June 28, 2000 – Dallas, Texas


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June 28, 2000 – Dallas, Texas

  1. 1. Project Management Justice, E-Government, & the Internet June 28, 2000 – Dallas, Texas Lawrence P. Webster (1. Splash slide) Please stand up if you have ever been involved in a technology project. Please remain standing if your project reached a successful conclusion. Please remain standing if your project was completed on time. Please remain standing if your project was completed within budget. Please remain standing if your project stakeholders were completely satisfied with the final product of your project. Anyone who is still standing is invited to come forward and take my place at the podium in making this presentation! There are learning opportunities in every project and I would like you to think about what you have learned from your project experiences. I am going to give some of you a chance to share your insights with the group in a little while. Now, while you are reliving your worst nightmares, I am going to try and distract you by providing some definitions that will help us communicate this morning. According to Webster, the definition of a project is: (2. Project definition slide) Organizations perform work of two types, operations and projects. There is obvious overlap between the two. Both types of work are performed by people. Both are constrained by limited resources. Both are planned, executed, and controlled. The differences are in the temporary nature of the project, it has defined beginning and ending points, and the unique product or service that is generated, it is something that has never been done before and must be progressively elaborated. Progressively means proceeding in steps or incrementally. Elaborated means to be worked out with care and detail; to be developed thoroughly. (3. Project management definition slide) Project management is making sure that project work gets done properly, as scheduled, and with available resources. The main elements are scope, time, cost, and quality. Identified needs are stakeholder requirements. Unidentified needs are stakeholder expectations. Both must be satisfied.
  2. 2. When do we need project management? On small projects with a small number of people working on them, project management methodologies are not worth the time and effort they require. Simple definition of tasks, schedules, assignments, budgets, and deliverables are all that are needed. But as the number of people or groups working on the project increases, it gets more difficult to communicate and coordinate work. The law of diminishing returns kicks in, and the incremental benefit of adding people to a project declines significantly. At a certain point, it becomes impossible to succeed without devoting resources to management functions. Project management techniques allow large numbers of people to work on a project productively and effectively. (4. Knowledge areas slide) There are 37 processes with which a successful project manager should be familiar. These processes are organized into nine knowledge areas. We could spend the remainder of the session plodding through all 37 of these processes, describing the inputs, tools and techniques, and outputs of each, but I have a feeling that 90 percent of you would be asleep within ten minutes, and the other ten percent mentally would be somewhere else. The alternative would be to have some fun with project management, which we can only do if you will help me. All of you raise your hands with a closed fist and your thumb extended. If you want to participate in the session and learn something about project management, point your thumb toward the ceiling. If I am imposing on your right to sleep through the first session of the day and you want to just sit quietly and stare at the carpet for the next hour or so, then point your thumb toward the floor. Okay, we are going to have some fun. The first thing I need is a volunteer to be the judge. Now before you volunteer, I need to warn you that you are going to be required to make some difficult decisions that won’t make you popular with everyone. You also must be a bit of an extrovert, or you may not be too comfortable up here. But I also promise you a tremendous amount of power over these people. Who wants to be a judge? Thank you! Come on up! Please raise your right hand. Do you promise to faithfully execute the office of judge pro tempore of this conference and preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States? Thank you, your honor. Please be seated and I will explain your responsibilities in a moment. Now, the rest of you please stand so I can empanel you as the jury. Raise your right hands. Do you promise to faithfully execute the office of juror for this conference and preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States? Thank you, you may be seated. Here is what we are going to do. I am going to cover each of the major areas of project management and give some examples of the tools used by the project manager. We are then going to give the audience a chance to participate. There is a microphone in the center aisle in the front of the room. Whoever gets to the microphone first will have an opportunity to share a lesson learned from their experience. The jury will then vote if the lesson relates to the topic we have been discussing and if the information will be helpful to them personally in the future.
  3. 3. Judge XXX will call for the vote and make a determination if the majority supports the lesson. If not, the next person in line will be given an opportunity to present their idea. Now, to keep this under control, the good judge will make sure that no one takes more than one minute to give their name, a snapshot of their technology project, and the lesson that they learned. If you don’t stop when she indicates that your minute is up, you are disqualified. Let’s give it a practice run. We just talked about the definition of a project. Who would like to tell us about their technology project and how it fits the definition? Step up to the microphone; don’t be shy! Judge, please call for the vote. What is the verdict? All right! Very good! Judge, would you help Mr. XXX select his reward? Oh, did I mention that if you are successful, you get to select a reward from my bag of candy bars? The stakes just got higher! No pushing or shoving to get to the microphone. The judge will disqualify you! (5. Disclaimer slide) Now that you are all ready, let me cover a few more preliminary items. First, let me say that every project is different. I am going to cover all of the components of project management, but please understand that all may not be applicable to every project. You may or may not purchase equipment. You may or may not use existing staff. You may outsource certain functions. Don’t feel compelled to use a component of project management if it does not apply to your circumstances. You would be wasting time. Second, the size of the project is also an issue. The largest project I have ever worked on was a $130 million dollar courthouse design and construction project in New Castle County, Delaware. For something of that magnitude, the tools and techniques I will describe today are not completely adequate. I have also worked on very small projects with no budgets at all. Many of the components of project management are overkill for these small projects. The budget for a project that may be appropriate for the tools I will cover ranges from perhaps $200,000 to $20 million dollars. The principles are applicable to all projects. Third, for purposes of explanation, the techniques will be separated into discrete knowledge areas. In reality, they are tightly interwoven; I am only separating them for ease of explanation. Finally, the examples that I will present will be overly simplified. I don’t want understanding of a principle to be lost in intricate charts, tables, and graphics. Since we will not have time to cover everything in detail, I will give you some references at the end of my presentation where you can find a wealth of information about project management. There are many fabulous resources available: books, web sites, professional associations, certification programs, educational institutions. These references may be the most valuable thing you will gain from attending today.
  4. 4. (Check time: 8:45) Project Management Context (6. Project management context slide) Other issues here—we will look at the three most important. Project Phases and Life Cycle (7. Project phases and life cycle slide) Divide project into phases for better management control Deliverable at the conclusion of each phase Feasibility study, detail design, working prototype Review deliverables and project performance Should project continue? (kill points) Detect and correct errors Adjust plans based on progress Overlapping phases—fast tracking (7.5. Software development phases slide) Example—software development phases Conceptual design Detailed design Coding and testing Training and documentation Deployment Stakeholders (8. Stakeholders slide) Individuals and organizations who are actively involved or whose interests may be affected by project progress. Project manager, justice system staff, system users, justice system leaders, funding body, the public, etc. Leadership and General Management Skills (9. Leadership slide) Leadership skills include: establishing direction
  5. 5. vision and strategy (hallucination) aligning people communicating negotiating motivating and inspiring influencing the organization and external organizations. overcoming barriers to change. (10. General management slide) General management skills include: finance and accounting planning organizational development technology personnel administration motivation delegation supervision team building conflict management solving problems personal management. (11. Communications slide) Communication skills include: writing listening speaking reporting briefing media relations presenting managing meetings. Who has learned a valuable lesson related to the lack of proper phasing of a project, problems with stakeholders, or leadership or management issues? (Check time: 8:55) Scope Management (12. Scope management slide) Initiation: committing organization to begin next phase of the project
  6. 6. Scope planning: written scope statement Scope definition: subdividing project into more manageable components Scope verification: formalizing acceptance of project scope Scope change control: process for controlling changes to scope during project execution Key inputs, tools and techniques, outputs Product description Project charter Scope statement Work breakdown structure Formal acceptance Scope management plan (13. Work breakdown structure slide) Who has learned a valuable lesson related to a poorly defined project scope, disagreement about project scope, scope creep, or lack of a change control process. It is not possible to know everything in advance. It is not possible to predict everything that can happen. (Check time: 9:05) Time Management (14. Time management slide) Activity definition: specific activities to produce project deliverables Activity sequencing: identify and document interactivity dependencies Activity duration estimating: estimating time needed to complete activities Schedule development: analyze activity sequences, duration, and resource requirements to create the project schedule Schedule control: controlling changes to schedule during project execution Key inputs, tools and techniques, outputs Activity list Network diagram Project schedule Schedule management plan (15. Activity sequencing exercise) (16. Activity sequencing exercise results) (17. Network diagram example)
  7. 7. Who has learned a valuable lesson related to project schedules? Multiply by 3, by pi, by 9. (Check time: 9:15) Cost Management (18. Cost management slide) Resource planning: what people equipment, materials, etc. are needed? Cost estimating: estimate the cost of these resources Cost budgeting: allocate cost estimate to individual work items Cost control: control cost changes during project execution Key inputs, tools and techniques, outputs Resource requirements Cost estimate Cost baseline or spending plan Cost management plan (19. Spending plan example slide) Who has learned a valuable lesson related to project budgets or cost control? (Check time: 9:25) Quality Management (20. Quality management slide) Quality planning: identify standards and how to meet them Quality assurance: evaluate performance during project Quality control: ensure products meet quality standards ISO 9000 and 10000 series of standards and guidelines Key inputs, tools and techniques, outputs Quality management plan Who has learned a valuable lesson related to the quality of a project product? Third District Court example (Check time: 9:35)
  8. 8. Human Resource Management (21. Human resource management slide) Organizational planning: identify, document, and assign roles, responsibilities, and reporting relationships Staff acquisition: get people assigned to and working on the project Team development: develop individual and group skills Key inputs, tools and techniques, outputs Role assignment matrix Staffing management plan Organizational chart Project team directory (22. Role assignment matrix example) Who has learned a valuable lesson related to the work of people on projects? (Check time: 9:45) Communications Management (23. Communications management slide) Communications planning: determine communications needs of stakeholders Information distribution: make needed information available when it is needed Performance reporting: collect and disseminate progress information—how? Administrative closure: generate, gather, and disseminate data to formalize phase or project completion Key inputs, tools and techniques, outputs Communications management plan Project records Performance reports Change requests Project archives Formal acceptance Lessons learned Who has learned a valuable lesson related to project communications? This project will sell itself! The importance of PR.
  9. 9. (Check time: 9:55) Risk Management (24. Risk management slide) Risk identification: determine which risks are likely and characteristics of each Risk quantification: evaluate risks and interactions to assess range of outcomes Risk response development: define enhancement steps for opportunities and threats Risk response control: respond to changes in risk over course of the project Wild statistical stuff in here! Key inputs, tools and techniques, outputs Risk management plan Checklists Contingency plans Reserves Contractual terms Who has learned a valuable lesson related to management of risk in a project? (Check time: 10:05) Procurement Management (25. Procurement management slide) Procurement planning: determine what to buy and when Solicitation planning: determine product requirements and potential sources Solicitation: Obtain quotes, bids, offers, proposals, etc. Source selection: choose among potential sellers Contract administration: managing relationship with seller Contract close-out: completion and settlement of contract, resolution of open items Key inputs, tools and techniques, outputs Procurement management plan Procurement documents Proposals Contract Contract file Formal acceptance and closure Who has learned a valuable lesson related to procurement? Vendor?
  10. 10. NCSC resources. (Check time: 10:15) Integration Management (26. Integration management slide) Project plan development: turn results of other planning processes into coherent plan Project plan execution: carry out plan by executing activities Overall change control: coordinate changes across the entire project Key inputs, tools and techniques, outputs Project plan Lessons learned (Check time: 10:20) Management Processes (27. Management processes slide) Initiating processes: recognizing that a project or phase should begin and committing to do so. Planning processes: devising and maintaining a workable scheme to accomplish the business need that the project was undertaken to address. Executing processes: coordinating people and other resources to carry out the plan Controlling processes: ensuring that project objectives are met by monitoring and measuring progress and taking corrective action when necessary Closing processes: formalizing acceptance or the project or phase and bringing it to an orderly end. These are repeated for each project phase, pulling in the appropriate processes. This is how the planning piece of it looks when everything is pulled together. (28 Planning core processes slide) (29. Planning facilitating processes slide) No plan survives initial contact with the enemy. The plan is nothing. To plan is everything. Dwight D. Eisenhower (Check time: 10:25)
  11. 11. Summary Much more than we could possibly cover here. Hope you had some fun. If you love this stuff, you can get a PMP certification. (30. More information slide) Any questions from the audience? (31. Splash slide) Thanks to judge and jury!