Module 9


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Module 9

  1. 1. Project Management Systems & Scheduling MT 246 - Module 9
  2. 2. Topics Covered Previously <ul><li>Work Definition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After System is defined, all development items are known, and work packages can be defined </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Work Package (Summary Task) Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smallest managed unit of a project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Broken into tasks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assigned to Work Package (Subproject) manager </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal Project Reporting Requirement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relates directly to system deliverables </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Topics Covered Previously (cont’d) <ul><li>Task Definition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tasks are the fundamental component of Work Packages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explicit inputs and outputs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explicit Start and Stop Date </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Work Breakdown Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizes Work Packages in a logical fashion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encompasses all Work Packages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows assignment of Work Packages to the project organization via the Responsibility Matrix </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Topics Covered Previously (cont’d) <ul><li>Estimating </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Methodology for definition of cost of each task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish Labor Rates for each type of labor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine man-hours for each task by type of labor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine Material Cost for each task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine ODC for each task </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Demonstrated examples from Construction Estimator </li></ul>
  5. 5. Responsibility Matrix <ul><li>Documents the intersection of the WBS and the functional organization </li></ul><ul><li>Assigns all work packages to organizational units </li></ul><ul><li>Key feature is accountability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single point of contact for each work package </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subproject manager is responsible for Cost/Schedule/Technical </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All work packages must be assigned to someone!! </li></ul>
  6. 6. Responsibility Matrix <ul><li>Fig 6-8 </li></ul>
  7. 7. Project Management System <ul><li>Collection of tools which captures and controls all aspects of project management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Project Org Charts and Responsibility Matrix </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defines all work via WBS and task descriptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Documents Budgets for all Work Packages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Captures Cost and Schedule information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Captures technical info via System Engineering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides analysis and reporting (cost/schedule) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal Revision Control </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Revision Control Process <ul><li>Project Management System imposes formal revision control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes to budgets require written PM and Customer approval </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes to schedules require written PM and Customer approval </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes to specifications require written PM and Customer approval </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Revision Control Process (Continued) <ul><li>All changes are formally documented and configuration managed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmitted via Contracts Letters between Buyer and Seller </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change control boards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forms with revision letters and signatures of approval </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Scheduling <ul><li>Parallel task to WBS development </li></ul><ul><li>Captures time phasing of project tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Essentially a project “road map” </li></ul><ul><li>Composed of “Tasks” and “Milestones” </li></ul><ul><li>Updated regularly (at least monthly) during project life </li></ul><ul><li>All Work Packages have a standalone schedule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed, controlled, and updated by WP Manager </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tiers up to Total Project Schedule </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Scheduling (Continued) <ul><li>Work Packages are the work planned </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Road to project goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time, money, manpower, equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Events and Milestones do not consume resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Signpost along the road (time) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Event is start or end of WP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Milestone is Point in time of significance to a project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contract Award </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Delivery of Hardware, Software, etc . </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Types of Schedules <ul><li>Purpose is to display project schedule in a 2D graph or network </li></ul><ul><li>Developed from analysis of WBS and Work Package tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Simplest is Gantt, or Bar Chart </li></ul><ul><li>Most complex is Schedule Network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Precedence (logic) diagram with task duration and interrelationships </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Scheduling Historical Context <ul><li>Gantt Charts were invented during World War I as a means of controlling Cost/Schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Henry Gantt, Management Consultant </li></ul><ul><li>Means of visually portraying the status of Programs </li></ul><ul><li>Shows tasks planned vs. task percent complete and tasks completed </li></ul><ul><li>Refined during the 1950s and 1960s as a result of cost overruns on large development projects </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a means of relating Cost/Schedule via Manpower and Cost Curves </li></ul>
  14. 14. Gantt Chart Features <ul><li>Display events (or milestones) and activities (tasks) as a function of time </li></ul><ul><li>Tasks and Milestones are described on left margin, with bars in graph area (Y-Axis) </li></ul><ul><li>Length of bar is equal to task duration </li></ul><ul><li>Placement of left side of bar equals task start date </li></ul><ul><li>Time is displayed on X-Axis </li></ul><ul><li>Task/Milestone sequence </li></ul><ul><li>Early Tasks/Milestones at top of chart </li></ul><ul><li>Later Tasks/Milestones progress down the page </li></ul>
  15. 15. Gantt Chart Features (Continued) <ul><li>Gantt Charts vary in detail </li></ul><ul><li>“ Roll Up” into Summary Tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate for different management levels </li></ul><ul><li>Task relationships are implicit, sometimes indicated by dotted lines </li></ul><ul><li>Progress indicated by shading of task bars in proportion to “Percent Complete” </li></ul>
  16. 16. Gantt Chart <ul><li>Figure 6-10 </li></ul>
  17. 17. Setting up a Gantt Chart <ul><li>H must be completed before </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I and J can be started </li></ul></ul><ul><li>J must be completed before </li></ul><ul><ul><li>K,L and M can be started </li></ul></ul><ul><li>I must be completed before </li></ul><ul><ul><li>N, O and P can be started </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Task Relationships <ul><li>To be useful, schedule must show task relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Earlier tasks that must be finished prior to starting follow-on tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Precedence Relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Common Task Relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Start/Start </li></ul><ul><li>Finish/Start </li></ul><ul><li>Finish/Finish </li></ul>
  19. 19. Setting up a Gantt Chart (Continued)
  20. 20. Schedule Baseline <ul><li>After Contract Award, all Sub Project Managers change their Work Packages to reflect the latest knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Design Changes </li></ul><ul><li>Schedule Changes </li></ul><ul><li>Project manager Reviews/Approves all schedules </li></ul><ul><li>Schedules are placed under formal revision control </li></ul><ul><li>Any changes made to schedule must be approved by PM and Customer </li></ul><ul><li>Schedule is “Updated” from that point forward </li></ul>
  21. 21. Updating of Gantt Charts <ul><li>Review date is indicated by a vertical line on chart </li></ul><ul><li>Tasks are “blackened” to a bar length that is equal to the “Percent Complete” of the task </li></ul><ul><li>Update procedure allows a manager to visualize task status </li></ul><ul><li>Tasks completed early </li></ul><ul><li>Tasks scheduled to be complete, but are now late </li></ul><ul><li>Tasks that have not started, but should have been initiated </li></ul><ul><li>Tasks that are on schedule </li></ul>
  22. 22. Gantt Chart for Work Progress
  23. 23. Percent Complete <ul><li>All tasks must be “Measurable” </li></ul><ul><li>Measurable means that the Work Package Manager must be able to assess “how far along” a given task is at the time of the Project Review </li></ul><ul><li>Generally based on engineering judgment </li></ul><ul><li>Must be objective, not subjective </li></ul><ul><li>How Far Along is essentially Percent Complete </li></ul><ul><li>Be careful about “Thermometer Charts” </li></ul>
  24. 24. Gantt Chart for Weekly and Cumulative Expenses
  25. 25. Schedule Hierarchy <ul><li>In order to avoid confusion, schedules are provided to varying levels of detail </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Rolling Up” tasks into Summary Tasks for each Work Project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Level of detail depends on the reviewer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Must establish a formal relationship between schedules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to WBS Indenturing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formally controlled via the PMS Procedures </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Schedule Hierarchy Example
  27. 27. Multilevel Schedule
  28. 28. Gantt Chart Showing Work Progress (Computer Generated) <ul><li>Fig 6-16 </li></ul>
  29. 29. Gantt Chart Showing Multilevel Schedule (Computer Generated)
  30. 30. Disadvantages of Gantt Charts <ul><li>Task relationships are not easily displayed </li></ul><ul><li>Effect of task delay is not easily seen </li></ul><ul><li>Problem gets worse with project complexity </li></ul><ul><li>These problems resulted in the development of schedule networks </li></ul><ul><li>Covered in the next two lectures </li></ul><ul><li>This deficiency has been largely overcome by the use of micro-computers </li></ul><ul><li>Gantt vs. Network “view” of data </li></ul>
  31. 31. Homework Assignment Preview <ul><li>Construction Project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Garage with workroom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>30 feet X 40 feet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Develop Cost Estimate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use subset of information provided in Module 8 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Develop Schedule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide logical relationship of tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assign Task Duration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assign manpower by labor grade </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Homework Assignment Preview (Continued) <ul><li>Develop Manpower Curve </li></ul><ul><li>Use Microsoft Project </li></ul><ul><li>Due 22 February (Thursday) </li></ul><ul><li>Homework value 50 Points </li></ul>
  33. 33. Next Lecture <ul><li>Read Nicholas Chapter7 </li></ul><ul><li>Install Microsoft Project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Save Files of following Questions for future use </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Work Review Questions 6.17, 6.20, 6.22, 6.23, 6.25,6.26, 6.28, 6.29 </li></ul>