Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
MGMT631 Slides Two.ppt
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.


Saving this for later?

Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime - even offline.

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

MGMT631 Slides Two.ppt


Published on

Published in: Technology, Business

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

No notes for slide


  • 1. MGT631 IS Project Management Slides Two
  • 2. Session Objectives
    • Case discussion:
      • e.g. Big I & BCDC, Grip Projects
    • System Life Cycle
    • Rapid Application Development (RAD)
    • Prototyping & Time Box
    • Capability Maturity Model (CMM)
  • 3. Remember Verzuh’s Five Essential Success Factors
    • Agreement on Goals
    • Plan clearly indicating what and who
    • Constant, effective Communication
    • Controlled Scope
    • Management support
  • 4. Case Discussion
    • “BIG I”
    • Successful?
    • Well planned?
    • Clear accountability?
    • Did things go wrong?
    • Effective communications?
    • Carrot & stick?
    • “ BCDC”
    • Fiasco?
    • Planned or happened?
    • Anyone accountable?
    • Anyone fired?
    • Frank’s plumbing?
    • One disaster after another?
    • Who cares?
  • 5. I40/Coors Interchange Reconstruction Project
    I40 – Pennsylvania Bridge http:// =15300
  • 6. Projects Don’t Run In Isolation
    • Projects operate in broad organizational environment
    • PMs must take holistic or systems view
      • understand how project fits into larger organization
  • 7. Project Management doesn’t take place in isolation Project environment Organizational environment Rest of the world Boundaries Interactions create pressure & cause changes
  • 8. Systems View of Project Management
    • Systems approach emerged in 1950s
      • More analytical approach to management & problem solving
      • Examine the problem by first understanding the environment in which it exists, next reduce the problem into smaller components & then manage the resolution of the problem
    • Three parts:
      • Systems philosophy: View things as systems, interacting components working within an environment to fulfill some purpose
      • Systems analysis: problem-solving approach
      • Systems management: Address business, technological & organizational issues before making changes to systems
  • 9. Systems Development Life Cycle
    • Systems Development Life Cycle
      • SDLC
      • framework for describing phases in developing & maintaining information systems
    • Typical SDLC phases include
      • planning, analysis, design, implementation & support
  • 10. Systems Development Life Cycle
    • Traditional (heavyweight)
    • RAD
    • (Rapid Application Development)
    • Agile (Lightweight)
  • 11. Sample SDLC Models
    • Waterfall model
      • well-defined, linear stages of systems development of support
    • Spiral model
      • software developed using iterative or spiral approach rather than linear approach
  • 12. Sample SDLC Models (cont.)
    • Incremental release model
      • progressive development of operational software
    • RAD model
      • produces systems quickly without sacrificing quality (!)
    • Prototyping model
      • develops prototypes to clarify user requirements
  • 13. Systems Development Life Cycle SDLC Traditional Approach Systems Implementation Product: Operational System Systems Investigation Product: Feasibility Study Systems Analysis Product: Functional Requirements Systems Design Product: System Specifications Systems Maintenance Product: Improved System Understand the Business Problem or Opportunity Develop an Information System Solution Implement the Information System Solution
  • 14. Structured Approaches: Waterfall Method
  • 15. Spiral Model of Software Development (Boehm, 1988)
  • 16. RAD -- Prototyping Use and Maintain the Accepted System Identify an End User's Information Requirements Develop Information System Prototypes Revise the Prototypes to Better Meet End User Requirements Prototyping Cycle Maintenance Cycle
  • 17. Sandra Dewitz Systems Analysis & Design (1996)
    • Traditional systems development
      • ill-suited for online, real time systems development
      • ill-suited for leading edge development
      • does not foster customer-designer communication
      • inflexible as freezes requirements (tries to!)
    • Three popular strategies
      • joint application development (JAD)
      • phased development
      • rapid application development (RAD)
  • 18. JAD
    • Overcomes customer-designer communications gap
    • Reduce time/effort documenting, approving requirements/design
    • JAD sessions bring users/designers together to focus on project development
    • Employs prototyping as integral part of process
  • 19. JPP
    • Joint Project Planning (JPP) session
    • Objective: develop a project plan that meets conditions negotiated between requester & provider
    • Wysocki chapter 8
  • 20. Phased Development
    • Partitions large system into subsystem based on major processes
    • Performs traditional cycle iteratively till full system implemented
  • 21. RAD
    • Similar to both JAD & phased development
    • Segments system into subsystem
    • Iteratively performs model-critique-refine process till users approve prototype
    • What sets RAD apart is addition of TIMEBOX sets time limit on prototyping phase
    • Goal is having working system of limited functionality quickly
  • 22. RAD (continued)
    • Incremental delivery reduces time from requirements to system delivery
    • Limited time and expense at risk for organization
    • RAD approach not appropriate for all projects
  • 23. RAD Process System definition System initiation JAD planning & design Timebox User request for change System evaluation Put system into production Minor system modifications made system redefinition performed if not suitable for implementation User review Build & evolve
  • 24. Other SDLC Models
    • Scrum model
    • Rational Unified Process (RUP) model
    • Agile methodologies
      • e.g. eXtreme Programming XP) model
  • 25. Project Phases & Management Reviews
    • Project should successfully pass through each project phase in order to continue on to next
    • Management reviews (also called phase exits or kill points) should occur after each phase to evaluate
      • project’s progress
      • likely success
      • continued compatibility with organizational goals
  • 26. Distinguishing Project Life Cycles & Product Life Cycles
    • Project life cycle applies to all projects, regardless of products being produced
    • Product life cycle models vary considerably based on nature of product
    • Most large IT products are developed as a series of projects *
    • Project management is a done is all of the product life cycle phases
    • * I have three 5-7 months mini-projects not an 18 months project
  • 27. Project Team – Stakeholders – Organization
    • Marchewka
    • “ project success does not depend primarily on the team, but more on the set of processes and infrastructure in place”
  • 28. Need for Organizational Commitment to IT
    • If the organization has a negative attitude toward IT, it will be difficult for an IT project to succeed
    • Having a Chief Information Officer (CIO) at a high level in the organization helps IT projects
    • Assigning non-IT people to IT projects also encourages greater commitment
  • 29. Need for Organizational Standards
    • Standards & guidelines help project managers be more effective
    • Senior management can encourage
      • use of standard forms & software for project management
      • development & use of guidelines for writing project plans or providing status information
      • creation of project management office or center of excellence
  • 30. Project Management Process Groups
    • Project management can be viewed as a number of interlinked processes
    • The project management process groups include
      • initiating processes
      • planning processes
      • executing processes
      • controlling processes
      • closing processes
  • 31. PMBOK Project Management Process Groups
  • 32. Developing an IT Project Management Methodology
    • Just as projects are unique, so are approaches to project management
    • Many organizations develop their own project management methodologies, especially for IT projects
    • Next slides illustrates outline methodology from Marchewka
  • 33. An IT Project Methodology
  • 34. PLC versus SDLC
  • 35. Software Engineering Institute (SEI)
    • SEI at Carnegie Mellon, funded by DOD
      • http:// /
    • Focus on 2 areas of software development
      • enhanced management process
      • technical engineering practices
  • 36. Process Improvement
    • “ If you can guarantee the quality of the processes used by an organization, you can guarantee the quality of the products and services generated by these processes”
  • 37. Capability Maturity Models
    • SEI offers a number of CMMs
    • CMMs define best practices
    • Are cornerstones for process improvement
    • How mature/immature are your organization’s processes?
    • Software CMM defines
      • principles & principles underlying software process maturity
  • 38. Software CMM Five Levels of Maturity
    • Initial
      • overall approach ad hoc, occasionally chaotic; few processes defined; success depends on individual effort
    • Repeatable
      • basic PM processes in place to track cost, schedule, functionality
    • Defined
      • S/w processes for management & engineering documented, standardized & integrated into development processes
  • 39. Five levels of Maturity (cont.)
    • Managed
      • detailed measures of software process & product quality collected; software processes understood & controlled
    • Optimizing
      • continuous process of improvement enabled by quantitative feedback from process &piloting innovative ideas & technologies
  • 40.  
  • 41.  
  • 42. Maturity Levels & Defects
    • Maturity level
      • 1
      • 2
      • 3
      • 4
      • 5
    • Defects E/KSLOC
      • 12
      • 6
      • 2.5
      • 0.9
      • 0.3
  • 43. The Cost of Quality
    • The cost of quality is
      • the cost of conformance or delivering products that meet requirements and fitness for use
      • the cost of nonconformance or taking responsibility for failures or not meeting quality expectations
  • 44. Costs Per Hour of Downtime Caused by Software Defects $89,500 Airline reservation center (small airline) $90,000 Catalog Sales center $69,000 Telephone ticket sales $28,250 Package shipping service $14,500 Automated teller (medium-sized bank) Cost per hour down Business
  • 45. Six Phases of a Project
    • Enthusiasm
    • Disillusionment
    • PANIC
    • Search for Guilty
    • Punishment of Innocent
    • Praise & Honors for Non-Participants