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  1. 1. Introduction A project is defined as a ‘series of related jobs usually directed towards some major output and requiring a significant period of time to perform’ by Chase Jacobs and Aquilano1. Project Management is used to define, plan, direct and control resources in order to meet the constraints of the project. These are typically technical, costs and time. For this Waste Management project cost is not a major factor as safety and public awareness and opinion are far more important. Objectives • Provide sufficient planning and control to ensure the project is successful • Select an appropriate leader • Budget Management • Resource Management • Group Time Management • Control meetings to ensure efficient progress Actions • Belbin Team Analysis • Gantt Charts  Critical Path Management  dates • Microsoft Project • Statement of Work (dates, objectives etc) • Work Breakdown Structure  Hierarchy of project tasks, sub tasks and work packages 
  2. 2. Resource Management • People management  Roles within group  Role of Director  Peer bonding  Commitment  Discipline • Availability  Individual timetables  Other work  Holidays  Locations • Other Resources  Room booking  Computer access  Software  MEng Project Budget • Gantt Charts for control and visual representation Belbin Testing and Team Selection Belbin tests were developed 20 years ago to enable easy classification of people’s strengths, weaknesses and capabilities in relation to teamwork 9 categories of personality, or attitude, are established, comprising of Chairman (CO); Resource Investigator (RI); Completer-finisher (CF); Team-worker (TW); Monitor-evaluator (ME); Plant (PL), Shaper (SH), Company worker (CW) and Specialist (SP). Dr Meredith Belbin realised that current trends of selecting teams based on overall skill, expertise and intelligence creates an unbalanced group with inherent instability. He derived a system to select the most efficient team from available personnel. This involves each available person filling out a carefully designed questionnaire concerning their personal traits, and tallying scores in such a way as to point at the role they are most suited to. The team is then selected so that a balance of personalities is represented. The range of Belbin roles in the Waste Management Team is shown on the chart below. This is taken from the top 3 scores of each member. Chart is imported from other project for now
  3. 3. A Chart to Show the Belbin Scores 20 18 16 14 Seb 12 Belbin Score Sakshi 10 James G James M 8 Asim 6 4 2 0 CO SH PL ME IM TW RI CF SP Type The values for each member are shown in the following table: CO SH PL ME IM TW RI CF SP Seb 0 9 11 16 12 3 13 4 2 Iain 7 3 6 3 12 11 3 11 14 Sam 9 6 6 10 13 5 9 8 2 Kevin 3 5 0 0 17 10 10 11 14 Tim 6 6 8 5 15 10 6 6 7 Carl 5 13 3 15 15 2 11 3 3 Nick Danny The chart demonstrates the range of personalities present in the team. The actual scores for each role are shown, as somebody may be very strong in one trait compared to somebody else. The role each member is to take is outlined in the following table. Each member also has a secondary role within the group to help cover the areas left by primary roles. Primary and secondary roles within the group are not necessarily based on rankings within members’ Belbin scores, as people must sacrifice and adapt to benefit the group.
  4. 4. Team Primary Secondary Member Belbin Role Belbin Role Seb ME RI Iain SP IM Sam Kevin IM SP Tim IM PL Carl ME IM Nick Danny One important aspect of Belbin’s analysis of team roles is the ease of which fundamental flaws in a team can be seen. If it is clear a team is missing a chairperson, extra effort must be made to ensure somebody holds the judgement and vision, whilst remaining calm to make decisions. If Plants are lacked, the team should make an additional effort to brainstorm new ideas and conscientiously think ‘outside the box’. Individually it helps to know both ones weaknesses and how one can be of most benefit to the team. A Monitor-Evaluator should allow them to analyse other people’s suggestions and query everything. Also, knowing ones peers weaknesses can help focus attention in the right areas. Typically a ME will be hard-headed and often viewed as aloof1. If the rest of the team are aware of this they can allow for it and not become frustrated. This can help prevent friction. The table below lists the various Belbin roles, along with keywords often used to describe them. Belbin Role Description Resource investigator Extrovert, curious, enthusiastic, communicative, develops contacts Completer Orderly, conscientious, anxious, perfectionist, punctual Team-worker Social, mild, sensitive, promote team-spirit Monitor-evaluator Sober, strategic, calm, prudent, hard-headed Plant Individualistic, serious, unorthodox, intellect, imaginative Shaper Outgoing, dynamic, challenging, highly driven, highly strung Chair/Coordinator Self-confident, calm, controlled, good vision, mature, good judgement Company worker Conservative, dutiful, predictable, common sense, self-disciplined Specialist Single minded, self-starting, dedicated. 1 - Accessed 23/01/2007
  5. 5. Team Building The life cycle of any project follows a set pattern.
  6. 6. Team Availability To establish realistic project goals and a schedule for future work, it is necessary to determine the amount of time each member of the team can contribute, and how this time is distributed. To do this a timetable is created to outline periods where people are unavailable. The timetable is created at 2 levels; one weekly for establishing meeting times, and one longer-term to incorporate deadlines for other pieces of work, holidays and planned absences. This should prevent any sudden overloads as deadlines approach. Providing a means for good group time management will also help individual time management and distributing work more evenly should allow for a higher overall quality. The weekly timetable for the group is shown below, with lecture times and extra curricular activities highlighted as unavailable times. The group members are coded and if the letter corresponding to the member is present in a time period they are unavailable. Weeks 1-10 9-10 10-11 11-12 12-1 1-2 2-3 3-4 4-5 5-6 Mon Tues Weds Thurs Fri Sat Sun Weeks 11-20 9-10 10-11 11-12 12-1 1-2 2-3 3-4 4-5 5-6 Mon Tues Weds Thurs Fri Sat Sun It is clear that not every member will be able to be present in every meeting. Individual participation will be monitored and discussed as appropriate. The times for meetings will be discussed in the previous meeting and confirmed via email and text message. This is discussed further shortly.
  7. 7. Meetings • Establish meeting schedule (internal and external) • Minutes • Agendas • Establish communication methods • Personnel roles (Belbin) • Communication • Meeting Politics and Group Dynamics If a member cannot make a meeting for a reason non-weekly they will provide an explanation to the group and demonstrate their recent contributions. This helps avoid a situation where a member misses a large amount of meetings, leading to a loss of momentum in the project and a lack of understanding of recent progress. Time Management • Establish time parameters • Nirex input • Gantt Charts  Major objectives  Develop as sub tasks created • Critical Path Management (CPM) / Network Planning • Estimated task times Budget Management  Establish Nirex budget  Cost Analysis  Risk Analysis? How to run a project (in 7 sexy steps) 1. Agree precise specification for the project. 2. Plan the project - time, team, activities, resources, financials. 3. Communicate the project plan to your project team. 4. Agree and delegate project actions. 5. Manage, motivate, inform, encourage, enable the project team. 6. Check, measure, review project progress; adjust project plans, and inform the project team and others.
  8. 8. 7. Complete project; review and report on project performance; give praise and thanks to the project team