Enter risk s cenario (how an event could jeopardize project outcome).
Rate probability, impact, and degree of control using rating scale of:
1 = Low
2 = Medium
3 = High
Compute risk index using formula:
If possible, enter financial impact.
Determine actions to take:
Ignore (do nothing)
For managed risks, indicate mitigations and contingencies and assign risk manager.
Log actions taken as they occur.
Giving Risks Priorities Maintain inventory of all risks identified—updating probabilities, impacts, and controls if changes occur. Focus attention on the risks with the highest Indices!!! * How would this change if you learned that a team member has announced that she is a finalist for a new position at the home office 1,500 miles away?
For project selection, this will be the list of candidate projects.
Number the items for identification purposes.
Use the grid to compare each item with the other items on the list, circling the item that is the more preferred of the two. (You must make a choice for each pair!)
Count the number of times each item was circled and enter its score on the bottom line of the grid.
Rank order the list using the scores you have derived. The item with the highest score is #1. The item with the second-highest score is #2. (In case of a tie, you may either do a mini-grid for the tied items, or refer to your original preference when you were circling the items in the grid above.)
Use less than a full grid for fewer than 10 items; expand grid for more items.
Seven Books I Have Always Wanted to Read and Haven’t
How to Use Forced Pair Comparisons Example (continued): * * * Break ties. In this case, #1 and #6 as well as #3 and #6 were tied. Ties were broken merely by referring to previous choice made in the grid.
How to Use Forced-Pair Comparisons Example (concluded):
Pride and Prejudice
War and Peace
Remembrance of Things Past
Ranked List of the Seven Books I Have Always Wanted to Read and Haven’t
As you get more projects under your belt, work with other project teams to develop templates for WBS’s to use as a starting point.
Remember, no two projects are ever exactly alike (remember the “unique” in the definition of a project)! The template should be a starting point—to be tailored to the specific needs of the current project.
Even with the time spent in tailoring, templates can be enormous time-savers.
Assigning Responsibilities: Responsibility Matrix (Also Known as RACI Chart)
Cross-reference of tasks and resources assigned to the project.
Informed I = Consulted C = Accountable A = Responsible R =
Once you’ve determined the activities for the project and estimated their durations, network diagrams are the next step for creating the project schedule.
Activity on Arrow (AOA)—nodes on the diagram connect arrows and represent activities
Activity on Node (AON)—nodes represent activities that are connected by arrows showing the precedence of activities
Network Diagram Example Activity on Arrow (AOA) Critical path is A-B-F-G-H-I, with total duration of 29 days. There is one non-critical path A-C-D-E-I, with total duration of 23 days. NOTE: Task A has no slack because it is on the critical path.
Network Diagram Example Activity on Node (AON) Once again, the critical path is A-B-F-G-H-I, with total duration of 29 days. There is one non-critical path A-C-D-E-I, with total duration of 23 days. NOTE: Task A has no slack because it is on the critical path.
Networked Tasks ES EF LS LF ES EF LS LF ES EF LS LF ES EF LS LF ES EF LS LF ES EF LS LF ES EF LS LF ES EF LS LF Rule #1: In forward pass, ES = latest EF of predecessor Rule #2: In backward pass, LF = earliest LS of successors Rule #3: Task is CRITICAL if ES=LS and EF=LS ( no Slack) Rule #4: Task is NON-CRITICAL if ES<>LS and Slack = LS – ES (or LF – EF) Scheduling Algorithm Exercise Determine Early Start/Early Finish, Late Start/Late Finish And Critical Path
Completed Network w/Forward & Backward Pass Calculations Rule #1: In forward pass, ES = latest EF of predecessor Rule #2: In backward pass, LF = earliest LS of successors Rule #3: Task is CRITICAL if ES=LS and EF=LS ( no Slack) Rule #4: Task is NON-CRITICAL if ES<>LS and Slack = LS – ES (or LF – EF) Scheduling Algorithm Exercise Determine Early Start/Early Finish, Late Start/Late Finish And Critical Path 0 0 0 30 30 60 0 45 45 135 135 135 225 165 225 225 225 225 225 225 225 195 195 165 135 135 45 45 195 0 0 0 Slack = 165 Slack = 60
Completed Network w/Forward & Backward Pass Calculations Once start date/time entered, other calculations automatic with project management software Scheduling Algorithm Solution Determine Early Start/Early Finish, Late Start/Late Finish And Critical Path
“Individuals and organizations that are actively involved in the project, or whose interest may be positively or negatively affected as a result of project execution or project completion.” 2000 PMBOK Guide
Project manager and team
Those affected by the project
Project Stakeholders: Partial List of Candidates for Stakeholder Roles
Project benefactor and upper management
Project office/project advisory boards
Project manager and team
If a team member has a line manager, he or she is a key stakeholder as well. (They hold the strings for your team member.)
Product Scope: The sum of the features that make up the product or service created by the project.
Project Scope: All of the activities and resources required to produce the target product or service.
Preliminary Context Diagrams : Deconstruction Here we’ve drilled down into the Widget World organization and depicted the major functions within the company. Ideally, the top level should encompass the entire organization. We have been charged with evaluating a flawed sales support system that provides automated training and support to the sales staff. The scope of the training product is therefore the box labeled “Support Sales.”
Scope (Context) Diagrams Defining the End Product Sales Staff Performance Support Training Product IT Dept Sales Staff Course Development Group HR Department Sales Managers Ad Hoc Product and Sales Support Ad Hoc Product and Procedures Inquiries Usage Statistics Content Updates Sales Staff Participation and Progress Reports Sales Staff Information and Access Permissions Course Lessons, Assessments, and Learner Evaluations Login and Lesson Participation Sales Staff Participation and Progress Reports
Scope (Context) Diagrams Defining the End Product (continued)
Scope (Context) Diagrams (applied to project team charged with delivery of the product) Project to Develop Sales Staff Support System IT Systems Support HR Dept Internal Web Design Group Sales Managers Internal Focus Group Participants Completed System Requirements Progress Reports Request for Infrastructure Template Designs Content Rules Approvals/$ Interim Versions Recommendations/ Approvals
Scope (Context) Diagram (applied to project team charged with delivery of the product - continued)
Every stakeholder should receive information at just the right level of detail for them.
High-level managers won’t want to see all the gory details of the project.
Your team members need to see a great deal more.
If your level of reporting is appropriate, and one of your stakeholders steps into the elevator and asks about the status of the project, you should be able to brief him or her by the time the elevator stops two floors away.