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MGMT631 Slides Two.ppt

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  • 1. MGT631 IS Project Management Slides Two
  • 2. Session Objectives
    • Case discussion:
      • e.g. Big I & BCDC, Grip Projects
    • System Life Cycle
    • Rapid Application Development (RAD)
    • Prototyping & Time Box
    • Capability Maturity Model (CMM)
  • 3. Remember Verzuh’s Five Essential Success Factors
    • Agreement on Goals
    • Plan clearly indicating what and who
    • Constant, effective Communication
    • Controlled Scope
    • Management support
  • 4. Case Discussion
    • “BIG I”
    • Successful?
    • Well planned?
    • Clear accountability?
    • Did things go wrong?
    • Effective communications?
    • Carrot & stick?
    • “ BCDC”
    • Fiasco?
    • Planned or happened?
    • Anyone accountable?
    • Anyone fired?
    • Frank’s plumbing?
    • One disaster after another?
    • Who cares?
  • 5. I40/Coors Interchange Reconstruction Project
    • http://nmgrip.com/projects.asp?project=14912
    I40 – Pennsylvania Bridge http:// nmgrip.com/projects.asp?project =15300
  • 6. Projects Don’t Run In Isolation
    • Projects operate in broad organizational environment
    • PMs must take holistic or systems view
      • understand how project fits into larger organization
  • 7. Project Management doesn’t take place in isolation Project environment Organizational environment Rest of the world Boundaries Interactions create pressure & cause changes
  • 8. Systems View of Project Management
    • Systems approach emerged in 1950s
      • More analytical approach to management & problem solving
      • Examine the problem by first understanding the environment in which it exists, next reduce the problem into smaller components & then manage the resolution of the problem
    • Three parts:
      • Systems philosophy: View things as systems, interacting components working within an environment to fulfill some purpose
      • Systems analysis: problem-solving approach
      • Systems management: Address business, technological & organizational issues before making changes to systems
  • 9. Systems Development Life Cycle
    • Systems Development Life Cycle
      • SDLC
      • framework for describing phases in developing & maintaining information systems
    • Typical SDLC phases include
      • planning, analysis, design, implementation & support
  • 10. Systems Development Life Cycle
    • Traditional (heavyweight)
    • RAD
    • (Rapid Application Development)
    • Agile (Lightweight)
  • 11. Sample SDLC Models
    • Waterfall model
      • well-defined, linear stages of systems development of support
    • Spiral model
      • software developed using iterative or spiral approach rather than linear approach
  • 12. Sample SDLC Models (cont.)
    • Incremental release model
      • progressive development of operational software
    • RAD model
      • produces systems quickly without sacrificing quality (!)
    • Prototyping model
      • develops prototypes to clarify user requirements
  • 13. Systems Development Life Cycle SDLC Traditional Approach Systems Implementation Product: Operational System Systems Investigation Product: Feasibility Study Systems Analysis Product: Functional Requirements Systems Design Product: System Specifications Systems Maintenance Product: Improved System Understand the Business Problem or Opportunity Develop an Information System Solution Implement the Information System Solution
  • 14. Structured Approaches: Waterfall Method
  • 15. Spiral Model of Software Development (Boehm, 1988)
  • 16. RAD -- Prototyping Use and Maintain the Accepted System Identify an End User's Information Requirements Develop Information System Prototypes Revise the Prototypes to Better Meet End User Requirements Prototyping Cycle Maintenance Cycle
  • 17. Sandra Dewitz Systems Analysis & Design (1996)
    • Traditional systems development
      • ill-suited for online, real time systems development
      • ill-suited for leading edge development
      • does not foster customer-designer communication
      • inflexible as freezes requirements (tries to!)
    • Three popular strategies
      • joint application development (JAD)
      • phased development
      • rapid application development (RAD)
  • 18. JAD
    • Overcomes customer-designer communications gap
    • Reduce time/effort documenting, approving requirements/design
    • JAD sessions bring users/designers together to focus on project development
    • Employs prototyping as integral part of process
  • 19. JPP
    • Joint Project Planning (JPP) session
    • Objective: develop a project plan that meets conditions negotiated between requester & provider
    • Wysocki chapter 8
  • 20. Phased Development
    • Partitions large system into subsystem based on major processes
    • Performs traditional cycle iteratively till full system implemented
  • 21. RAD
    • Similar to both JAD & phased development
    • Segments system into subsystem
    • Iteratively performs model-critique-refine process till users approve prototype
    • What sets RAD apart is addition of TIMEBOX sets time limit on prototyping phase
    • Goal is having working system of limited functionality quickly
  • 22. RAD (continued)
    • Incremental delivery reduces time from requirements to system delivery
    • Limited time and expense at risk for organization
    • RAD approach not appropriate for all projects
  • 23. RAD Process System definition System initiation JAD planning & design Timebox User request for change System evaluation Put system into production Minor system modifications made system redefinition performed if not suitable for implementation User review Build & evolve
  • 24. Other SDLC Models
    • Scrum model
    • Rational Unified Process (RUP) model
    • Agile methodologies
      • e.g. eXtreme Programming XP) model
  • 25. Project Phases & Management Reviews
    • Project should successfully pass through each project phase in order to continue on to next
    • Management reviews (also called phase exits or kill points) should occur after each phase to evaluate
      • project’s progress
      • likely success
      • continued compatibility with organizational goals
  • 26. Distinguishing Project Life Cycles & Product Life Cycles
    • Project life cycle applies to all projects, regardless of products being produced
    • Product life cycle models vary considerably based on nature of product
    • Most large IT products are developed as a series of projects *
    • Project management is a done is all of the product life cycle phases
    • * I have three 5-7 months mini-projects not an 18 months project
  • 27. Project Team – Stakeholders – Organization
    • Marchewka
    • “ project success does not depend primarily on the team, but more on the set of processes and infrastructure in place”
  • 28. Need for Organizational Commitment to IT
    • If the organization has a negative attitude toward IT, it will be difficult for an IT project to succeed
    • Having a Chief Information Officer (CIO) at a high level in the organization helps IT projects
    • Assigning non-IT people to IT projects also encourages greater commitment
  • 29. Need for Organizational Standards
    • Standards & guidelines help project managers be more effective
    • Senior management can encourage
      • use of standard forms & software for project management
      • development & use of guidelines for writing project plans or providing status information
      • creation of project management office or center of excellence
  • 30. Project Management Process Groups
    • Project management can be viewed as a number of interlinked processes
    • The project management process groups include
      • initiating processes
      • planning processes
      • executing processes
      • controlling processes
      • closing processes
  • 31. PMBOK Project Management Process Groups
  • 32. Developing an IT Project Management Methodology
    • Just as projects are unique, so are approaches to project management
    • Many organizations develop their own project management methodologies, especially for IT projects
    • Next slides illustrates outline methodology from Marchewka
  • 33. An IT Project Methodology
  • 34. PLC versus SDLC
  • 35. Software Engineering Institute (SEI)
    • SEI at Carnegie Mellon, funded by DOD
      • http:// www.sei.cmu.edu /
    • Focus on 2 areas of software development
      • enhanced management process
      • technical engineering practices
  • 36. Process Improvement
    • “ If you can guarantee the quality of the processes used by an organization, you can guarantee the quality of the products and services generated by these processes”
  • 37. Capability Maturity Models
    • SEI offers a number of CMMs
    • CMMs define best practices
    • Are cornerstones for process improvement
    • How mature/immature are your organization’s processes?
    • Software CMM defines
      • principles & principles underlying software process maturity
  • 38. Software CMM Five Levels of Maturity
    • Initial
      • overall approach ad hoc, occasionally chaotic; few processes defined; success depends on individual effort
    • Repeatable
      • basic PM processes in place to track cost, schedule, functionality
    • Defined
      • S/w processes for management & engineering documented, standardized & integrated into development processes
  • 39. Five levels of Maturity (cont.)
    • Managed
      • detailed measures of software process & product quality collected; software processes understood & controlled
    • Optimizing
      • continuous process of improvement enabled by quantitative feedback from process &piloting innovative ideas & technologies
  • 40.  
  • 41.  
  • 42. Maturity Levels & Defects
    • Maturity level
      • 1
      • 2
      • 3
      • 4
      • 5
    • Defects E/KSLOC
      • 12
      • 6
      • 2.5
      • 0.9
      • 0.3
  • 43. The Cost of Quality
    • The cost of quality is
      • the cost of conformance or delivering products that meet requirements and fitness for use
      • the cost of nonconformance or taking responsibility for failures or not meeting quality expectations
  • 44. Costs Per Hour of Downtime Caused by Software Defects $89,500 Airline reservation center (small airline) $90,000 Catalog Sales center $69,000 Telephone ticket sales $28,250 Package shipping service $14,500 Automated teller (medium-sized bank) Cost per hour down Business
  • 45. Six Phases of a Project
    • Enthusiasm
    • Disillusionment
    • PANIC
    • Search for Guilty
    • Punishment of Innocent
    • Praise & Honors for Non-Participants