................................................7 1.4 Preparing for the Project Audit.........................................................................................................................7 1.5 Definition a Project Audit................................................................................................................................9 2 Project Management Offices.....................................................................................10 2.1 Project management Offices Roles on Audits.................................................................................................10 2.2 Audit Best Practices in Corporations..............................................................................................................10 3 Project & Program Management Audits..................................................................11 3.1 Troubled Projects or Programs........................................................................................................................11 3.2 Project Audit Methodology............................................................................................................................11 3.3 Obtaining Executive Buy-in for Conducting Audits.......................................................................................11 4 Project Assessments....................................................................................................12 4.1 Assessing Projects in Trouble.........................................................................................................................12 4.2 xx....................................................................................................................................................................12 4.3 xx....................................................................................................................................................................12 5 Project & Program Management Audits..................................................................13 5.1 During the Project Life-Cycle........................................................................................................................13 5.2 Post Project Audits.........................................................................................................................................13 5.3 Realising Business Benefits............................................................................................................................13 6 Project Audits Governance.........................................................................................14 6.1 Governance around Project Audits.................................................................................................................14 6.2 Audit Governance Team.................................................................................................................................14 6.3 Types of Recommendation to Expect from Audit team..................................................................................14 6.4 Audit Meetings ..............................................................................................................................................14 7 Project Recommendations and Best Practices..........................................................15 7.1 Team Building ...............................................................................................................................................15 7.2 Group Awareness of Issues............................................................................................................................15 7.3 Techniques for Improving Projects ................................................................................................................15 8 Conclusion....................................................................................................................16 8.1 Project Manager Responsibilities...................................................................................................................16 8.2 Program Manager Responsibilities.................................................................................................................16 8.3 PMO Responsibilities.....................................................................................................................................16 8.4 Executive Sponsorship Responsibilities..........................................................................................................16 8.5 Steering Committee Governance....................................................................................................................16 8.6 Audit Conclusion............................................................................................................................................16 Filename: my-white-paperdoc865.doc 4
    • Guideline - DRAFT IAPPM Confidential 1 Executive Summary 1.1 Purpose of the Guidebook The Project Manager Audit guideline was devised to be used by individuals for two purposes (1) for obtaining a better understanding on Project management Audits and (2) to assist with the development of project and program management auditsrs out in the field. The content should be applicable and practical success factors in making everyday projects work. All levels of business leaders and managers would learn from reading this guideline. In particular, we believe this guideline will benefit the following types of individuals:  You are an experienced business executive, following corporate policy to the very letter, constrained by your normal duties and responsibilities and wanting to ensure past mistakes are not repeated again.  You’ve had some setbacks by following old outdated project/program management trends within the organization and they are getting you into trouble.  You are perhaps an academic or student wishing to dabble in the way audits should be setup, conducted and managed.  You are simply keen on reading something totally fresh and interesting.  You are into creating a project audit team or process The sections set out in the guide are all coupled in that they all focus on the same broad subject: project and program management audits. This guideline originated from seminars and presentations through our interactions trying to figure out when o audit a troubled project and what to do based on the outcomes of these audits. All the chapters are related; independent yet all connected. This guideline is intended to be of significant interest to both new and practicing project and program managers, executives, academics or students who are primarily interested in identifying and correcting potential problems in everyday project deployments. To avoid any surprise on your part, let me state that our intention with this guide was not to delve into the great depths of audits, but rather learn from these basics and trends happening at many great companies – and allow us to adjust our thinking and mannerisms – to display uniqueness, creative wonder and the ability to add the project value to the organization. Filename: my-white-paperdoc865.doc 5
    • Guideline - DRAFT IAPPM Confidential As organizations become more mainstream and accessible, they must develop new ways to creativity develop solutions, products and future services, since things (what does things refer to?) have become super-competitive. This is irrespective of the industry vertical that many organizations find themselves. Our opinions and arguments for these current and future trends are not apologetic, rather spirited. We suspect that whether you agree or disagree with these trends, you will find them interesting, illustrative, provocative, compelling and practical. At minimum, we shall look at projects and programs in a whole new way. It is our intention to strategically analyze the situation so that a viable path to success is selected. We believe that the arguments of colleagues and peers who claim that companies need to always embrace new processes are likely fallacious. We also believe that having a company full of passive sheep, which is in the business of developing new products, should rethink their approach. Although well intentioned, it is simply not good enough anymore for the future economy. If we are to maximize the benefits from the great big world of team dynamics, creative though and individualism, we must offer a compelling logic; a logic of understanding as to how people can offer value. When you walk away from this guide, consider this – we may be right! Over the past decade, the Project and Program Management profession has undergone many changes. Some of these new trends, which have been the drivers of change in Project Management, are:  New Technology Tools  Virtual Teams  Growing importance of PMOs (Project Management Organizations)  Need for stronger communication skills (I don't consider this is a new trend)  Increasing significance of Politics in Projects  Importance of Process Excellence in Project Management  Adherence to Various Project methodologies  Project Management Audits As industries continually design and deploy projects, the ability to manage the project throughout its entire life cycle takes on ever-increasing importance. Ever more important is the role of a certified project auditor Filename: my-white-paperdoc865.doc 6
    • Guideline - DRAFT IAPPM Confidential 1.2 The Importance of Project Audits The audit team will be looking for a clear plan. What does this mean? Do Project Management guidelines exist within the organization? If so some time can be saved by using this historical data. It can give you a head start into how your company has managed projects in the past and the formulas that they use. However if there is no documentation on hand or this process is new to your organization Then you have your work cut out for you. Let’s get back to what the auditors are looking for. Your project plan must be traceable: Once again documentation. That brings us to the Project Notebooks. When your notebooks are in order then the auditors are able to trace the work you have done. Sounds simple well maybe. If you are opposed to printing you can save your notebook on a network server. I would also back up the information on a CD that can be stored off premise. This also insures your DR status in case of an emergency. 1.3 The Audit Construct When you are in the market for a new home what’s the first thing you look at? Location, Location, Location. Well when you are planning a new project the key word here is Documentation, Documentation, and Documentation. This can not be stressed enough. If your documentation is in order then the audit will not leave you awake at night. Remember we are not talking IRS here but none the less the audit of your project is very important. It is not really a pass or fail situation. It is relating what you did and how it was accomplished. 1.4 Preparing for the Project Audit One another note, save everything. This includes emails, documents that have past between the sponsors and the team, Consultant plans, Statement of Work from your vendors, put them in your Project Book. You never know when you may need to refer to them. Having everything at your finger tips makes it easy to answer questions when they arise. On to the plan. There are five phases of a project lifecycle. They are Initiation, Planning, Executing, Controlling, and Closing. You should create a template for your project and give each of them a name. Then you have a starting place. This will also make it easy for the auditors to find the information they may be looking for. Make a Folder and or a tab in you project binder for each phase. Initiation Phase: • Identify the main objective of the Project Filename: my-white-paperdoc865.doc 7
    • Guideline - DRAFT IAPPM Confidential • Determine project selection criteria • Write the project charter • Get sign-off of the project charter Planning Phase: • Establish project deliverables • Write a Scope Statement • Start on a project budget • Distinguish project activities • Work out a schedule • Determine special skills needed to complete planned tasks Executing Phase: • Put together the project team • Administer and guide the project team • Attain other project resources • Conduct status review meetings • Communicate project information • Manage project development • Implement quality assurance measures Controlling Phase: • Measure performance against the plan • Take corrective action when procedures are out of the scope • Evaluate the corrective measures • Ensure that project developments according to the plan • Review change requests Closing Phase: • Acquire acceptance of project deliverables • Document lessons learned during the project • Archiving project records • Formalize the closing of the project • Release project resources • Write Final Status Report Right after you complete the Initiation Phase it is time to begin doing a Work Breakdown Structure. (WBS) I would recommend that you make a task list first. Then you can put them into the WBS. The auditor will be looking at your WBS to define how you scheduled your tasks. A Visio diagram is always good. Or you could use other PM software for this document. Microsoft Project is very good. I recommend that you formalize yourself with this piece of software. It could become your lifeline. Until something better comes along. Filename: my-white-paperdoc865.doc 8
    • Guideline - DRAFT IAPPM Confidential 1.5 Definition a Project Audit Other key documents: Setting Milestones, Be sure that your deliverables are on time. Time is money and this will not only set you behind on your schedule but will more then likely cost the company money. It can become a chain reaction. Once a deliverable is missed and time and money are involved you will need to go back to the budget and perhaps change the scope. Of course we can never predict what will take place but careful planning and strong management will usually win out. Change Management forms: Set these up ahead of time so you’re ready. No matter how carefully you have planned your project changes do occur. In order to cover your project audit the correct change management process must be followed. In writing this I wanted to give you the reader a since of what an Audit is. To that I turned to the trusty Webster’s but it just did not define a project audit in our environment. So I went to Newton’s Telecom Dictionary. Being a Telecom Analyst for years I have lived by some of Newton’s methods. Now being an IT Project Manager he still inspires me. Newton writes: Audit To conduct an independent review and examination of system records. However what I thought was more enlightening was Newton’s definition of Audit Trail A record of all the events that occur when users request and use specific resources. An audit trail gives you the ability to trace who did what and who was responsible. Now if that is not a pure definition of Project Management I don’t know what is. I sincerely hope that this has been of some help in your quest to pull together the proper documents for your Project. Here’s to a goods nights sleep. I would like to acknowledge the following people. Whose books I would highly recommend. Kim Heldman (Project Management Jump Start) Harry Newton (Newton’s Telecom Dictionary) Filename: my-white-paperdoc865.doc 9
    • Guideline - DRAFT IAPPM Confidential 2 Project Management Offices 2.1 Project management Offices Roles on Audits Another new trend in Project Management is the growing importance of a Project Management Organization (PMO). For many years, companies did not feel the need or requirement to have an organization to organize the Projects and the Project Managers. But, through time and experience, companies have come to rely on PMOs to improve success of projects and project managers. These organizations vary in scope and roles, but fundamentally, the PMO drives best practices of the Project Managers and Projects. The PMO drives how not to make the same project mistakes, thereby increasing the success of projects 2.2 Audit Best Practices in Corporations Professional Project Manager Organizations are growing in importance today, due to Project Managers needing to learn best practices for management of people and projects. They need to understand how to learn from other project managers and other professionals, just as other professionals like Doctors and Lawyers attend conventions to learn the current methods and updated tools of their profession. Professional organizations increase the skills and knowledge of their members and increase the effectiveness of the membership. Filename: my-white-paperdoc865.doc 10
    • Guideline - DRAFT IAPPM Confidential 3 Project & Program Management Audits 3.1 Troubled Projects or Programs Project Managers need to understand the political nature of all projects. xx 3.2 Project Audit Methodology IAPPM has a management framework in place that is managed and maintained by the Management Team (PMT). Related documents within this framework are: 3.3 Obtaining Executive Buy-in for Conducting Audits xx Filename: my-white-paperdoc865.doc 11
    • Guideline - DRAFT IAPPM Confidential 4 Project Assessments 4.1 Assessing Projects in Trouble xx 4.2 xx xx 4.3 xx xx Filename: my-white-paperdoc865.doc 12
    • Guideline - DRAFT IAPPM Confidential 5 Project & Program Management Audits 5.1 During the Project Life-Cycle Project Management … 5.2 Post Project Audits xx 5.3 Realising Business Benefits xx Filename: my-white-paperdoc865.doc 13
    • Guideline - DRAFT IAPPM Confidential 6 Project Audits Governance 6.1 Governance around Project Audits Project Management is a maturing profession. xx 6.2 Audit Governance Team Project Management is a maturing profession. xx 6.3 Types of Recommendation to Expect from Audit team xx Audit Activity Who  Cancel Project ASAP Sponsor  Cancel Project if xx is not met    6.4 Audit Meetings Project Management is a maturing profession. xx Filename: my-white-paperdoc865.doc 14
    • Guideline - DRAFT IAPPM Confidential 7 Project Recommendations and Best Practices The following area of responsibility should be used to help determine the appropriate course of action on a project or program to supplement the project audit. 7.1 Team Building Project Managers need to be effective team builders. Today’s projects rely on strong leadership of the Project Manager to guide the activities of the team. Creating a team is important because each member needs to understand their role and how they work toward attaining the goals defined by the Project Manager. Project Managers need to continuously improve team building by training, attending seminars, or reading articles/ books. 7.2 Group Awareness of Issues Project Managers need to understand how groups function in order to deal with them effectively in their roles as either project or program manager. Groups of people, it turns out, tend to behave in fairly predictable ways. Understanding how the groups you are in -- or groups that you lead -- are likely to behave can give you a tremendous advantage at work and in other areas of your life. 7.3 Techniques for Improving Projects The following tips are supplemented to help a project manager in developing his/her team: Filename: my-white-paperdoc865.doc 15
    • Guideline - DRAFT IAPPM Confidential 8 Conclusion 8.1 Project Manager Responsibilities Let us conclude by insisting that we who are responsible for managing projects and programs, teams, departments or corporations must do so with uniqueness and diligence, ensuring that the organizations most vital assets, its people, are identified as valuable contributors to take their organization to the future. After all, someone within your organization may have the creative solution or be setting the trend you’ve been looking for. You need to ensure that they don’t suffocate from doing the same things all the time. Times are changing, so must your organizations approach and so too your team members. 8.2 Program Manager Responsibilities Project Management is a maturing profession. xx 8.3 PMO Responsibilities Project Management is a maturing profession. xx 8.4 Executive Sponsorship Responsibilities Project Management is a maturing profession. xx 8.5 Steering Committee Governance Project Management is a maturing profession. xx 8.6 Audit Conclusion Project Management is a maturing profession. xx This guideline is based on IAPPM’s experience, valuable input and client interactions. The opinions expressed in this guideline are those of IAPPM and do not necessarily represent those of other published works. We suspect that you will enjoy the manner in which this book has been presented with its logic, useful facts, findings and applications for everyday project and program management. Filename: my-white-paperdoc865.doc 16
    • Guideline - DRAFT IAPPM Confidential Filename: my-white-paperdoc865.doc 17