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Issues and Strategies for the Design
Issues and Strategies for the Design
Issues and Strategies for the Design
Issues and Strategies for the Design
Issues and Strategies for the Design
Issues and Strategies for the Design
Issues and Strategies for the Design
Issues and Strategies for the Design
Issues and Strategies for the Design
Issues and Strategies for the Design
Issues and Strategies for the Design
Issues and Strategies for the Design
Issues and Strategies for the Design
Issues and Strategies for the Design
Issues and Strategies for the Design
Issues and Strategies for the Design
Issues and Strategies for the Design
Issues and Strategies for the Design
Issues and Strategies for the Design
Issues and Strategies for the Design
Issues and Strategies for the Design
Issues and Strategies for the Design
Issues and Strategies for the Design
Issues and Strategies for the Design
Issues and Strategies for the Design
Issues and Strategies for the Design
Issues and Strategies for the Design
Issues and Strategies for the Design
Issues and Strategies for the Design
Issues and Strategies for the Design
Issues and Strategies for the Design
Issues and Strategies for the Design
Issues and Strategies for the Design
Issues and Strategies for the Design
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Issues and Strategies for the Design

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  • Leadership is important at all levels of a project. Strong, motivating, supportive leadership goes a long way in ensuring that a project goes smoothly, with quality results. Formal leadership is a documented role that one or multiple people on a team may have. (It is often desirable to have one formal leader for a team, with sub-teams having sub-team leads.) It is the formal leader who has ultimate responsibility for the tasks and components of the project to ensure that the project is completed on time and under budget. Informal leadership is not documented and may or may not be present within a team. An individual may not have the documented leadership, may or may not have the blessings of the team leader but others on the team may look to this person for leadership, guidance, etc. This may or may not work depending on the team----but the formal leader needs to be aware of this potential. A collaborative leader will ask team members for their input and will value this input. The leader will know that often there is a risk when putting forward input so will foster a safe environment. This will help to build team, capacity within the team and will foster positive motivation. Some people believe that this style of leadership will result in missed deadlines, and overrun budgets. This need not be the case. A dictator will rule will an iron fist, may or may not value input but there is little if any room for discussion. Some people believe this will ensure that a project is completed on time and under budget. However, this may not be the case, and the quality may not be as rich as when many people have a valued input.
  • Shared leadership can be very useful for a strong team but disastrous for a weak team. Shared leadership enables team members to have greater responsibility, ownership and hopefully pride in their work. However, someone needs to be at the helm and to accept the ultimate responsibility without placing blame on other leaders and team members. The strengths of team members can be used to benefit the full team and project. For example, I have very little time to spend on graphics and animations for a course. I generally pass over this task to a team member and give them the leadership for this component. I work with them to ensure that the results will meet the needs of the learners, but the graphics leader will set timelines, assign tasks for that portion of the project.
  • Regardless of what approach is used, some one person has the ultimate responsibility for a project. This person’s responsibility includes ensuring that timelines are appropriate, doable and that there is a backup plan so that when Fred is off sick, the project doesn’t sit waiting for Fred to recover. It is important that one person have an overview and knowledge of how money, time and other resources for the budget are being spent. If extra resources are needed, why and where will they come from? A team approach will generally lead to a higher quality product as people with specialization are used. Team inaction and communications will help to reduce frustration, wasted time and errors. It is important for team members to be able to find and contribute information. A good team leader will consult with team members when setting timelines, budget, quality standards, etc. for a project. Conflict resolution---although not a topic that in an ideal world would be needed---in reality it is. A good leader will try to prevent conflict by ensuring that everyone has information and opportunity for input in a professional manner. However, differences in philosophies, approaches, etc., do exist and a good leader will be aware of possible conflicts, and use conflict resolution strategies to resolve them.
  • Integrating a new technology at the course level has to benefit the learner in some way. It should also benefit the faculty. If a new technology will help the faculty but case problems for the learner---then perhaps there is an alternate and more appropriate solution to the problem? Integrating new technology will require learner and faculty support. Learners will need access, (how will it be distributed?) training, and ongoing support. The first couple of weeks of learners using new technology can be confusing, frustrating and challenging for the learners and everyone else involved. There needs to be a clear, concise plan that takes this confusion, frustration and challenge into consideration. The tech support team, faculty, CD unit all need to be involved in this planning process. Often a new technology can be adapted, tweaked, stretched to do what will better meet the needs of learners. Explore this possibility. What is the cost to the learner, the faculty and the institution? Not just in terms of $$ but time, challenge, frustration, etc. Is it worth it? Will the learning experience be that much better? If the technology is a new software, is it compatible across platforms, browsers, etc? Will the average learner be able to use it. What is your lowest common denominator? Will it support this new software? At Penn State: New technology that is non-standard needs pre-approval. Must be necessary to meet the course objectives---nice to have vs. price Learners need to have a choice and flexibility. No beta software is integrated.
  • Planning that involves multiple people and departments is vital---especially if you want ‘buy-in’ and ‘support’ for the new technology. Involve faculty, tech support, administration, CD unit, etc. in the discussions and selection. Look at a variety of options. What will best meet the widest variety of needs? Will this new technology really improve the learning experience? Consider how the new technology will be used. Will it still meet your needs 3 years from now? If not, can you afford to replace it prior to then? Is the software compatible with other technologies being used by the institution? (Will your CML system interact with your registrar's system? If not how difficult will it be to make them talk?) Can you get support from the vendor? Will they allow you access to the raw source code so that you can tweak it to meet your needs? How far into the code can you go? Is the technology and/or vendor flexible at all? Can you test drive? Do you have a plan that will enable the technology to be integrated smoothly? What happens if your plan does not work, what is your backup? What is your training timeline and budget? It is likely that everyone will need training or at least time to become familiar with the new technology. The tech support will need it prior to others being able to do anything. What plans for support do you have? Again the first couple of weeks faculty are using the technology they will require extra support. Then learners will require the support. Can you handle this? Do you need to consider extra tech help for this period? Do you have enough lead time for smooth integration? This is often an issue and without the lead time it adds pressure to some key players and can lead to some errors and tensions. How long will it take for people to reach their comfort zone?
  • Different units will provide different services. This list is just a few of the production services available in some units. Copyright: For Bow Valley College this includes Protecting College copyright, (the College owns all courses and resources created) Seeking permission for copyright to use materials created by others Clarifying copyright requirements Tracking when objects are used. Multimedia Includes simulations, video, audio, games, etc. Not all is done in-house but still coordinated. Editing All materials are edit for quality, ease of use, clarity, readability, etc. Layout Page, module, workbook layout are important and a specialist is available to help Graphics From simple tables to complex animations Web-based and paper-based often done by two different people---but it would be easier if done by the same person. CD Rom production Creation of the master May or may not include the pressing of the CDs Databases Very useful for Content object repositories---within a course and across the institution. Wonderful for project management
  • The Project manager has to act as a traffic cop to avoid traffic jams. Even the best PM will not be able to avoid all the problems as CD units are service units and often have to wait for input from the academic unit or faculty member---not that all problems can be blamed on others! The PM will work to avoid traffic jams by ensuring that project flow does not overlap---three big projects odn’t all have the same deadline for the same group of people. Ideally tracking systems would be used that include: Who is doing what for what project Who is on schedule Who is behind Who needs extra help Who can provide the extra help I have not found the perfect system yet……. Refer back to PM section The result of a traffic jam is not tea, toast with jam. It does cause pressure, tension, frustration and unhappy people. Depending on the level, the frustration may be evident in other projects months down the road. The jam needs to be alleviated, often with extra costs---especially when temporary staff are brought in. Reviewing priorities may help to alleviate a jam. Often when staff are aware of the circumstances of the jam they are willing to work very hard for a short period of time to overcome the jam. However, if it is a surprise, if it is the result of others not meeting their deadlines, or if it is going to be jammed for an extended period of time an alternate solution is more appropriate. Temporary help either from the client department or external is vital. Communications on project flow is vital. It can help to reduce a jam. It can help understanding of problems, increase assistance for team members by other team members, etc. When there is a traffic jam---communications on how it will be dealt with as well as progress with the jam will help to increase everyone‘s understanding and hopefully reduce frustration and tensions.
  • Everyone on a project team has some responsibility for the quality of the project. It is important that this responsibility be recognized. However, ultimately one person has to be accountable to the overall quality of the product. They accept the blame but share the glory. Using Checklists and Guidelines throughout the project will aid in increasing the quality. These may be standard checklists that are adapted for each project. Again communications is vital. If any team member has an idea of how the quality of the product can be improve there should be a forum or opportunity for the discussion. Often the person doing the graphics work will have an idea of how to improve the effectiveness of the graphic. Of course all team members should have the big picture of the project from the beginning. Who has the final day? This will depend on the unit. At Bow Valley College, it is the Instructional Designer, in other institutions it is the Project Manager.
  • Everyone on a project team has some responsibility for the quality of the project. It is important that this responsibility be recognized. However, ultimately one person has to be accountable to the overall quality of the product. They accept the blame but share the glory. Using Checklists and Guidelines throughout the project will aid in increasing the quality. These may be standard checklists that are adapted for each project. Again communications is vital. If any team member has an idea of how the quality of the product can be improve there should be a forum or opportunity for the discussion. Often the person doing the graphics work will have an idea of how to improve the effectiveness of the graphic. Of course all team members should have the big picture of the project from the beginning. Who has the final day? This will depend on the unit. At Bow Valley College, it is the Instructional Designer, in other institutions it is the Project Manager.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Issues and Strategies in the Design and Development of Online Learning Pre-conference Workshop Lawrence C. Ragan
    • 2. Program Goals
      • Provide a framework for structuring the services for the design and development of online learning
      • Share strategies and options for addressing the “Seven Habits” of effective design and development
      • Identify potential issues and define solutions for the design and development of online learning
    • 3. Program Agenda
      • 8:30 Welcome and Introductions
      • Participant Introductions and Expectations Leveling
      • 8:45 Effective Habits (1-4)
      • 9:15 Small Group Assignment (identify 2-3 barriers or issues related to these first four-habits, identify solutions, then report out).
      • 9:45 Small Group Report Out
      • 10:00 Break
      • 10:15 Effective Habits (5-7)
      • 11:00 Small Group Assignment (identify 2-3 barriers or issues related to these first four-habits, identify solutions, then report out).
      • 11:20 Report Out
      • 12:00 Summary Discussions and Wrap-up
    • 4. Introductions
      • Larry Ragan Director-Instructional Design & Development Penn State-World Campus
      • Participants . . . WHO ARE YOU & WHAT DO YOU HOPE TO GET FROM THE WORKSHOP?--within small groups
    • 5. Various Models for Online Courses
      • Full-development ID&D service
      • Faculty-lead with limited support staff
      • Faculty-lead with no support staff
      • Outsourcing
      • Other . . .
    • 6. Online Course Defined (for today)
      • Online Course: an instructional event with a significant portion or is totally delivered in an online learning environment
      • IS NOT: a syllabus or strictly content materials delivery
    • 7. Seven Habits (tasks)
      • Project Management
      • Instructional Design (with a Twist)
      • System Implementation
      • Faculty Training/Development
      • Project Leadership
      • Instructional Technology Integration
      • Materials Production
    • 8. Project Management (who’s driving the bus?) "The skills and tasks necessary to complete a project or phase of a project on time and within budget.”
    • 9. Project Management I
      • Define the roles & responsibilities of team members
      • Who has primary PM responsibility?
      • Clearly articulate deadlines and milestones and track against those
      • Consider PM at several levels (directors through designers)
    • 10. Project Management II
      • Identify systems/methods for PM (allow for flexibility/individuality)
      • PM software for timeframe and process flow
      • Time tracking for budget and resource management
    • 11. Project Management III
      • Develop contingency planning (what do we do when . . .)
      • Establish framework for communications
          • Meeting schedules
          • Communications protocol
      • Consider Process Mapping •Analysis of workflow •Gap analysis
      • Review for process improvements
    • 12. Instructional Design (with a Twist) "The sequencing of the events of learning and the construction of the environment necessary for the students to achieve their learning objectives."
    • 13. Instructional Design I
      • Define common "context"- where is there design freedom and where is there not?
      • Avoid course "cookie-cutter" model
      • Capitalize on capability of technology
      • Opportunity to enhance, expand, recreate learning environment
      • “ 1-2-3 Degrees of change” model
      • Faculty are not necessarily instructional designers (faculty may need ID support)
      • Keep in mind impact on learner
    • 14. Instructional Design II
      • Technology-- limit number of plugins, downloads, hi-tech gadgets
      • Pedagogy-- consider incremental steps for learners and faculty rather than total immersion
      • Celebrate (and design) for the uniqueness of each course
      • Students participate in elearning to learn, not because of technology
      • Provide staff w/tools and training to complete tasks
    • 15. System Implementation (putting the pieces together) "The (administrative) steps and procedures necessary to open a course within the institutional system”
    • 16. Implementation I
      • Obviously will vary from institution to institution
      • Course may be done within "resident" system or as "distance" model
      • Define processes necessary to "open" a course online
      • Start with the end date and backtrack
      • Consider each and every aspect from student's perspective
    • 17. Implementation II
      • If dual mode institution consider integration processes
      • Involve "stakeholders" who will be impacted by course offering
      • Consider using existing systems rather than creating new
      • Look for opportunity for process improvements
      • Registration online
      • Online credit card transaction, etc
    • 18. Faculty Development (the key to success . . .) "Support services and training necessary to provide faculty/instructors with skills required to be successful online”
    • 19. Faculty Development I
      • Critical Elements for Success = Skilled/committed Faculty
      • Deal with administrative issues immediately (payment/copyright/release time etc)
      • Variety of faculty development options
        • -One-on-one consulting
        • -Hands-on workshops
        • -Retreats/conferences
        • -Research seminars
        • -Access to online courses and resources
    • 20. Faculty Development II
      • Provide individual development plan
      • Create plan for time and workflow
      • “ Meet them where they are”
      • Identify barriers and address issues (may be time, money, skills)
      • Must have adequate access to technology
      • Instructional/developmental support
      • Institutional commitment
      • TIME!! (for all phases) Set REASONABLE EXPECTATIONS!!
    • 21. Small Group Discussion I Project Management Instructional Design (with a Twist) System Implementation Faculty Training/Development
    • 22. Project Leadership “ Leading/assisting an instructional design team in achieving their goal---a quality product that will contribute to a quality learning experience for the learners.”
    • 23. Types of Leadership
      • Formal/Informal
      • Collaborative/Dictator
      • It is not right or wrong to use either of these types
      • May use different types of leadership in different situations
    • 24. Shared Leadership
      • Shared leadership can be used for different components or sub-teams of a project.
      • Increases the responsibility across the team
      • Allows team to use the strengths of the team members.
      • Will only work if the team is strong.
    • 25. Responsibilities of the Leader
      • Team communications
      • Conflict resolution
      • Challenge/stimulate team members
      • Motivate
      • Communicate regularly with the PM
      • Work with the PM to resolve concerns
      • Quality Assurance
    • 26. Instructional Technology Integration “A plan for using technology to enhance the learning experience for the learner.”
    • 27. IT-At the Course Level
      • The learner has to be the focus
        • How will this help the learner?
        • How will the learner be supported?
        • Can the technology be stretched?
        • Cost?
        • Version control?
    • 28. IT-At the Institution Level
      • Requires planning
      • Requires training for faculty, tech team, CD team, learners, etc.
      • Requires support
      • Requires time
      • Consider comfort zones
    • 29. Materials Production “The preparation of courses and/or resources for use by the learners and faculty.”
    • 30. Materials Production I
      • Copyright
      • Multimedia
      • Editing
      • Layout
      • Graphics
      • Web-based publishing
      • Paper-based publishing
      • CD Rom production
      • Databases
    • 31. Materials Production II
      • Juggling Timelines and Schedules
        • PM acts as traffic cop
        • What happens when there is a traffic jam?
        • What to do with a traffic jam
        • Communications
    • 32. Materials Production III
      • Who is responsible?
      • Checklists and guidelines
      • Communications
      • Final say
    • 33. Small Group Discussion II Project Leadership Instructional Technology Integration Materials Production
    • 34. Thank you! Larry Ragan [email_address] Notes posted on: www.personal.psu.edu/lcr1

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